• Title, Summary, Keyword: numerical methods

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A Method of Evaluating the Spatial Difference between Two Numerical Surfaces (두 개의 수치 평면에 대한 공간적 차이의 측정 방법)

  • Lee Jung-Eun;Sadahiro Yukio
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.212-226
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    • 2006
  • Surface data generally represent continuous distribution of geographical or social phenomena of a region in urban analysis. Instances include distribution of temperature, population of region, and various distributions related to human activities. When spatial data are given in the form of surface, surface comparison is required as a way of comprehending the surface change or the relationship between two surfaces. As for previous approaches of surface comparison, there are visualization, quantitative methods and qualitative method. All those approaches, however, show the difference between two surfaces in a limited way. Especially, they are not able to distinguish spatial difference between two surfaces. To overcome such problem, this paper proposes a method of comparing two surfaces in terms of their spatial structure. Main concept of the method comes from earth moving problem and the method is named minimum surface transformation, here. When a surface is transformed into another, total surface volume moved in the process of transformation should be the minimum. Both quantitative and spatial differences between two surfaces are evaluted by total surface volume moved and the distribution of moved surface volume of each cell respectively. The method is applied to hypothetical and actual data. From the former, it is understood that the method explains how two surfaces are quantitatively and spatially different. The result of the latter shows that moved total surface volume decreases as time goes by which fits the actual situation that population change rate gets smaller. Concerning the other measure of surface difference, the distribution of $X_{ij}$ describes detailed flow of surface volume than that of simply subtracting surface volume by indicating to what direction the population change occurs.

Development of A Network loading model for Dynamic traffic Assignment (동적 통행배정모형을 위한 교통류 부하모형의 개발)

  • 임강원
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2002
  • For the purpose of preciously describing real time traffic pattern in urban road network, dynamic network loading(DNL) models able to simulate traffic behavior are required. A number of different methods are available, including macroscopic, microscopic dynamic network models, as well as analytical model. Equivalency minimization problem and Variation inequality problem are the analytical models, which include explicit mathematical travel cost function for describing traffic behaviors on the network. While microscopic simulation models move vehicles according to behavioral car-following and cell-transmission. However, DNL models embedding such travel time function have some limitations ; analytical model has lacking of describing traffic characteristics such as relations between flow and speed, between speed and density Microscopic simulation models are the most detailed and realistic, but they are difficult to calibrate and may not be the most practical tools for large-scale networks. To cope with such problems, this paper develops a new DNL model appropriate for dynamic traffic assignment(DTA), The model is combined with vertical queue model representing vehicles as vertical queues at the end of links. In order to compare and to assess the model, we use a contrived example network. From the numerical results, we found that the DNL model presented in the paper were able to describe traffic characteristics with reasonable amount of computing time. The model also showed good relationship between travel time and traffic flow and expressed the feature of backward turn at near capacity.

Evaluation of Hemodynamic Failure with Acetazolamide Challenged $^{123}I-IMP$ Brain SEPCT and PET (PET과 Acetazolamide 부하 $^{123}I-IMP$ 뇌혈류 SPECT를 이용한 혈역학적 부전의 평가)

  • Chun, Kyung-Ah;Cho, In-Ho;Won, Kyu-Jang;Lee, Hyung-Woo;Hayashida, Kohei
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.94-102
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Cerebral blood flow (CBF) reactivity to acetazolamide (ACZ) is useful to select patients with hemodynamic failure. However, it is still a matter of speculation that varying degrees of regional CBF increases after ACZ administration represent the severity or stage of regional hemodynamic failure as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). We studied to elucidate whether ACZ challenge $^{123}I-IMP$ brain single photon emission tomography (SPECT) can accurately grade the seventy of regional hemodynamic failure. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (M: 16, F: 2, average age: 61 years) with unilateral occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery or the trunk of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Patients undewent $^{123}I-IMP$ brain SPECT study with acetazolamide challenge and PET study was carried out within 2 weeks before and after SPECT study. Five healthy volunteers with a mean age of 48 years (range: 28-73 yr, M: 3, F: 2) underwent PET studies to determine normal values. In SPECT study, an asymmetry index (Al)-the percentage of radioactivity of region of interest (ROI) in the occlusive cerebrovascular lesion to the contralateral homologous ROI-was used for numerical evaluation of relative $^{123}I-IMP$ distribution. In PET study, regional CBF, oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ($CMRO_2$) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) values were measured with $^{15}O-labeled$ gas inhalation method and the values were used for comparison with Al (Al during acetazolamide challenge-Al of basal study) on the SPECT study. ROls were classified by severity into three groups (normal, stage I and stage II). Results: Mean values of Al in areas with normal, stage I and stage II hemodynamic failure were $6.25{\pm}7.77%\;(n=107),\;-10.38{\pm}10.41%\:(n=117)\;and\;13.30{\pm}10.51%\;(n=140)$, respectively. Al significantly differed with each groups (p<0.05). Correlation between Al and CBF, OEF and CBV/CBF in hemisphere with occlusive cerebrovascular lesion was 0.20 (p<0.01), -0.28 (p<0.01) and -0.28 (p<0.01), respectively. Conclusion: We concluded that $^{123}I-IMP$ brain SPECT with acetazolamide challenge could determine the severity ad stage of regional hemodynamic failure as assessed by PET.

