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Obesity, obesity-related diseases and application of animal model in obesity research An overview

  • Park, Byung-Sung;Singh, N.K.;Reza, A.M.M.T.
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.622-634
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    • 2013
  • The multi-origin of obesity and its associated diseases made it's a complex area of biomedical science research and severe health disorder. From the 1970s to onwards this health problem turned to an epidemic without having any report of declining yet and it created a red alert to the health sector. Meanwhile, many animal models have been developed to study the lethal effect of obesity. In consequence, many drugs, therapies and strategies have already been adopted based on the findings of those animal models. However, many complicated things based on molecular and generic mechanism has not been clarified to the date. Thus, it is important to develop a need based animal model for the better understanding and strategic planning to eliminate/avoid the obesity disorder. Therefore, the present review would unveil the pros and cons of presently established animal models for obesity research. In addition, it would indicate the required turning direction for further obesity and obesity based disease research.

Analysis of Anthropometric Measuremetnts, Eating Habits, and Dietary Intake of Women with Child-bearing Experiences and Different Body Fat Contents (비만도가 다른 출산경험여성의 신체계측, 식습관 및 영양소섭취상태 연구)

  • 유윤희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible causal factors of obesity in women with child-bearing experiences in effects to provide optimal information for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity. Sventy one women with child-bearing experiences were divided into five groups based on the degree of obesity by BROCA method ; normal weight, overweight, and obesity which was further divided into three groups of light, moderate, and sever obesity. Various anthropomnetric measurements, overall eating habits, and dietery intakes were asessed for each groups. Out of eighteen anthropometric factors asociated with obesity, thirteen measurements were represented to be valid for the diagnosis of obesity. Body fat % which was analyzed by Bioelectrical Impedance fatnee Analyzer were 24.765, 28.05%, and 29.85 for normal, overweight, and obesity group respectively. WHR(waister to hip ratio) or BMI(body mass index) widely used index was also resulted to be valid as a predictor of obesity. Waist circumference which represents abdominal fat mass showed a good correlatin with body fat%. The analysis of dietary intakes suggested that the overintakes of total calorie may not be the only causal factor of obesity, rather the amount of daily protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes or the physical activity level would be more closely related with the prevalence of obesity. Further investigation considering more variety of food composition of diet and the activity level involving larger number of subjects would be needed.

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Relationships between Obesity, Body Image Perception, and Weight Control in Adult Women (성인 여성의 비만, 체형인식 및 체중조절의 관계)

  • Chae, Hyunju
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.129-142
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity, body image perception, and weight control for obesity management in adult women. Methods: The subjects of this study were 3,617 women aged over 19 years, who participated in the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016. Data were analyzed through complex sampling design data analysis. Results: Right body image perception according to obesity was apparent between 70.6-81.7% of women and 76.5% of women with abdominal obesity perceived that they were normal. Obese women performed more weight control than non-obese women. Women with only abdominal obesity performed less weight control than non-obese women, and 47.3% of them performed weight control. Women who perceived themselves as obese performed more weight control than women who perceived themselves as non-obese (odds ratio, 2.08; confidence interval, 1.69-2.57), but body mass index was not observed to be associated with weight control. Conclusions: Education on abdominal obesity should be provided to increase awareness about abdominal obesity and its effective management, especially in women with only abdominal obesity. In addition, interventions for right body type perception should be provided for proper weight control along with prevention and management of obesity.

A Study on the Obesity Rate of Elementary School Students in Daejeon City Using BMI Index (대전지역 일부 초등학생들의 비만수준과 관련된 요인 - BMI 지수를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Tae-Yong;Lee, Jae-Hun;Kim, Yong-Ha;Kim, Kwang-Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2008
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the obesity rate in elementary school students in Daejeon and the relevant factors such as social-demographical factors, genetic factors, birth factors, diet factors and intelligence factors. Methods: For the research, 443 fourth grade students, 405 fifth grade students and 417 sixth grade students from six elementary schools in Daejeon Metropolitan City Participated in this study and classified into three groups: normal-weight group, mild obesity group, and moderate or severe obesity group. Results: The total obesity rate of the elementary school students in the school district of Daejeon Metropolitan City was 14.2%; the rate of mild obesity was 7.2%; the rate of moderate obesity was 5.5%; and the rate of severe obesity was 1.5%. The obesity rate of surveyed boys was 16.9%, and the obesity rate of girls was 11.1%. The significant factors for girls' obesity were fathers' EMI, mothers' EMI, living standards, constant demand of foods, preference for greasy foods, frequency of eating snacks, and daily walking hours. It was found that students' subjective mind and objective health index were related to obesity. In the case of obese students, they had more concern about their health and more stress from the dissatisfaction of their physical appearance than normal students. Conclusions: From the above evidences, it is apparent that the obesity of elementary school students has strong relations with eating habits rather than physical activities. It is to be hoped that obesity prevention programs such as effective meal guidance. parental guidance for watching TV, and intense physical activities will be included in the curriculums of health education for elementary school students.

