• Title/Summary/Keyword: nitrosamines

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Factors Attributing to the Formation of N-Nitrosamines in Instant Food (즉석 식품에서 니트로사민이 검출되는 요인 분석)

  • Suh, Bokyung;Kwon, Hoonjeong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.114-122
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    • 2017
  • N-nitrosamines can be produced in the process of heating, processing, storage and packaging. Migration specifications for N-nitrosamines exist only for rubber baby bottle nipples, which are regulated by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). There is no regulation for other food contact substances (FCS) and studies on N-nitrosamines migration from FCS are rather limited. A pilot study showed an increase in N-nitrosamines contents when cooking instant noodles. Thus, the migration from the packaging was suspected and it was necessary to monitor the migration of N-nitrosamines from food packaging materials and to examine the change in N-nitrosamines contents when cooking instant foods. Three N-nitrosamines, NDMA (N-nitrosodimethtlamine), NDEA (N-nitrosodiethylamine), NDBA (N-nitrosodibutylamine), were analyzed in migration test solutions from plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene, papers and aluminium containers. In all test solutions, N-nitrosamines were detected less than method quantitation limits (MQLs). Food samples were also investigated to ensure that there is no effect from food contact substances when cooking instant foods. In retort sauces such as curry, black soybean sauce and tomato sauce, NDMA concentration was ranged from 0.54 to $3.81{\mu}g/kg$, but there were no significant differences between unheated and heated samples. However, the NDMA contents were significantly increased in most of the instant noodle samples tested when cooked (p < 0.05). No effects from the food contact substances or cooking water was observed. Only when the seasoning powder and noodles were cooked together was NDMA detected. Individual components (noodle, seasoning powder or dried vegetable) or other combinations such as noodles and dried vegetables did not generate N-nitrosamines. Therefore, it is speculated that NDMA may be formed from the precursors in noodles and seasoning powders when they are solubilized in a medium of water.

Investigating of Nitrosamines in Small tributary rivers, Sewage Tretment Plants and Drinking Water Treatment Plants (하천수 및 상하수도처리공정에서의 니트로사민류 조사)

  • Kim, Gyunga;Roh, Jaesoon;Bin, Jaehun;Kim, Changwon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.446-453
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    • 2010
  • This study was investigated nine nitrosamines in small tributary rivers, sewage treatment plants (STPs) and drinking water treatment plants. They are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPHA). The nine nitrosamines were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using solid phase extraction (SPE) with a coconut charcoal cartridge. Among the nine nitrosamines, NDMA, NMEA, NDEA, NDPA NDBA and NDPHA were detected in small tributary rivers and sewage tretment plants. In small tributary rivers, NDMA, NMEA, NDEA, NDPA, NDBA and NDPHA were obtained as ND~16.4 ng/L, ND~17.7 ng/L, ND~102.4 ng/L, ND~455.4 ng/L, ND~330.1 ng/L and ND~161.0 ng/L, respectively. Also NDMA, NMEA, NDEA, NDPA and NDBA were investigated ND~821.4 ng/L, 22.5~55.4 ng/L, 53.2~588.5 ng/L, ND~56.6 ng/L and ND~527.9 ng/L in STPs, respectively. In drinking water treatment plants, NMEA and NDEA concentration were increased to as high as 38.8 ng/L after ozonation process. However nitrosamines were decreased subsequent biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment process. It was supposed that nitrosamines were formed by $O_3$ oxidation and were removed by biodegradation of BAC.

Studies on the Formatiion of N-Nitrosamine in the Salt-Fermented Damsel fish Chromis notatus (자리젓 중 N-Nitrosamine 생성에 관한 연구)

  • 김수현;강순배;이응호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.35.2-72
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    • 1990
  • N-Nitrosamines have been known to be strong carcinogens and are formed by the reaction of nitrous acid with amines. In this experiment the changes in the contents of nitrate nitrite trimethylaminoxide(TMAO) trimethylamine(TMA) and dimethylamine(DMA) during femen-tation of damsel fish were analyzed periodically and N-nitrosamines in a commercial products. N-Nitrosamines were determined by mineral oil distillation methods using gas chromatography-thermal energy anlyzer(GC-TEA) in a commerical product. Nitrate nitrite and amines were quantitate by colorimetric methods. Level of nitrate-N were gradually decreased but nitrite-n was not detected or trace. Contents of dimethlamine(DMA) and trimethlamine were mar-kedly increased while trimethylaminoxide nitrogen was decreased during the fermentation of damsel fish. The change of pH was in the ranges of 5,5-7.0 during fermentation of salted damsel fish. It was out of the optimum pH(3.0-3.4) for the formation of nitrosamine. N-Nitrosamines were not detected in salt-fermented damsel fist but much N-nitrosodimethyla-mine(NDMA) could be detected in salt-fermented damsel fish after adding 0.05M NaNo2 in the acidic condition. The identifaction of NDMA in it was confirmed by mass spectrophotometry. Nitrate decrea-sed during the fermentation of damsel fish. however nitrite was trace level and nitrosamines were not formed in its. This could be supposed that it was due to the rapid consumption of nitrite by amino acid and bacteria.

