• Title, Summary, Keyword: non-symmetry

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Effects of Unilateral Static Stretching on Flexibility and Symmetry of Lower Leg, and Temporal Gait Variables in Gait Asymmetry People (편측 정적스트레칭이 보행 비대칭자의 하지 유연성과 대칭성 및 시간적 보행 변인에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Young-Ae;Yoo, Kyung-Tae;Lee, Ho-Seong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2020
  • PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of unilateral static stretching on the flexibility and symmetry of the lower leg, and temporal gait variables in gait asymmetry people. METHODS: Twenty gait asymmetry people were divided into a unilateral static stretching group (USG, n = 10) and control group (CON, n = 10). The USG performed unilateral static stretching for 60 minutes, three times a week, and eight weeks. The flexibility of the lower leg (SR), and symmetry (BR), and temporal gait variables (Step length; SL, gait speed; GS) were measured before, after four and eight weeks of unilateral static stretching. Moreover, SI (symmetry index; SI) was calculated from the measured SL value. Statistical analyses were conducted using one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures, a paired t-test, and multiple comparisons according to Scheffe. RESULTS: SR and BR in the dominant and non-dominant side, and GS were increased significantly at USG after eight-weeks compared to before unilateral static stretching (p < .05). The difference in BR in the dominant and non-dominant side, and step length (SI) decreased significantly at USG after eight-weeks compared to before unilateral static stretching (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Unilateral static stretching improves the flexibility and symmetry of the lower leg, and temporal gait variables in gait asymmetry people.

Non-Euclidean Geometrical Characteristics of Hyperspace in Costume (복식에 표현된 초공간의 비유클리드기하학적 특성)

  • Lee, Yoon-Kyung;Kim, Min-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.117-127
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    • 2010
  • In this study, hyperspace is a result of imagination created by means of facts and fiction, represents a transfer to determination and indetermination, and means an extension to an open form. In other words, hyperspace is a high dimensional space expanded to imagination through the combination of the viewpoint on facts in this dimension and fiction. When the 2D plane surface or 3D symmetry is destroyed, or when the frame is twisted or entangled, the non-Euclidean geometry is created eventually. And when the twisting leads to transmutation and the destruction of the form reaches the extreme; this in turn became the twisting like Mbius band. Likewise, the non-Euclidean geometry is co-related to the asymmetry of the Higgs mechanism. When the 'destruction of symmetry' is considered, symmetric theory and asymmetric world can be connected. The asymmetry in turn can maintain balance by arranging the uneven weights at different distances from the shaft. Moreover, at this the concept of the upper, lower, left and right, which was included in the original form, may be crumbled down. The destruction of the symmetry is essential in order to present forecast that coincides with the phenomenon of the real world. Non-Euclidean geometry characteristic is expressed by asymmetry, twists, and deconstruction and its representative characteristic is ambiguity. The boundary between the front, back, upper, lower, inner and outer is unclear, and it is difficult and vague to pinpoint specific location. The design that does not clearly define or determine the direction of wearing costume is indeed the non-oriented design that can be worn without getting restricted by specific direction such as front and back. Non-Euclidean geometry characteristic of hyperspace have been applied to create new shapes through the modification of the substance from traditional clothing of the eastern world to modern fashion. The way of thinking in the 'hyperspace' that used to be expressed in the costumes of the east and the west in the past became the forum for unlimited creation.

EQUIVALENCE CONDITIONS OF SYMMETRY PROPERTIES IN LIGHTLIKE HYPERSURFACES OF INDEFINITE KENMOTSU MANIFOLDS

  • Lungiambudila, Oscar;Massamba, Fortune;Tossa, Joel
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.1259-1280
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    • 2016
  • The paper deals with lightlike hypersurfaces which are locally symmetric, semi-symmetric and Ricci semi-symmetric in indefinite Kenmotsu manifold having constant $\bar{\phi}$-holomorphic sectional curvature c. We obtain that these hypersurfaces are totally goedesic under certain conditions. The non-existence condition of locally symmetric lightlike hyper-surfaces are given. Some Theorems of specific lightlike hypersurfaces are established. We prove, under a certain condition, that in lightlike hyper-surfaces of an indefinite Kenmotsu space form, tangent to the structure vector field, the parallel, semi-parallel, local symmetry, semi-symmetry and Ricci semi-symmetry notions are equivalent.

