• Title/Summary/Keyword: nitric oxide

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Physiological Activity and Nutritional Composition of Pleurotus Species (느타리속 버섯류의 영양성분 및 생리활성)

  • Um, Su-Na;Jin, Gyoung-Ean;Park, Kye-Won;Yu, Young-Bok;Park, Ki-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the anti-oxidant, anti-tumorigenic, anti-hypertensive, anti-thrombic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties of 18 different species of genus Pleurotus were investigated. In addition, the amino acid, $\beta$-glucan, and polyphenol content were also measured. All species contained more than 20 mg% of polyphenol with the highest contents found in Pleurotus cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus (yellow pleurotus) ($39.13{\pm}0.82\;mg%$). The $\beta$-glucan contents was also the highest in yellow Pleurotus ($37.67{\pm}0.22%$) followed by Won-Hyeong1 (C, $28.75{\pm}0.61%$) and Jang-an PK (A, $27.95{\pm}0.33%$). The yellow Pleurotus exhibited the highest antioxidant activity as assessed by the DPPH scavenging rate with an $IC_{50}$ value of $2.94{\pm}0.44\;mg/mL$. Ethanol extracts from the yellow Pleurotus treated at 1% concentration showed cytotoxic activity up to 36.9% in the human embryonic kidney 293T cell lines. The yellow Pleurotus also showed the highest inhibitory effects on ACE activity ($60.52{\pm}0.2%$). Finally, the yellow Pleurotus exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties as shown by inhibition of $\alpha$-amyloglucosidase activity ($50.5{\pm}0.8%$) and nitric oxide production ($68.4{\pm}0.3%$). Taken together, our data indicate the yellow pleurotus is a promising functional food ingredients.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of an Ethanol Extract of Laminaria japonica Root on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW 264.7 Cells (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 RAW 264.7 세포에서 다시마 뿌리 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Kang, Bo-Kyeong;Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri;Kim, Min-Ji;Bark, Si-Woo;Pak, Won-Min;Kim, Bo-Ram;Ahn, Na-Kyung;Choi, Yeon-Uk;Ahn, Dong-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.729-733
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    • 2014
  • Laminaria japonica roots have not been used practically in Korea. In this study, in order to promote the use of these by-products, the anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanol extract of Laminaria japonica root (LJREE) was investigated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. To examine the potential anti-inflammatory effects of LJREE, levels of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), and interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), and cell proliferation were measured. We found that NO levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner, the production of IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IL-$1{\beta}$ was suppressed, and the production of IL-$1{\beta}$ was inhibited over 30% after treatment with $100{\mu}g/mL$ LJREE. In conclusion, the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells, measured by MTT assay, confirmed that LJREE may have significant effects on inflammatory factors without any cytotoxicity, making it a potential anti-inflammatory agent.

Immunological Activity of Bovine Colostral Whey Protein Containing TGF-β from Imsil Province (임실지역 젖소 초유로부터 분리한 TGF-β 함유 유청 단백질의 면역활성)

  • Yang, Hee-Sun;Oh, Hyun-Hee;Choi, Hee-Young;Park, Jong-Hyuk;Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Oh, Jeon-Hui;Jung, Hoo-Kil
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.339-345
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    • 2012
  • This experiment was carried out in order to separate bovine colostral whey protein from Imsil province and to test the effect of immunological activity on RAW 264.7 cells. The colostral whey protein contained TGF-${\beta}$ 7, 475 pg/g in total. We first tested the effect of the colostral whey protein on the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells and it demonstrated cytotoxicity at concentrations greater than 20 mg/mL. Therefore, the immunological activities of colostral whey protein were investigated in maximum concentration of 10 mg/mL on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results indicated that colostral whey protein inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose-dependent manner. The colostral whey protein also suppressed the productions of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition to the immunological activity, colostral whey protein led to the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, colostral whey protein containing TGF-${\beta}$ inhibited the production of NO, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6 via expression of HO-1.