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Kimchi and Nitrosamines (김치와 니트로소아민)

  • Park, Kun-Young;Cheigh, Hong-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 1992
  • Kimchi is a very popular traditional fermented vegetable in Korea, however, contaminations of $NO_3$, $NO_2$ and nitrosamines in Kimchi were suspected. In this review, ingredients used in manufacturing Kimchi, kinds of Kimchi, microorganisms involved the fermentation and nutritional values of Kimchi are introduced. The quantitated levels of $NO_3$, $NO_2$ and secondary amines in the ingredients of Kimchi, and the changes of the contents of $NO_3$, $NO_2$ and nitrosamines during Kimchi fermentation were shown. The level of $NO_3$ during Kimchi fermentation reduced greatly, and the content of $NO_2$ was also trace amounts. NDMA is a major nitrosamine found in Kimchi, but the levels were trace or not detected.

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Reaction of Drugs with Sodium Nitroprusside as a Source of Nitrosamines

  • Park, Jeen-Woo;Gary E. Means
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.118-123
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    • 1991
  • Potentially dangerous nitrosamines have been shown to result from the reaction of sodium nitrogusside with several drugs under physiological conditions (pH 7.3 and $37^\circ{C})$. In each case the products were identical to those produced upon reaction with nitrous acid at much lower pH values. Reaction rates were shown to reflect a first order dependence on both amine and nitroprusside concentrations and to increase at higher pH values, approximately in proportion to concentrations of unprotonated amine. Fast reactions of sodium nitroprusside with reduced glutathione, cysteine, and ascorbate suppress but do not prevent the conversion of amines into N-nitrosamines. These results show sodium nitroprusside to be very potent nitrosating agent under physiological conditions and suggested nitrosamines may be formed during its normal pharmacological administration.

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Distribution of Seven N-Nitrosamines in Food

  • Park, Jong-eun;Seo, Jung-eun;Lee, Jee-yeon;Kwon, Hoonjeong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.279-288
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    • 2015
  • N-nitrosamines, which are classified as carcinogens by IARC and US EPA, can be easily found in various foods. They are reaction products between nitrogen oxide and secondary amines, but can also be generated during fermentation. Ever since the 1960s, when nitrite, used as a preservative in processed meats, was suspected to generate N-nitrosamines, the usage of the food additive has been debated. However, the benefit of nitrite in food supply could not be ignored and the risk-benefit analysis has become a key issue in the use of the additive. For a risk analysis, an accurate estimation of the hazardous material is necessary; therefore, analytical methods for nitrosamines have continuously evolved from the 1950s. Solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extractions have replaced the distillation for the clean-up steps, and tandem mass spectrometry is employed for higher selectivity and sensitivity. In the present study, for a better estimation of N-nitrosamine intake, the total diet study samples were prepared for the N-nitrosamines analysis. In order to obtain the most sensitive results, a partial preparation procedure was developed and modified for different food matrices. Among seven N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, and N-nitrosomorpholine) analyzed in the present study, N-nitrosodiethylamine has shown the highest detection rate in agricultural foods, while N-nitrosodimethylamine has appeared most frequently in livestock and fishery food products. The concentration of N-nitrosodimethylamine was the highest in seasoning.

Analysis Method of N-Nitrosamines in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS System (LC-MS/MS 시스템을 이용한 소변 중 N-니트로사민류 분석법 확립)

