• Title, Summary, Keyword: obesity

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Difference in the Gut Microbiome between Ovariectomy-Induced Obesity and Diet-Induced Obesity

  • Choi, Sungmi;Hwang, Yu-Jin;Shin, Min-Jeong;Yi, Hana
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.2228-2236
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    • 2017
  • During menopausal transition, the imbalance of estrogen causes body weight gain. Although gut microbiome dysbiosis has been reported in postmenopausal obesity, it is not clear whether there is any difference in the microbiome profile between dietary-induced obesity and postmenopausal obesity. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed intestinal samples from ovariectomized mice and compared them with those of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. To further evaluate the presence of menopause-specific bacteria-gene interactions, we also analyzed the liver transcriptome. Investigation of the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region amplicon sequence profile revealed that menopausal obesity and dietary obesity resulted in similar gut microbiome structures. However, Bifidobacterium animalis was exclusively observed in the ovariectomized mice, which indicated that menopausal obesity resulted in a different intestinal microbiome than dietary obesity. Additionally, several bacterial taxa (Dorea species, Akkermansia muciniphila, and Desulfovibrio species) were found when the ovariectomized mice were treated with a high-fat diet. A significant correlation between the above-mentioned menopause-specific bacteria and the genes for female hormone metabolism was also observed, suggesting the possibility of bacteria-gene interactions in menopausal obesity. Our findings revealed the characteristics of the intestinal microbiome in menopausal obesity in the mouse model, which is very similar to the dietary obesity microbiome but having its own diagnostic bacteria.

Forecasting obesity prevalence in Korean adults for the years 2020 and 2030 by the analysis of contributing factors

  • Baik, Inkyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.251-257
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are few studies that forecast the future prevalence of obesity based on the predicted prevalence model including contributing factors. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with obesity and construct forecasting models including significant contributing factors to estimate the 2020 and 2030 prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Panel data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and national statistics from the Korean Statistical Information Service were used for the analysis. The study subjects were 17,685 male and 24,899 female adults aged 19 years or older. The outcome variables were the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ${\geq}25kg/m^2$) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ${\geq}90cm$ for men and ${\geq}85cm$ for women). Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to select significant variables from potential exposures. RESULTS: The survey year, age, marital status, job status, income status, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, psychological factors, dietary intake, and fertility rate were found to contribute to the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity. Based on the forecasting models including these variables, the 2020 and 2030 estimates for obesity prevalence were 47% and 62% for men and 32% and 37% for women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested an increased prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in 2020 and 2030. Lifestyle factors were found to be significantly associated with the increasing trend in obesity prevalence and, therefore, they may require modification to prevent the rising trend.

Relationship of Adolescent Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Factor and Childhood Obesity in High School Student in Jeju Island (제주도 고등학교 학생들의 비만 정도, 심혈관 위험인자, 소아시 비만과의 관련성)

  • 홍성철;황승욱;현인숙
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2003
  • Background: Recently, adolescent obesity was increased and tended to become obese adults, facing increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease. Even before reaching adulthood, adolescent obesity already was experiencing hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to find prevalence of obesity of high school students in Jeju island and association between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors and association between childhood obesity and adolescent obesity. Method: The study subjects were 6,064 students of twenty-two high school in Jeju island and health survey data was gathered from high school health examination data and hospital health examination data from Aug. 1999 to Dec. 1999. Adolescent obesity was evaluated by ideal body weight method in 1998 and body mass index. Cardiovascular risk factors were checked total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar. In 1,534 students, obesity at primary school is checked by primary and middle school health record. Results: Prevalence of obesity in Jeju island high school students is 12.6% in male students, 13.3% in female students by ideal body weight method and 8.7% in male students, 8.5% in female students by body mass index. Prevalence of obesity of male students in city area and district area of Jeju island were each 12.9%, 10.3% and that of male students in city area was significantly higher. Prevalence of obesity of female students in city area and district area of Jeju island were each 12.9%, 14.2% and not significantly different. Prevalence of obesity of male students in general and commercial school group were each 13.9%, 10.1% and that of general school group was significantly higher. In female students, Prevalence of obesity general and commercial school group was not significantly different. Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly associated with degree of obesity in male and female students(p<0.05) and fasting blood sugar was only significantly associated with degree of obesity in male students(p<0.05). In 1,514 students checked by health record, Odds ratio of obesity at primary and middle school that at high school were 12.96∼22.77 and was significantly associated. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity of high school students in Jeju island is very high and adolescent obesity was significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Mostly childhood obesity tended to become adolescent obesity and program of control of obesity at childhood and adolescence is required.