Immunomodulatory Activity of Water Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa in Macrophages (유근피 추출물이 대식세포 면역조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Da Hye;Kang, Hye-Joo;Choi, Yung Hyun;Chung, Kyung Tae;Lee, Jong Hwan;Kang, Kyung Hwa;Hyun, Sook Kyung;Kim, Byung Woo;Hwang, Hye Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2016
  • The root bark of Ulmus macrocarpa has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as edema, infection and inflammation. Nevertheless, the biological activities and underlying mechanisms of the immunomodulatory effects remain unclear. In this study, as part of our ongoing screening program to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of new compounds from traditional medicinal resources, we investigated the effects of U. macrocarpa water extract (UME) on immune modulation in a murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model. As immune response parameters, the productions of as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 were evaluated. Although the release of IL-1β remained unchanged in UME-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, the productions of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased, along with the increased expression of inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL-10 expression at concentrations with no cytotoxicity. UME treatment also induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) indicating that UME activated macrophages through the activation of NF-κB, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPKs signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, pre-treatment with UME significantly attenuated the production of NO, but not TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells suggesting that UME may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. These findings suggest that the beneficial therapeutic effects of UME may be attributed partly to its ability to modulate immune functions in macrophages.

Comparison Study of the Pulmonary Function and Serum Carboxyhemoglobin Level Between the Traffic Policmen and Clerk Policemen (교통경찰과 비 교통경찰의 폐기능과 혈중 Carboxyhemoglobin 수치에 대한 비교연구)

  • Kim, Sung Min;Cheon, Gyu Rak;Kim, Young Wook;Kim, Joon Hyung;Lee, Ho Hak;Hong, Soon Chang;Lee, Seung Hee;Park, Sang Joon;Chung, Joon Oh;Kim, Yun Kwon;Kim, So Yon;Kim, Young Jung;Cho, Min Koo;Lee, Gwon Jun;Lee, Kyung In
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.560-569
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    • 2003
  • Background : A large number of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone influence on the body. These pollutants put a burden on the lung and the sequelae resulting from the oxidative stress are thought to contribute to the development of fibrotic lung disease, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Also, carbon monoxide generated from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds is an important component of air pollution caused by traffic exhaust fumes and has the toxic effect of tissue hypoxia and produce various systemic and neurologic complications. The objective of this study is to compare the difference of pulmonary function and serum carboxyhemoglobin(CO-Hb) level between the traffic policemen and clerk policemen. Method : Three hundred and twenty-nine of traffic policemen, and one hundred and thirty clerk policemen were included between 2001 May and 2002 August. The policemen who took part in this study were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included questions on age, smoking, drinking, years of working, work-related symptoms and past medical history. The serum CO-Hb level was measured by using carboxyoximeter. Pulmonary function test was done by using automated spirometer. Additional tests, such as elecrocardiogram, urinalysis, chest radiography, blood chemistry, and CBC, were also done. Results : $FEV_1(%)$ was $97.1{\pm}0.85%$, and $105.7{\pm}1.21%$(p<0.05). FVC(%) was $94.6{\pm}0.67%$, and $102.1{\pm}1.09%$, respectively(p<0.05). Serum CO-Hb level was $2.4{\pm}0.06%$, and $1.8{\pm}0.08%$(p<0.05). After correction of confounding factors (age, smoking), significant variables were FVC(%), $FEV_1(%)$ and serum CO-Hb level(%)(p<0.05). Conclusion : Long exposure to air pollution may influence the pulmonary function and serum CO-Hb level. But, further prospective cohort study will be needed to elucidate detailed influences of specific pollutants on pulmonary function and serum carboxyhemoglobin level.