A Test of Multivariate Normality Oriented for Testing Elliptical Symmetry

  • Park, Cheol-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 2006
  • A chi-squared test of multivariate normality is suggested which is oriented for detecting deviations from elliptical symmetry. We derive the limiting distribution of the test statistic via a central limit theorem on empirical processes. A simulation study is conducted to study the accuracy of the limiting distribution in finite samples. Finally, we compare the power of our method with those of other popular tests of multivariate normality under a non-normal distribution.

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A Test for Multivariate Normality Focused on Elliptical Symmetry Using Mahalanobis Distances

  • Park, Cheol-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1191-1200
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    • 2006
  • A chi-squared test of multivariate normality is suggested which is mainly focused on detecting deviations from elliptical symmetry. This test uses Mahalanobis distances of observations to have some power for deviations from multivariate normality. We derive the limiting distribution of the test statistic by a conditional limit theorem. A simulation study is conducted to study the accuracy of the limiting distribution in finite samples. Finally, we compare the power of our method with those of other popular tests of multivariate normality under two non-normal distributions.

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A Test for Multivariate Normality Focused on Elliptical Symmetry Using Mahalanobis Distances

  • Park, Cheol-Yong
    • 한국데이터정보과학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.203-212
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    • 2006
  • A chi-squared test of multivariate normality is suggested which is mainly focused on detecting deviations from elliptical symmetry. This test uses Mahalanobis distances of observations to have some power for deviations from multivariate normality. We derive the limiting distribution of the test statistic by a conditional limit theorem. A simulation study is conducted to study the accuracy of the limiting distribution in finite samples. Finally, we compare the power of our method with those of other popular tests of multivariate normality under two non-normal distributions.

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COMPATIBILITY IN CERTAIN QUASIGROUP HOMOGENEOUS SPACE

  • Im, Bokhee;Ryu, Ji-Young
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.667-674
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    • 2013
  • Considering a special double-cover Q of the symmetric group of degree 3, we show that a proper non-regular approximate symmetry occurs from its quasigroup homogeneous space. The weak compatibility of any two elements of Q is completely characterized in any such quasigroup homogeneous space of degree 4.

The Efficacy of Simultaneous Breast Reconstruction and Contralateral Balancing Procedures in Reducing the Need for Second Stage Operations

  • Smith, Mark L.;Clarke-Pearson, Emily M.;Vornovitsky, Michael;Dayan, Joseph H.;Samson, William;Sultan, Mark R.
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.535-541
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    • 2014
  • Background Patients having unilateral breast reconstruction often require a second stage procedure on the contralateral breast to improve symmetry. In order to provide immediate symmetry and minimize the frequency and extent of secondary procedures, we began performing simultaneous contralateral balancing operations at the time of initial reconstruction. This study examines the indications, safety, and efficacy of this approach. Methods One-hundred and two consecutive breast reconstructions with simultaneous contralateral balancing procedures were identified. Data included patient age, body mass index (BMI), type of reconstruction and balancing procedure, specimen weight, transfusion requirement, complications and additional surgery under anesthesia. Unpaired t-tests were used to compare BMI, specimen weight and need for non-autologous transfusion. Results Average patient age was 48 years. The majority had autologous tissue-only reconstructions (94%) and the rest prosthesis-based reconstructions (6%). Balancing procedures included reduction mammoplasty (50%), mastopexy (49%), and augmentation mammoplasty (1%). Average BMI was 27 and average reduction specimen was 340 grams. Non-autologous blood transfusion rate was 9%. There was no relationship between BMI or reduction specimen weight and need for transfusion. We performed secondary surgery in 24% of the autologous group and 100% of the prosthesis group. Revision rate for symmetry was 13% in the autologous group and 17% in the prosthesis group. Conclusions Performing balancing at the time of breast reconstruction is safe and most effective in autologous reconstructions, where 87% did not require a second operation for symmetry.