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Study on the body shapes of old aged obese women for the activation of the silver clothing industry (실버 의류산업 활성화를 위한 노년 비만여성의 체형연구)

  • Seong, Ok jin;Kim, Sook jin
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.755-767
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    • 2015
  • This study analyzed the body-type characteristics of 340 old-aged obese women that had been on the rise as a part of efforts to activate the silver clothing industry. The subjects were in the age range of 60-79 and met some obesity requirements, including a Rohrer Index of 1.6 or higher, a BMI of 25 or higher, and a WHR of 0.85 or higher. Old-aged obese women showed increased thickness of the torso with age, which suggests that they revealed the characteristics of regardless of gender. In other words, they became bigger in the waist and abdomen, shorter in height, slimmer in the lower body, and thicker in the torso. There are three types of obesity: Type 1 is lower-body obesity with a higher degree of obesity in the abdomen than the upper body. Type 2 is abdominal obesity with a higher degree of obesity in the upper body than in the lower body. Type 3 is whole-body obesity with balanced obesity of the whole body. As for changes to the types of obesity according to age, those who are in their sixties usually fall into the categories of upper-body and whole-body obesity, and those who are in their seventies are much more concentrated in the categories of abdominal obesity and upper-body obesity with a decreased percentage of whole-body obesity. It is apparent that the percentage of abdominal and upper-body obesity rises with age due to fat accumulation in the abdomen.

Correlations between Obesity and Allergic Rhinitis (비만과 알레르기 비염의 상관성에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Hye-Mi;Hwang, Min-Young;Shin, Cho-Young;Kim, Sol-Li;Yoon, Cheol-Ho;Seo, Un-Kyo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.1099-1104
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    • 2010
  • Aim of this study was to determine if obesity or abdominal obesity is more prevalent in persons with allergic rhinitis compared with healthy persons and to determine if obesity or abdominal obesity affects severity of rhinitis's symptoms. We studied 44 allergic rhinitic patients and 47 healthy persons. BMI and WHR were measured by the In-body 520. And severity of rhinitis's symptoms were assessed by questionnaires. The prevalence of obesity in allergic rhinitis group(27.3%) was significantly higher than control group(10.6%). And the prevalence of abdominal obesity in allergic rhinitis group(43.2%) was higher than control group(40.4%), but was not statistically significant. Nasal obstruction score of obesity group was higher than control group, but was not statistically significant. And nasal obstruction, Korean Allergic Rhinitis Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (KARQLQ) score of abdominal obesity group were significantly higher than control group. And when age and sex are corrected, allergic rhinitis and obesity's association was statistically significant. The prevalence of obesity in allergic rhinitis group was significantly higher than control group. Also when age and sex are corrected, allergic rhinitis and obesity's association was statistically significant. And nasal obstruction score was higher in obesity than control group, but was not significant. The other side, nasal obstruction and KARQLQ score in abdominal obesity group was significantly higher than control group. Thus, we thought that fixed various confounding factors and large-scale studies will be needed.

The Study on Association between Abdominal Visceral Fat and Obesity Indices in Obese Adult (비만 성인에서 복부 내장지방과 단순 비만 지표와의 연관성 연구)

  • Yoo, Jin-Sook;Song, Yun-Kyung;Lim, Hyung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.129-143
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : This study examined search on how the obesity indices, that are largely used in clinics such as waist circumference(WC), body mass index(BMI) and waist-hip ratio(WHR), are related to the visceral fat that was measured from abdominal computed tomography(CT) and the ratio of visceral fat/subcutaneous fat. Then, two groups ware compared in order to find out which characteristics of ordinary adults relationship with the abdominal obesity. Two groups are divided as follows; ones who are obese based on the measurement of WC and the others who are obese based on the level of BMI. Methods : A group of 63 test subjects that were gathered in the oriental medical hospital of Kyung-Won university is divided into two groups; ones (n=51, general obesity; group A) who have $BMI{\geq}25$ and $WC{\geq}85$, and the others (n=12, abdominal obesity; group B) who have BMI<25 and $WC{\geq}85$. Then, each group's obesity indices, abdominal CT, lipid level, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and C-reactive protein(CRP) are compared. In addition, subjects are again divided into two to examine the characteristics; ones (n=14, visceral obesity; group C) with visceral obesity based on the ratio between visceral fat and subcutaneous fat measured through abdominal CT, and the others (n=38, non-visceral obesity; group D) who are obese but not viscerally obese. Results & Conclusions : As a measurement that applies abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat, BMI and WC can be considered as an appropriate obesity index while WHR cannot appropriately apply the abdominal fat amount. Moreover, the study indicates that abdominal obesity group based on the ratio of visceral fat/subcutaneous fat has more significant difference than the abdominal obesity group based on the WC in case of blood lipid index.