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rebaudioside A in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells (LPS에 의해 자극된 RAW264.7 대식세포에서 Rebaudioside A의 항염 효과)

  • Cho, Uk Min;Hwang, Hyung Seo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2017
  • Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a perennial plant of the genus Stevia, originated in South America. It stores many forms of glycosides, mainly stevioside and rebaudioside A, in which steviol is the basic structure. Steviol glycosides, widely used as sweeteners, are superior to sugar in sweetness. Recently, it has been reported that steviol glycosides are involved not only in the skin whitening and anti-inflammatory effect but also in enhancing skin barrier function through tight junction regulation. Thus, we examined anti-inflammatory effect of rebaudioside A and tried to identify its potential for improving atopic dermatitis as cosmetic ingredients. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect, cell viability and mRNA expression level of inflammation-related cytokines were measured using mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) assay was carried out to measure cell viability and the maximum concentration without cytotoxicity was set to $250{\mu}M$. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR method was used for the study of the inflammatory suppression of rebaudioside A. Rebaudioside A inhibited expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) up to 47% and COX-2 up to 41% compared to LPS treated condition. NO synthesis was decreased by rebaudioside A. Also, mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-$1{\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells was decreased to 40%, 45% and 59%, respectively, as a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, rebaudioside A inhibited the inflammatory response by regulation of cytokine gene expression. From these results, we expect that steviol glycoside, such as rebaudioside A, can be used as a material for improving atopic dermatitis in the future.

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Ledum palustre L. (백산차 추출물의 항산화 및 항염증 활성)

  • Kim, Se Gie
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.1025-1033
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    • 2017
  • In this study, Ledum palustre L. was extracted by 4 different methods (LPW, hot water extraction; LPA, autoclave extraction; LPU, ultrasonification extraction; LPE, 70% ethanol extraction) and LPE was fractionated by using polarity difference of each solvent and used as 4 samples (LPE/H, the n-hexane layer; LPE/E, the EtOAc layer; LPE/B, the n-BuOH layer; LPE/W, the $H_2O$ layer). Antioxidant activities of Ledum palustre L. extracts were measured by DPPH and ABTS. As a result, the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging showed high activities with LPE (82.3%, 99.8%) and LPE/E (91.8%, 99.6%) at the concentration of $1,000{\mu}g/mL$. The anti-inflammatory activities of LPE and LPE/E were measured by the inhibitory activity against NO, $PGE_2$, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 production on LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages. As a result of MTT assay, cell viabilities of LPE and LPE/E were more than 90% at $25{\mu}g/mL$. NO and $PGE_2$ productions were inhibited by LPE (NO: 50%, $PGE_2$: 70%) and LPE/E (NO: 57%, $PGE_2$: 73%) at the concentration of $25{\mu}g/mL$. The inhibition activities against TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6 production were 24%, 47% and 40% at the concentration of $25{\mu}g/mL$ of LPE. In particular, LPE/E showed 51%, 57% and 62% inhibition activities at the same concentration, respectively. From the above results, it can be concluded that $1,000{\mu}g/mL$ of LPE and LPE/E have the high antioxidant activities similar with Vitamin C, and $25{\mu}g/mL$, the low concetration of LPE and LPE/E have excellent anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, if more research about anti-aging, whitening and antimicrobial activity of Ledum palustre L. extracts is carried out in the future, it will be possible to use them as effective materials for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases and in the areas of functional foods and cosmetics.

Antioxidant activity and suppression of pro-inflammatory mediator of Corni fructus extracts in activated RAW 264.7 macrophage (산수유(Corni fructus) 분획 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 RAW 264.7 대식세포에서 염증매개물질 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Ye Jin;Son, Dae-Yeul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.876-882
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    • 2016
  • The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Corni fructus extracts (CEF, EtOAc extraction; CBF, buthanol extraction; CWF, water extraction) were investigated. The total phenolics of CEF (173.3 mg TAE/g) were significantly higher than those of CWF (26.7 mg TAE/g) and CBF (94.8 mg TAE/g). DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity of CEF (DPPH: $RH_{50}$; $25.1{\mu}g/mL$, ABTS: $RC_{50}$; $36.1{\mu}g/mL$) showed even higher than that of BHA and ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ used as positive control. All three Corni fructus extracts in the concentration of $1{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$ were effective inhibitors of NO and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$). NO production was inhibited 71.3~92.2% by CEF, 76.8~85.5% by CBF and 74.4~96.9% by CWF, respectively. CEF, CBF and CWF ($1{\sim}100{\mu}g/mL$) inhibited also pro-inflammatory cytokines like $TNF-{\alpha}$, $IL-1{\beta}$ and IL-6 very effectively. $TNF-{\alpha}$ was inhibited up to 51.2% by CWF and $IL-1{\beta}$ was inhibited up to 67.1% by CEF. IL-6 was best inhibited by CEF up to 58.9%. This study suggested the potential of Corni fructus for use as an excellent antioxidant substance and inflammatory inhibiting mediators. Therefore CEF, CBF and CWF Corni fructus extracts may be used for therapeutic approach to various inflammatory diseases.