Data Analytic Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study on Obesity Using the National Health Information Database Presented by the National Health Insurance Service 2006-2015

  • Kim, Yang-Hyun;Han, Kyungdo;Son, Jang-Won;Lee, Seong-Su;Oh, Sang Woo;Kwon, Hyuk-Sang;Shin, Soon-Ae;Kim, Yeon-Yong;Lee, Won-Young;Yoo, Soon Jib;Taskforce Team of the Obesity Fact Sheet of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity
    • Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2017
  • Background: In Korea, the prevalence of obesity has steadily increased, and the socioeconomic burden of obesity has increased along with it. In 2015, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) signed a memorandum of understanding with the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO), providing limited open access to its databases so that the status of obesity and obesity management could be investigated. Methods: Using NHIS databases, we analyzed nationwide population-based studies for obesity using the definition of obesity (body mass index ${\geq}25kg/m^2$) in subjects over the age of 20. Age and sex standardization were used for all data. Results: The KSSO released the 'Obesity Fact Sheet 2016' using the 2006-2015 NHIS Health Checkup database. The prevalence of obesity steadily increased from 28.7% in 2006 to 32.4% in 2015, and the prevalence of abdominal obesity also steadily increased from 18.4% in 2009 to 20.8% in 2015. The prevalence of class II obesity steadily increased from 2006 to 2015, such that the total prevalence was 4.8% in 2015 (5.6% in men and 4.0% in women). The highest prevalence of obesity was found in Jeju Island, while the lowest prevalence was found in Daegu City. The highest prevalence of abdominal obesity was also found in Jeju Island, while the lowest prevalence was found in Gwangju City. Conclusion: Based on the Obesity Fact Sheet 2016, a strategy for reducing the prevalence of obesity is needed, especially in Korean men.

Major Hormonal Regulations in Obesity and Fat Distribution (지방세포 대사에 미치는 주요호르몬들의 작용)

  • Kim, Ho-Jun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2001
  • Obesity is a metabolic disease associated with multiple hormonal abnormalities. Therefore, obesity management aims at balancing these endocrine malfunctions nowadays. Although many studies proved interactions of hormones related with obesity, there are still lots of controversies. Most of these malfunctions are more pronounced in central, visceral obesity than in peripheral obesity. Recently, it is revealed that a central lesion of endocrine malfunction in human visceral obesity is probably related with a hypersensitivity of hypothalamopituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis. Probably associated with this axis, Insulin and cortisol promote lipid accumulation by expressing lipoprotein lipase activity, while sex hormones and growth hormone exert the opposite effects. Also reviewed was thyroid hormone which is closely related with thermogenesis. Serotonin is prescribed as antidepressant and it is applied to some eating disorders. Recently, leptin made in fat deposit also took attentions in terms of regulator of appetite and messenger of sex signal.

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A Comparative Study on Obesity Judgment Criteria in the Frequently used Obesity Indices (주요 비만 판정 지수의 비만 기준 비교)

  • Yi, Kyong-Hwa
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.93-108
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    • 2010
  • R$\ddot{o}$hrer index, Vervaeck index and Body Mass Index(BMI) are frequently used in order to judge obese subjects in clothing & textiles field. However, there are no certain criteria of judging the degree of obesity. Each researcher utilized these obesity indices according to their own criteria so far. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to suggest a reliable obesity index and new criteria for judging the degree of obesity. The results are as follows; Utilizing frequency analysis, main percentiles, minimums, maximums and ranges were presented by 5 age groups from twenties to sixties. Obesity rates dramatically increased, the subject got older. Especially, obesity rate of the subjects in their fifties and sixties were much higher than other age groups. 1.6 & higher can be used in the R$\ddot{o}$hrer index, 98 & higher can be used in the Vervaeck index, and 25 & higher can be used in the BMI as the Optimal criteria of the obesity. Total of 24 body measurements and 3 obesity indices were used for analyzing the correlation analysis. All heights measurements showed negative correlation with the 3 obesity indices. It is determined heights measurements have high correlation with R$\ddot{o}$hrer index compare to other indices. Crotch height, interscye back, neck shoulder point to breast point, bust circumference, waist circumference, upper arm circumference and armscye circumference have high positive correlation with all obesity indices. According to the ANOVAs by each percentile group of the R$\ddot{o}$hrer and Vervaeck indices, there are big significances in all measurements and obesity indices except arm length. In general, heights decreased significantly by getting bigger, while circumferences and lengths, widths and indices increased rapidly by getting bigger. The results of the analysis by each percentile group in the BMI, it showed the significant differences in the all measurements except cervical height and arm length. There were similar tendency of differences according to the degree of the obesity in BMI percentile groups. It was confirmed that the BMI is the most reliable index for judging the obesity owing to the high correlations and significant differences with other measurements.