The Effects of Muscle Balance in Lower Limb on Anaerobic Pedaling Capacity among Elite Cyclists (사이클 선수의 하지근력균형이 무산소성 페달링 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Jung-Hoon
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.389-399
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle asymmetry of knee joint among elite cyclists on anaerobic pedaling power related capacity. In another word, based on isokinetic strength of Non-Dominant, ND and Dominant, D, side, high, moderate and low ratio of ND to D were classified as High Symmetry Group, Moderate Symmetry Group and Asymmetry Group, respectively. Analysis of muscle asymmetry of extensor's ND and D side might not lead to any difference between the three groups. Based on muscle strength analysis of the flexor's ND and D, there was statistical difference between the groups in ND flexor and in the muscle balance index of the flexor muscle. This result also leads to significant difference in pedaling power functionality, but this effects might not lead to any negative pedaling power. Therefore, among even cyclists who may show almost the same recruitment pattern of ND and D side during pedaling stroke muscle asymmetry could exist but this phenomena might not negatively contribute to the pedaling capacity.

Software development for the visualization of brain fiber tract by using 24-bit color coding in diffusion tensor image

  • Oh, Jung-Su;Song, In-Chan;Ik hwan Cho;Kim, Jong-Hyo;Chang, Kee-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Suk
    • Proceedings of the KSMRM Conference
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    • pp.133-133
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: The purpose of paper is to implement software to visualize brain fiber tract using a 24-bit color coding scheme and to test its feasibility. Materials and Methods: MR imaging was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa scanner. For diffusion tensor image, we used a single shot spin-echo EPI sequence with 7 non-colinear pulsed-field gradient directions: (x, y, z):(1,1,0),(-1,1,0),(1,0,1),(-1,0,1),(0,1,1),(0,1,-1) and without diffusion gradient. B-factor was 500 sec/$\textrm{mm}^2$. Acquisition parameters are as follows: TUTE=10000ms/99ms, FOV=240mm, matrix=128${\times}$128, slice thickness/gap=6mm/0mm, total slice number=30. Subjects consisted of 10 normal young volunteers (age:21∼26 yrs, 5 men, 5 women). All DTI images were smoothed with Gaussian kernel with the FWHM of 2 pixels. Color coding schemes for visualization of directional information was as follows. HSV(Hue, Saturation, Value) color system is appropriate for assigning RGB(Red, Green, and Blue) value for every different directions because of its volumetric directional expression. Each of HSV are assigned due to (r,$\theta$,${\Phi}$) in spherical coordinate. HSV calculated by this way can be transformed into RGB color system by general HSV to RGB conversion formula. Symmetry schemes: It is natural to code the antipodal direction to be same color(antipodal symmetry). So even with no symmetry scheme, the antipodal symmetry must be included. With no symmetry scheme, we can assign every different colors for every different orientation.(H =${\Phi}$, S=2$\theta$/$\pi$, V=λw, where λw is anisotropy). But that may assign very discontinuous color even between adjacent yokels. On the other hand, Full symmetry or absolute value scheme includes symmetry for 180$^{\circ}$ rotation about xy-plane of color coordinate (rotational symmetry) and for both hemisphere (mirror symmetry). In absolute value scheme, each of RGB value can be expressed as follows. R=λw|Vx|, G=λw|Vy|, B=λw|Vz|, where (Vx, Vy, Vz) is eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue of diffusion tensor. With applying full symmetry or absolute value scheme, we can get more continuous color coding at the expense of coding same color for symmetric direction. For better visualization of fiber tract directions, Gamma and brightness correction had done. All of these implementations were done on the IDL 5.4 platform.

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