Studies on the Comparative Analysis of Immunofunction of Agaricus blazei Murill Cultivated with Fermented Media Containing Pueraria thunbergiana (칡혼합 발효배지로 생산된 신령버섯의 면역기능성 비교 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 김주남;서정식;박동철
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.114-119
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    • 2002
  • This research was performed to investigate the immnomodulative effects of ploysaccharides extracted from the fruiting body of Agarcus blazei cultivated with the media which are fermented with sugar cane bagasse containing Pueraria thunbergiana in open-air storage. In MTT test, methanol extracts from the fruiting body of A. blazei cultivated with P. thunbergiana media showed in colon carcinoma line(HT29) by 1.5∼3.5 fold and human heptoma cell line (HepG2) by 1.3 ∼2.4 fold antitumor activites compared to two types media (rice straw plus sugar cane bagasse, rice straw only) often used in the fauns. To clarify the antimutagenic principles, three extracts, Ab-l, Ab-2 and Ab-3, were separated by the solvent fractionations such as hot water, cold & hot sodium hydroxide respectively, and their antimutagenic effects was determined against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-cnitrso-guanidine(MNNG) using Salmonella typhymurium. There was no significant differencies of inhibition levels among the used media, but Ab-3 tractions still showed a high antimutagenicity in the Ames test regardless of cultivating areas or media. To prove the cell immunofunction, nitric oxide (NO) produced from Raw 264.7 matrophage cultured with three fractions (Ab-l, Ab-2, Ab-3) was measured, and showed generally increase about 45 ∼58 percent compared to another two media (rice straw plus sugar cane bagasse, rice straw only), in the fraction of hot alklai extracts of the fruiting body cultivated with P. thunbergiana, which means that the media selection could be very important factors for improving medicinal effects in agaricus blazei fruiting body.

Sargassum sp. Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Suppresses Lipid Accumulation in vitro (모자반추출물의 항산화활성 및 지방세포 생성억제 효과)

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Karadeniz, Fatih;Ahn, Byul-Nim;Kwon, Myeong Sook;Mun, Ok-Ju;Kim, Mihyang;Lee, Sang-Hyeon;Yu, Ki Hwan;Kim, Yuck Yong;Kong, Chang-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.274-283
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    • 2014
  • Oxidative stress causes tissue damage and facilitates the progression of metabolic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular heart diseases, and obesity. Lipid accumulation and obesity-related complications have been observed in the presence of extensive oxidative stress. As part of an ongoing study to develop therapeutic supplements, Sargassum sp. were tested for their ability to scavenge free radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as to suppress lipid accumulation. Three species, S. hemiphyllum, S. thunbergii, and Sargassum horneri, were shown to scavenge free radicals in a di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) assay. In addition, Sargassum sp. was shown to scavenge intracellular ROS and to decrease nitric oxide (NO) production in $H_2O_2$ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages, respectively. Taken together, the results suggest that Sargassum sp. possess huge potential to relieve oxidative stress and related complications, as well as lipid-induced oxidation. They indicate that S. hemiphyllum, S. thunbergii, and S. horneri are potent functional supplements that can produce beneficial health effects through antioxidant and antiobesity activities, with S. hemiphyllum being the most potent among the Sargassum sp. tested. A potential mechanism for the effect of Sargassum sp. on the suppression of lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes through deactivation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$ (PPAR ${\gamma}$) is presented.