Depression and Stress Related to Obesity among Normal, Obese, and Severe Obese Groups - Comparison among Normal, Obesity, and Severe Obesity Groups - (비만정도에 따른 우울 및 스트레스 - 정상체중, 비만, 고도비만 집단의 비교 -)

  • Nam, Sujung;Park, Jongho
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.1199-1210
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated the influence of obesity on depression and stress by analyzing the results of the national survey on health and nutrition. Relationships between normal, obese, and severely obese groups were investigated. The results of the study are as follows. First, obesity caused by demographic variables showed a relationship to both gender and average monthly income. In the case of the seriously obese group, females had higher rates of depression than males, and the high obesity group had lower average monthly income than the normal and obese groups. Second, obesity caused by health-related variables found that high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes that was not angina-related displayed higher rates of depression in the serious obesity group than in the other groups. As for subjective evaluations of one's own health condition, the serious obesity group showed a high tendency to evaluate their own health conditions negatively. Third, the difference between depression and stress related to obesity level showed no difference between the normal weight group and the obesity group; however, the seriously obese group demonstrated relatively higher occurrences of depression and higher stress scores. Fourth, the result for depression and stress level caused by demographic variables, health-related variables, and obesity demonstrated a direct relationship to gender, subjective level of satisfaction with one's personal finances, average monthly income, subjective perception of one's own health and severely obesity status. More specifically, it was found that the ratio of depression and stress score was higher when the subject was female, among those whose subjective evaluation of their own finances and health condition was negative, and those who suffered from severe obesity.

Assessment of Anthropometric Obesity Indexes by Correlation with Body Composition (비만치료에 유용한 단순비만지표의 선별)

  • Ryu, Su-Min;Shin, Seung-Uoo;Kim, Kil-Soo;Shim, Woo-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2006
  • Object : Waist circumference(WC), waist-hip ratio(WHR), waist-stature ratio(WSR), and body mass index(BMI) are commonly used for evaluating obesity. This Research were done to determine what is more sensitive obesity indexes(WC, WHR, WSR, BMI) Correlated with body composition such as body fat mass, body fat(%), visceral fat area, and fat free mass. And what is more sensitively correlated obesity indexes with % changes of body composition during weight reduction treatment. Methods : This clinical retrospective research were carried out 127 cases of female obese outpatients with weight reduction treatment during 1 month. Bioelectrical impedence analysis(for body composition) and body size(for anthropometric obesity indexes) were estimated in pre-treatment and post-treatment to evaluate the obesity indexes. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to select useful obesity index. Result & Conclusion : BMI is useful index for diagnosis and evaluation of obesity. WSR is sensitively correlated with visceral fat area and body fat(%). So, WSR is useful index for evaluating abdominal obesity and risk factors of metabolic syndrome. WC is correlated with both body fat mass and fat free mass. WHR is not optimal for diagnosis and evaluation of obesity.

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The Relationship between Educational Attainment and Obesity among Korean Adults : Focusing on Age Variations (한국 성인남녀의 교육 수준과 비만 간 관계 : 연령에 따른 변화를 중심으로)

  • Paek, Eunjeong;Kim, Jinyoung
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: Despite the considerable interest in the increase in obesity particularly of socially disadvantaged group in Korea, how obesity varies according to various socio-demographic characteristics still remains largely unanswered. To further develop the understanding of obesity in Korea, the present study focuses on the possibility that the relationship between educational attainment and obesity varies across age. Methods: Using 2010 Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), this study divides the adults into male and female groups and examines the interaction effect of age and educational attainment on obesity through binominal logit models for each group. Results: The most educated male group is more likely to be obese than those who did not complete high school. And the relationship between male's educational attainment and obesity does not significantly change across age. In contrast to male's obesity pattern, female educational attainment has a significant negative association with obesity. The gap in obesity across educational groups converges after middle ages in female. Conclusions: Health policies should pay more attention to those who are more vulnerable to obesity risk in order to effectively reduce obesity.

Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic

  • Shao, Qin;Chin, Khew-Voon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.253-259
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    • 2011
  • The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been attributed to the ready availability, abundance, and overconsumption of high-energy content food. We determined here by Pearson's correlation the relationship between food type consumption and rising obesity using the loss-adjusted food availability data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Services (ERS) as well as the obesity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our analysis showed that total calorie intake and consumption of high fructose com syrup (HFCS) did not correlate with rising obesity trends. Intake of other major food types, including chicken, dairy fats, salad and cooking oils, and cheese also did not correlate with obesity trends. However, our results surprisingly revealed that consumption of com products correlated with rising obesity and was independent of gender and race/ethnicity among population dynamics in the U.S. Therefore, we were able to demonstrate a novel link between the consumption of com products and rising obesity trends that has not been previously attributed to the obesity epidemic. This correlation coincides with the introduction of bioengineered corns into the human food chain, thus raising a new hypothesis that should be tested in molecular and animal models of obesity.