Detection with a SWNT Gas Sensor and Diffusion of SF6 Decomposition Products by Corona Discharges (탄소나노튜브 가스센서의 SF6 분해생성물 검출 및 확산현상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, J.C.;Jung, S.H.;Baik, S.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.66-72
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    • 2009
  • The detection methods are required to monitor and diagnose the abnormality on the insulation condition inside a gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Due to a good sensitivity to the products decomposed by partial discharges (PDs) in $SF_6$ gas, the development of a SWNT gas sensor is actively in progress. However, a few numerical studies on the diffusion mechanism of the $SF_6$ decomposition products by PD have been reported. In this study, we modeled $SF_6$ decomposition process in a chamber by calculating temperature, pressure and concentration of the decomposition products by using a commercial CFD program in conjunction with experimental data. It was assumed that the mass production rate and the generation temperature of the decomposition products were $5.04{\times}10^{-10}$ [g/s] and over 773 K respectively. To calculate the concentration equation, the Schmidt number was specified to get the diffusion coefficient functioned by viscosity and density of $SF_6$ gas instead rather than setting it directly. The results showed that the drive potential is governed mainly by the gradient of the decomposition concentration. A lower concentration of the decomposition products was observed as the sensors were placed more away from the discharge region. Also, the concentration increased by increasing the discharge time. By installing multiple sensors the location of PD is expected to be identified by monitoring the response time of the sensors, and the information should be very useful for the diagnosis and maintenance of GIS.

A Study on the DC Resistivity Method to Image the Underground Structure Beneath River or Lake Bottom (하저 지반특성 규명을 위한 수상 전기비저항 탐사에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Jung-Ho;Yi Myeong-Jong;Song Yoonho;Choi Seong-Jun;Lee Seoung Kon;Son Jeong-Sul;Chung Seung-Hwan
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.223-235
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    • 2002
  • Since weak Bones or geological lineaments are likely to be eroded, there may develop weak Bones beneath rivers, and a careful evaluation of ground condition is important to construct structures passing through a river. DC resistivity method, however, has seldomly applied to the investigation of water-covered area, possibly because of difficulties in data aquisition and interpretation. The data aquisition having high quality may be the most important factor, and is more difficult than that in land survey, due to the water layer overlying the underground structure to be imaged. Through the numerical modeling and the analysis of a case history, we studied the method of resistivity survey at the water-covered area, starting from the characteristics of measured data, via data acquisition method, to the interpretation method. We unfolded our discussion according to the installed locations of electrodes, ie., floating them on the water surface, and installing them at the water bottom, because the methods of data acquisition and interpretation vary depending on the electrode location. Through this study, we could confirm that the DC resistivity method can provide fairly reasonable subsurface images. It was also shown that installing electrodes at the water bottom can give the subsurface image with much higher resolution than floating them on the water surface. Since the data acquired at the water-covered area have much lower sensitivity to the underground structure than those at the land, and can be contaminated by the higher noise, such as streaming potential, it would be very important to select the acquisition method and electrode array being able to provide the higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) data as well as the high resolving power. Some of the modified electrode arrays can provide the data having reasonably high S/N ratio and need not to install remote electrode(s), and thus, they may be suitable to the resistivity survey at the water-covered area.

Development of Sag and Tension Sensitivity Estimation Method for Configuration Control under PPWS Erection in a Suspension Bridge (현수교 PPWS 가설중 형상관리를 위한 PPWS 새그 및 장력민감도 산정법 개발)

