• Title, Summary, Keyword: mycelia extracts

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Anti-melanogenesis Effect of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelial Extract Supplemented with Oriental Raisin Tree (Hovenia dulcis) Extract (헛개나무 추출물이 첨가된 영지버섯균사 추출물의 멜라닌 생성 억제효과)

  • Kim, Hong Il;Jeong, Yong Un;Kim, Jong Hyun;Choi, In Ho;Lee, Jun Ho;Lee, Chang Soo;Park, Young Jin
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Hovenia dulcis (oriental raisin tree) extract on ganodermanondiol (GN) contents in Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) mycelia. GN has a triterpenoid structure and is one of the major active components of G. lucidum. Furthermore, we previously proved its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. In this study, we observed significantly increased GN contents in G. lucidum mycelial extracts supplemented with 15% (v/v) oriental raisin tree extract (ORTE) by HPLC analysis. In addition, melanogenesis was significantly inhibited by G. lucidum extract supplemented with 15% ORTE when compared to G. lucidum extract without ORTE supplementation. Furthermore, mycelial growth of G. lucidum was increased by ORTE supplementation in both solid and liquid cultivation. These results suggest that the oriental raisin tree is useful as natural ingredient for increasing GN biosynthesis as well as whitening effect of G. lucidum.

Production of a hypothetical polyene substance by activating a cryptic fungal PKS-NRPS hybrid gene in Monascus purpureus (홍국Monascus purpureus에서 진균 PKS-NRPS 하이브리드 유전자의 발현 유도를 통한 미지 polyene 화합물의 생성)

  • Suh, Jae-Won;Balakrishnan, Bijinu;Lim, Yoon Ji;Lee, Doh Won;Choi, Jeong Ju;Park, Si-Hyung;Kwon, Hyung-Jin
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.83-91
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    • 2018
  • Advances in bacterial and fungal genome mining uncover a plethora of cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. Guided by the genome information, targeted transcriptional derepression could be employed to determine the product of a cryptic gene cluster and to explore its biological role. Monascus spp. are food grade filamentous fungi popular in eastern Asia and several genome data belong to them are now available. We achieved transcription activation of a cryptic fungal polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthase gene Mpfus1 in Monascus purpureus ${\Delta}MpPKS5$ by inserting Aspergillus gpdA promoter at the upstream of Mpfus1 through double crossover gene replacement. The gene cluster with Mpfus1 show a high similarity to those for the biosynthesis of conjugated polyene derivatives with 2-pyrrolidone ring and the mycotoxin fusarin is the representative member of this group. The ${\Delta}MpPKS5$ is incapable of producing azaphilone pigment, providing an excellent background to identify chromogenic and UV-absorbing compounds. Activation of Mpfus1 resulted in a yellow hue on mycelia and its methanol extract exhibit a maximum absorption at 365 nm. HPLC analysis of the organic extracts indicated the presence of a variety of yellow compounds in the extract. This implies that the product of MpFus1 is metabolically or chemically unstable. LC-MS analysis guided us to predict the MpFus1 product and to propose that the Mpfus1-containing gene cluster encode the biosynthesis of a desmethyl analogue of fusarin. This study showcases the genome mining in Monascus and the possibility to unveil new biological activities embedded in it.

Lowering Effects in Plasma Cholesterol and Body Weight by Mycelial Extracts of Two Mushrooms: Agaricus blazai and Lentinus edodes. (아가리쿠스와 표고버섯 균사체 추출물의 혈중롤레스테롤 및 체중감소 효과)