  • Park, Na-Youn;Jung, Woong;Kho, Younglim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2017
  • N-nitrosamines are the nitroso compounds which are produced by nitrosation reactions of the secondary amine and nitrite under acidic conditions. Approximately 300 species of N-nitrosamine have been tested for carcinogenicity in laboratory experiments, with 90% of them demonstrated carcinogenic effects different animal species, including higher primates. In 1978, IARC classified NDMA and NDEA as Group 2A, and NDPA, NDBA, NPIP, NPYR and NMOR as Group 2B. In this study, we established pretreatment and analytical method for N-nitrosamines (NDMA, NDEA, NMEA, NDPA, NDBA, NPIP, NPYR and NMOR) in human urine for biological monitoring of N-nitrosamines. The analytes were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE), then quantitative analysis was performed by LC-(APCI)-MS/MS. The accuracies of the established method were between 85.8~108.7% and precisions were lower than 20%. The limit of detection (LOD) were between 0.0002 (NDBA) and 0.0793 (NDMA) ng/ml. The linearity obtained was satisfying for the 8 N-nitrosamines, with a coefficient of determination ($r^2$) higher than 0.999. The mean concentrations of N-nitrosamines in the urine were 2.645 mg/g creatinine for NDMA, 0.067 mg/g creatinine for NDEA, 0.009 mg/g creatinine for NMEA, 0.011 mg/g creatinine for NDBA, 0.271 mg/g creatinine for NPIP and 0.413 mg/g creatinine for NPYR. NDPA and NMOR were not detected. It can be used as a instrumental methodology for evaluation and risk assessment of human exposure to N-nitrosamines for the further research.

Application of Gamma Irradiation for the Reduction of Residual Nitrite and Nitrosamine in Meat Products

  • Ahn, Hyun-Joo;Kim, Jae-Hun;Lee, Ju-Woon;Jo, Cheorun;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.367-372
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    • 2004
  • Nitrite, a curing agent of meat products, is precursors of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines during processing of meat products or under human stomach conditions as well as having its own toxicity. Some researches have been conducted to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the reduction of residual nitrite and N-nitrosamines in an aqueous model system and cured meat products with different packaging methods during storage. These results showed that the gamma irradiation was effective in reducing the residual nitrite and N-nitrosamines in an aqueous model system as well as meat products. Especially, irradiation combined with vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging was more effective in nitrite and N-nitrosamines reduction than aerobic packaging during storage. The objective of this review is to introduce the irradiation technology for the application of reducing the residual nitrite and N-nitrosamine contents in meat products.

Ingestion Exposure to Nitrosamines in Chlorinated Drinking Water

  • Kim, He-Kap;Han, Ki-Chan
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.26
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    • pp.2.1-2.7
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and is formed during the chlorination of municipal drinking water. In this study, selected nitrosamines were measured in chlorinated drinking water collected from Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea, and a risk assessment for NDMA was conducted. Methods: Twelve water samples were collected from 2 treatment plants and 10 household taps. Samples were analyzed for 6 nitrosamines via solid-phase extraction cleanup followed by conversion to dansyl derivatives and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Considering the dietary patterns of Korean people and the concentration change of NDMA by boiling, a carcinogenic risk assessment from ingestion exposure was conducted following the US EPA guidelines. Results: NDMA concentrations ranged between 26.1 and 112.0 ng/L. NDMA in water was found to be thermally stable, and thus its concentration at the end of boiling was greater than before thermal treatment owing to the decrease in water volume. The estimated excess lifetime carcinogenic risk exceeded the regulatory baseline risk of $10^{-5}$. Conclusions: This result suggests that more extensive studies need to be conducted on nitrosamine concentration distributions over the country and the source of relatively high nitrosamine concentrations.

Investigation of N-nitrosamines using GC-MS/MS in Han-river Water Supply Systems (GC-MS/MS를 이용한 한강수계 및 상수도계통에서 N-nitrosamines 조사)

  • Yoon, Woo-hyun;Lee, Jun-ho;Lee, Hyun-ju;Lee, Su-won;Ahn, Jae-chan;Kim, Bog-soon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.410-418
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to improve the analysis method used for N-nitrosamines and to investigate the occurrences of N-nitrosamines in tributaries of the Han-river, intake stations, water treatment plants and tap water used within the city of Seoul. The samples were pretreated through a solid phase extraction and analyzed using a gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS). The GC-MS/MS in CI mode was compared with the GC-MS/MS in EI mode by the method detection limits (MDLs). MDLs by GC-CI/MS/MS and GC-EI/MS/MS were 0.2 ~ 1.1 ng/L and 0.2 ~ 1.4 ng/L, respectively. Samples were collected from ten tributaries of the Han-river (T1 ~ T10), six intake stations (I1 ~ I6), six water treatment plants (P1 ~ P6) and 25 taps in Seoul city. The maximum levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were 0.013 μg/L, 0.008 μg/L, 0.006 μg/L and 0.002 μg/L in tributary water, raw water, finished water and tap water samples, respectively. Detected levels were much lower than 0.1 μg/L corresponding to the guideline value of WHO.