  • Jeong, Woon;Seo, Ju Won;Lee, Won Pyo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.32 no.5A
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    • pp.255-266
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    • 2012
  • Main cable of a suspension bridge is the important member which shows the overall structure integrity at bridge completion. Configuration of main cable is a free hanging state at cable erection completion and is different from that at bridge completion supporting the dead loads such as hanger, girder, and so on. Accordingly, the configuration control under cable erection is considerably significant because the configuration at cable erection completion has direct influence on that at bridge completion. That is performed by sag adjustments at center, side span and tension adjustments at anchor span. The former needs the sag sensitivity which represents the control quantity of strand length corresponding to that of sag. The latter requires the tension sensitivity which shows the change of strand tension according to that of strand temperature. In this study, the fundamental equations of cable were derived with the assumption of either catenary or parabola shape, the differential-related equations using chain rule on horizontal tension were drawn from those and finally the estimation methods of the sag / tension sensitivity were proposed from both those. The nonlinear numerical analysis flow charts of sag sensitivity based on the catenary equations were proposed and the sag sensitivities grounded on the differential-related equations were compared with the results using them for various parameters of sag change. Also, considering the combinations of sag change parameters, the calculation method of the final variation for the cable sag was suggested. For the real suspension bridge under construction with PPWS method, the sag/tension sensitivity were estimated considering the construction conditions like the change of PPWS length, PPWS temperature, bridge span, etc.. We hope that this study will be a systematic guideline for the configuration control under main cable erection and improved highly by field verification in the real bridge site.

Isolation and Characterization of the IAA Producing Methylotrophic Bacteria from Phyllosphere of Rice Cultivars(Oryza sativa L.) (벼(Oryza sativa L.)의 잎 면으로부터의 IAA를 생성하는 Methylotrophic Bacteria의 분리 선별 및 특성 비교)