  • 권미향;권석태;권석형;마민숙;박영인
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.402-409
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    • 2002
  • The effects of protein-bound polysaccharides (A-PBP and L-PBP) that were extracted from the mycelia of two edible mushrooms, namely Agaricus blazai and Lentinus edodes, on serum cholesterol and body weight were investigated in mice and female volunteers. Six groups of Male Balb/c mice were fed six kinds of diet supplement- solutions composed of L-PBP, A-PBP, chitosan, and other fiber constituents, for 30 days under the normal diet. Ninety female volunteers were also supplemented for 8 weeks with six kinds of capsules including control and five test groups as the same manners (two times a day, 4 capsules). From 12 days after feeding of L-PBP (Group I) and A-PBP (Group II), the weight of mice began to reduce as compared with control, whereas that of Group III fed chitosan was decreased 15 days after feeding. Group W and Group V which were fed mixture of L-PBP, A-PBP, chitosan, and other dietary fiber, were more significant in lowering weight. After 4 weeks of the supplementation in women, their serum LDL-cholesterol level and body weights in Group I and II were reduced, but Croup 111 taken with chitosan capsule showed weaker effect than Group I and II. After 8 weeks, LDL-cholesterol content in the sera of Group I (132.5 mg/dL) and II(131.5 mg/dL) was decreased to ideal level (125.4 and 122.8 mg/dL) for healthy blood vessel. In the case of Group W supplemented with mixture of L-PBP, A-PBP, and chitosan, the weight-reduction effect (11.8%) and hypocholesterolemic effect (11.0%) was most significant, indicating their synergistic action. These data suggested that the weight-controlling and hypolipidemic effect of L-PBP and A-PBP was involved, at least in part, in absorption of cholesterol as their role of dietary fiber, as well as cholesterol metabolism.

The Pharmacological Activity of Coffee Fermented Using Monascus purpureus Mycelium Solid-state Culture Depends on the Cultivation Area and Green Coffees Variety (원산지 및 품종에 따라 조제된 홍국균 균사체-고체발효 원두커피의 생리활성)

  • Kim, Hoon;Yu, Kwang-Won;Lee, Jun-Soo;Baek, Gil-Hun;Shin, Ji-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 2014
  • In previous work, we fermented coffee beans using solid-state culture with various fungal mycelia to enhance the physiological activity of the coffee. The coffee fermented with Monascus sp. showed a higher physiological activity than non-fermented coffee or other coffees fermented with mushroom mycelium. The aim of this study was to characterize the various fermented coffees with respect to their area of cultivation and their variety using Monascus purpureus (MP) mycelium solid-state culture. Thirty types of green coffee beans, which varied in terms of their cultivation area or variety, were purchased from different suppliers and fermented with MP under optimal conditions. Each MP-fermented coffee was medium roasted and extracted further using hot water (HW) under the same conditions. Of the HW extracts, those derived from MP-Mandheling coffees had the highest yield (13.6-15.5%), and MP-Robusta coffee showed a significantly higher polyphenolic content (3.03 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 mg) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radical scavenging activity (27.11 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity/100 mg). Furthermore, in comparison to other MP-fermented coffees at $1,000{\mu}g/mL$, MP-Robusta coffee showed not only the most effective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (67.1% of that in LPS-stimulated control cells), but also an effective inhibition of lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipose cells (22.2% of that in differentiated control cells). In conclusion, these results suggest that Vietnam Robusta coffee beans solid-state fermented with MP mycelium are amenable to industrial applications as a functional coffee beverage or material.

Optimum Conditions for the Culture of Hericium erinaceum in a Jar Fermenter with the Addition of Ginseng Extract in the Liquid Medium (수삼추출물을 이용한 노루궁뎅이버섯 균사체의 jar fermenter에서의 발효조건 최적화)

  • Park, Chang-Kyu;Tu, Qi;Cho, Ju-Hyun;Yu, Kwang-Won;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Jeong, Jae-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.82-89
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    • 2010
  • To obtain functional materials from a submerged culture of Hericium erinaceum, a suitable basal medium for flask culture was screened and the optimal culture conditions in a jar fermenter were investigated with the addition of ginseng extracts (GE) to the basal liquid medium. Of all tested basal liquid media, the mushroom complete medium (MCM) supplemented with 0.5% of GE produced the highest mycelial dry weight (MDW) of 5.91 g/L in the flask, which reached a plateau at $25^{\circ}C$, pH 5.5 after 10 days. The submerged culture conditions for the mass production of mycelia in a 50 L jar fermenter were also optimal at $25^{\circ}C$, pH 5.5, 120 rpm agitation speed and 0.4 vvm aeration rate. Under these conditions, the maximum MDW was produced, which reached a value of 4.28 g/L within 5 days. When we investigated the effects of the amount of GE in the MCM on the production of MDW in the jar fermenter, the addition of 5% GE (HE-GE-5) under the optimal culture conditions produced the maximum MDW (4.93 g/L). In addition, the crude polysaccharide of HE-GE-5 contained mainly neutral sugars (63.2%) with considerable amounts of uronic acid (19.3%) and a small amount of proteins (8.8%) and it had potent immunostimulation properties.