Prediction of Obesity by Sasang Constitutions and Enneagram in University Students (사상체질과 에니어그램 성격유형에 따른 대학생의 비만 예측)

  • Lee, Jong-Woo;Seong, Kap-Seon;Eom, Hye-Joung
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 2009
  • Objectives Identification of individuals predisposed to obesity is an important issue for prevention and control of the obesity. It was reported that a high prevalence of obesity appeared in Taeumin among Sasang constitutions, but Enneagram personality-types has not been used to classify the patterns of obesity. These two classification methods were employed in combination in the current study, and it was analyzed whether the morbidity pattern of obesity can be characterized in further detail. Methods The subjects were 125 University students(62 males and 63 females) who answered both questionnaires for Sasang constitutions and Enneagram personality types. The obesity of students was classified by the obesity index and BMI. Results Only Taeumin group of Sasang constitutions was overweight, and the male of the group was overweight or obese. Analysis of the obesity index and BMI according to the Enneagram personality types showed significant differences(p<.05) between the types in the female group. These values were highest at the type 3 and lowest at the type 4. The physical indices according to both the centers of Enneagram and Sasang constitutions showed that only Taeumin female group had significant differences(p<.05) in the obesity index and BMI. Taeumin male group was overweight or obese in all centers of Enneagram and Taeumin female group was overweight or obese only in heart-center. Conclusions Diagnosis of the present data suggest that the classification of obesity patterns using Enneagram personality types in addition to Sasang constitutions is very useful to prevent and control the obesity.

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Comparison of Diet Quality and Diversity according to Obesity Type among 19-64 year old Korean Adults (한국성인의 비만유형에 따른 식사의 질과 다양성 비교)

  • Gu, Hyae Min;Ryu, So Yeon;Park, Jong;Han, Mi Ah;Son, Yeong Eun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.545-557
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: This study was performed to compare the diet quality and diversity according to types of obesity categorized by body mass index and waist circumference among Korean adults aged 19-64 years. Methods: This study used the data of the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES-V) and included 11,081 study participants. Type of obesity was categorized into 4 groups (Type 1: BMI obesity + abdominal obesity; Type 2: BMI obesity only; Type 3: abdominal obesity only; Type 4: Normal). To compare the diet quality and diversity according to obesity type, ANCOVA (Analysis of covariance) was used with stratification of age groups (19-44 years, 45-64 years). Results: With regard to comparative analysis of diet quality, there were significant differences between diet qualities in energy, protein, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorous and iron and type of obesity in the 19-44 age group, while there were significant differences between diet qualities on protein, vitamin C, phosphorous and type of obesity in the 45-64 age group. There was no significant difference between diet diversity score and type of obesity in Korean adults. Conclusions: This study showed that in Korean adults, diet qualities of some nutrients were different among obesity types, while diet diversity was not. These observations should be considered in an effort to improve intake of over-and deficient nutrients and in further studies to evaluate the effects of nutrient quality on obesity.

Measuring and Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity in Western Iran

  • Najafi, Farid;Pasdar, Yahya;Hamzeh, Behrooz;Rezaei, Satar;Nazar, Mehdi Moradi;Soofi, Moslem
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.289-297
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Obesity is a considerable and growing public health concern worldwide. The present study aimed to quantify socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity in western Iran. Methods: A total of 10 086 participants, aged 35-65 years, from the Ravansar Non-communicable Disease Cohort Study (2014-2016) were included in the study to examine socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. We defined obesity as a body mass index ${\geq}30kg/m^2$. The concentration index and concentration curve were used to illustrate and measure wealth-related inequality in obesity. Additionally, we decomposed the concentration index to identify factors that explained wealth-related inequality in obesity. Results: Overall, the prevalence of obesity in the total sample was 26.7%. The concentration index of obesity was 0.04; indicating that obesity was more concentrated among the rich (p<0.001). Decomposition analysis indicated that wealth, place of residence, and marital status were the main contributors to the observed inequality in obesity. Conclusions: Socioeconomic-related inequalities in obesity among adults warrant more attention. Policies should be designed to reduce both the prevalence of obesity and inequalities in obesity by focusing on those with higher socioeconomic status, urban residents, and married individuals.