  • Lee, Kyu-Hoi;Munusamy , Madhaiyan;Kim, Chung-Woo;Lee, Hyoung-Seok;Selvaraj, Poonguzhali;Sa, TongMin
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.235-244
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    • 2004
  • In this study, we compared the levels of methylotrophic bacterial community diversity in the leaf samples of 19 rice cultivars collected from three regions of Korea. Nineteen pink pigmented isolates showing characteristic growth on methanol were obtained. Physiological and biochemical characters of each isolate were examined according to methods described in Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. When phylotypes were defined by performing numerical analysis of 37 characteristics, four distinct clusters were formed. The two reference strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Methylobacterium fujisawaense KACC10744 were found to group under cluster IV and cluster III respectively. Cluster I diverged on the basis of nitrate reduction and four isolates showed tolerance upto 0.5 M NaCl concentrations. Two strains in cluster I and III were found to possess methane utilizing properties. Most of the isolates in all the four clusters utilized monosaccharides, disaccharide and polyols as carbon source. When the isolates were subjected for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) analysis in the presence of L-tryptophan, only 8 isolates exhibited IAA production. In addition, the nitrogen source in the medium was found to influence the IAA production. Addition of $(NH_4)_2SO_4$ in the medium led to a 2 to 30 fold increase in the indole synthesis. However, $KNO_3$, $NH_4NO_3$ and $NH_4Cl$ substitution did not significantly stimulate the synthesis of IAA in the growth medium. Result of gnotobiotic root elongation assay significantly increased roots and shoots lengths, and number of lateral roots, which is mediated by IAA production in the culture medium. The rice seedlings primary roots from seeds treated with methylotrophic isolates were on average 27 to 56% longer than the roots from seeds treated with the uninoculated seeds. In addition, application of different high concentrations of authentic IAA ($400g\;mL^{-1}$) to roots of rice seedlings inhibited root growth. However, the IAA concentration from 10 to $200g\;mL^{-1}$, IAA promoted root growth of rice seedlings. These results suggest that bacterial IAA plays a major role in the development of the host plant root system.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2016 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2016년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.327-340
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    • 2017
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2016. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of flow, heat and mass transfer, the reduction of pollutant exhaust gas, cooling and heating, the renewable energy system and the flow around buildings. CFD schemes were used more for all research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results of the long-term performance variation of the plate-type enthalpy exchange element made of paper, design optimization of an extruded-type cooling structure for reducing the weight of LED street lights, and hot plate welding of thermoplastic elastomer packing. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the heat transfer characteristics of a finned-tube heat exchanger in a PCM (phase change material) thermal energy storage system, influence of flow boiling heat transfer on fouling phenomenon in nanofluids, and PCM at the simultaneous charging and discharging condition were studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, one-dimensional flow network model and porous-media model, and R245fa in a plate-shell heat exchanger were studied. (3) Various studies were published in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, subjects include mobile cold storage heat exchanger, compressor reliability, indirect refrigeration system with $CO_2$ as secondary fluid, heat pump for fuel-cell vehicle, heat recovery from hybrid drier and heat exchangers with two-port and flat tubes. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, subjects include membrane module for dehumidification refrigeration, desiccant-assisted low-temperature drying, regenerative evaporative cooler and ejector-assisted multi-stage evaporation. In the system control category, subjects include multi-refrigeration system control, emergency cooling of data center and variable-speed compressor control. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, fifteenth studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, renewable energies, etc. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which could be help for improving the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the analyses of indoor thermal environments controlled by portable cooler, the effects of outdoor wind pressure in airflow at high-rise buildings, window air tightness related to the filling piece shapes, stack effect in core type's office building and the development of a movable drawer-type light shelf with adjustable depth of the reflector. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy consumption analysis in office building, the prediction of exit air temperature of horizontal geothermal heat exchanger, LS-SVM based modeling of hot water supply load for district heating system, the energy saving effect of ERV system using night purge control method and the effect of strengthened insulation level to the building heating and cooling load.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2015 (설비공학회 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2015년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.256-268
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    • 2016
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2015. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering were carried out in the areas of flow, heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the renewable energy system and the flow inside building rooms. Research issues dealing with air-conditioning machines and fire and exhausting smoke were reduced. CFD seems to be spreading to more research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area were carried out in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the economic analysis of GHG emission, micro channel heat exchanger, effect of rib angle on thermal performance, the airside performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers, theoretical analysis of a rotary heat exchanger, heat exchanger in a cryogenic environment, the performance of a cross-flow-type, indirect evaporative cooler made of paper/plastic film. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the bubble jet loop heat pipe was studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches were performed on fin-tube heat exchanger, KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel at baking phase, the performance of small-sized dehumidification rotor, design of gas-injection port of an asymmetric scroll compressor, effect of slot discharge-angle change on exhaust efficiency of range hood system with air curtain. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, a cold-climate heat pump system, $CO_2$ cascade systems, ejector cycles and a PCM-based continuous heating system were investigated. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, a polymer adsorption heat pump, an alcohol absorption heat pump and a desiccant-based hybrid refrigeration system were investigated. In the system control category, turbo-refrigerator capacity controls and an absorption chiller fault diagnostics were investigated. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, eighteen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the user and location awareness technology applied dimming lighting control system, the lighting performance evaluation for light-shelves, the improvement evaluation of air quality through analysis of ventilation efficiency and the evaluation of airtightness of sliding and LS window systems. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving estimation of existing buildings, the developing model to predict heating energy usage in domestic city area and the performance evaluation of cooling applied with economizer control. The studies were also performed related to the experimental measurement of weight variation and thermal conductivity in polyurethane foam, the development of flame spread prevention system for sandwich panels, the utilization of heat from waste-incineration facility in large-scale horticultural facilities.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2008 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2008년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Choi, Chang-Ho;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Kwon, Yong-Il;Choi, Jong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.715-732
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    • 2009
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2008. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends in thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed in the categories of general fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, new and renewable energy, and fire. Well-developed CFD technologies were widely applied in developing facilities and their systems. New research topics include fire, fuel cell, and solar energy. Research was mainly focused on flow distribution and optimization in the fields of fluid machinery and piping. Topics related to the development of fans and compressors had been popular, but were no longer investigated widely. Research papers on micro heat exchangers using nanofluids and micro pumps were also not presented during this period. There were some studies on thermal reliability and performance in the fields of new and renewable energy. Numerical simulations of smoke ventilation and the spread of fire were the main topics in the field of fire. (2) Research works on heat transfer presented in 2008 have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, industrial heat exchangers, and ground heat exchangers. Research on heat transfer characteristics included thermal transport in cryogenic vessels, dish solar collectors, radiative thermal reflectors, variable conductance heat pipes, and flow condensation and evaporation of refrigerants. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, examined are research on micro-channel plate heat exchangers, liquid cooled cold plates, fin-tube heat exchangers, and frost behavior of heat exchanger fins. Measurements on ground thermal conductivity and on the thermal diffusion characteristics of ground heat exchangers were reported. (3) In the field of refrigeration, many studies were presented on simultaneous heating and cooling heat pump systems. Switching between various operation modes and optimizing the refrigerant charge were considered in this research. Studies of heat pump systems using unutilized energy sources such as sewage water and river water were reported. Evaporative cooling was studied both theoretically and experimentally as a potential alternative to the conventional methods. (4) Research papers on building facilities have been reviewed and divided into studies on heat and cold sources, air conditioning and air cleaning, ventilation, automatic control of heat sources with piping systems, and sound reduction in hydraulic turbine dynamo rooms. In particular, considered were efficient and effective uses of energy resulting in reduced environmental pollution and operating costs. (5) In the field of building environments, many studies focused on health and comfort. Ventilation. system performance was considered to be important in improving indoor air conditions. Due to high oil prices, various tests were planned to examine building energy consumption and to cut life cycle costs.