• Title, Summary, Keyword: obesity

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The Effect of Eisenia bicyclis Extracts on Bone Tissues in Ovariectomized Rats (대황 추출물이 갱년기 유도 흰쥐의 골 조직에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yong Soo;Kang, Min Suk;Kim, Bo Kyung;Kim, Mihyang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2013
  • Menopause is often associated with several chronic diseases, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. In this study, we investigated the ability of Eisenia bicyclis (EB) to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats, a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Extracts from EB obtained using ethanol or hot water were analyzed for total polyphenol content and osteoporosis effects in vivo. Total polyphenol content was higher with extraction by hot water compared to ethanol extraction. Fifty 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: the group were sham-operated rats (SHAM), ovariectomized rats (OVX-CON), and ovariectomized rats that were treated with EB at 50 mg/kg body weight (OVX-EB50) and 200 mg/kg body weight (OVX-EB200), respectively. The diets were fed to rats for 6 weeks after their operation. We found that the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was lower in the EB extract group compared to the OVX-CON group. Collagen and pyridinoline content, in bone and cartilage, were reduced by ovariectomy, but the supplemented EB extract groups exhibited higher concentrations in their bones. These results suggest that EB can be used for the industrial development of foods with therapeutic functions.

Cytoprotective Effects of Phaeophyta Extracts from the Coast of Jeju Island in HT-22 Mouse Neuronal Cells (제주 연안 갈조류 추출물의 신경세포 보호효과)

  • Shin, Dong-Bum;Han, Eun-Hye;Park, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 2014
  • Marine algae have long been recognized as a health and beauty food, based on its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity activities. In this study, methanol extracts were prepared from 10 different phaeophyta, after which DPPH radical scavenging and cytoprotective activities of HT-22 cells against ${\beta}$-amyloid protein ($A{\beta}$), which has neurotoxic effects, were investigated. In DPPH experiments, Ecklonia cava and Ishige okamurai showed strong ROS scavenging activities, whereas eight other phaeophyta including Petalonia binghamiae (P. bin) showed weak ROS scavenging activities. To validate the cytoprotective effects of 10 different phaeophyta in $A{\beta}$-induced HT-22 cells, protein expression levels of APP, BACE1, iNOS, phosphorylated ERK1/2, phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated JNK1/2 were determined along with MTT assay. In the MTT assay, P. bin showed the best effective cytoprotective activity at a concentrations of $25{\mu}g/mL$, whereas Sargassum confusum, Colpomenia sinuosa, Myelophycus simplex, and Sargassum hemiphyllum showed potential. Determination of protein expression levels related to $A{\beta}$-induced neurotoxicity in the five selected phaeophyta showed that P. bin inhibited BACE1 and iNOS expression in $A{\beta}$-induced HT-22 cells. These results indicate that the cytoprotective effects of P. bin are mediated by suppressing the pathways involving $A{\beta}$-induced ERK and p38 activation.

Physiological Activities and Inhibitory Effect of Extracts of Cynanchi wilfordii Radix and Perilla sikokiana against Cell Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (백하수오와 자소엽 추출물의 생리활성 및 3T3-L1 전지방세포에 대한 분화 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Seon Jeong;Kang, Seung Mi;Ko, Keon Hee;Nam, Sanghae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.642-650
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    • 2016
  • Cynanchi wilfordii Radix (CW) and Perilla sikokiana (PS) were extracted under different conditions to study their antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities. Their potentials as functional food ingredients were investigated. The highest total phenol contents were $15.74{\pm}0.69mg/g$ for CW100 [100% fermented ethanol (FE) extract from CW] and $39.37{\pm}3.46mg/g$ for PS50 (50% FE extract from PS). When extracts were processed at 1 mg/mL, DPPH radical scavenging activities were $79.79{\pm}0.79%$ and $82.69{\pm}1.07%$, respectively, at CW100 and PS50. ABTS radical scavenging activities were $80.20{\pm}2.86%$ and $75.00{\pm}1.78%$, respectively, at CW100 and PS50. However, ferric reducing antioxidant power activities at 1 mg/mL were higher than 80% for PS under all extraction conditions. The highest ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitory activities were $51.56{\pm}0.56{\sim}59.2{\pm}1.13%$ at CW50 and $46.70{\pm}0.32{\sim}66.17{\pm}0.55%$ at PS0. Cell differentiation inhibitory effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were $29.49{\pm}2.98%$ at CW100 and $23.31{\pm}0.61%$ at PS50. The inhibitory effect of the CW100-PS50 mixture was $43.03{\pm}1.63%$, which was significantly higher than those of individual extracts.

Effects of Sinetrol-XPur on Leptin-Deficient Obese Mice and Activation of cAMP-Dependent UCP-2 (Leptin 유전자 결핍 동물모델을 이용한 시네트롤(Sinetrol-XPur)의 항비만 효과와 cAMP를 통한 UCP-2 활성화 기전 연구)

  • Yoo, Jae Myeong;Lee, Minhee;Kwon, Han Ol;Choi, Sei Gyu;Bae, Mun Hyoung;Kim, Ok-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.484-491
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    • 2016
  • The present study investigated the effect of Sinetrol-XPur (polyphenolic Citrus spp. and Paullinia cupana Kunth dry extract) and defined the action mode for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 activation. Leptin-deficient obese mice were treated with two different doses, 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 300 mg/kg BW of each AIN93G supplement, for 7 weeks. Treatment of obese mice with both low and high doses of Sinetrol-XPur significantly reduced body weight gain compared to control obese mice. White adipose tissue weight of mice was reduced by 30.96% in high dose-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were reduced by a high dose of Sinetrol-XPur by 20.02% and 30.96%, respectively. Serum level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased by treatment with both doses, as the ratio of HDL to low density lipoprotein increased by 138.78% and 171.49%, respectively. Regarding expression of biochemical factors related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthase significantly decreased and UCP-2 increased upon treatment with a high dose of Sinetrol-XPur, but there was no significant difference in lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. To define cellular mechanism, intracellular cAMP levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner over the range of $50{\sim}250{\mu}m/mL$. The phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine clearly blocked cAMP, suggesting that Sinetrol-XPur promotes lipolysis of adipocytes through inhibition of cAMP-dependent PDE, resulting in induction of cAMP response element binding protein and UCP-2. These results suggest that Sinetrol-XPur supplementation is a viable option for reducing body weight and fat by improving serum lipid profiles and genetic expression of lipid metabolic factors, especially activation of cAMP-dependent UCP-2.

Major Dishes Contributing Absolute and Between-Person Sodium Intake Variations in University Students in Gyeonggi-do (경기지역 일부 대학생에서 나트륨의 주요 기여 음식과 변이 음식)

  • Chung, Eun-Jung;Ryu, Ha-Jung;Shim, Eugene
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.409-419
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate dietary sodium sources at the dish level in 228 university students (71 men, 157 women) in Gyeonggi-do. Daily sodium intake was estimated from a validated 125-dish frequency questionnaire. In men, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and sodium intake were significantly higher than in women. Men showed higher sodium intake from soups, fish or shellfish dishes, meat dishes, and soybean dishes than women. The dishes that most largely contributed to daily sodium intake were Napa cabbage kimchi and ramen in both men and women. In addition, relatively higher amounts of sodium from ramen were consumed in men, whereas cookies were the 5th highest sodium source in women. In both men and women, the high sodium intake groups consumed more sodium from kimchi, dishes cooked with kimchi, dishes with broth, and salted mackerel than the low sodium intake group. There were significant differences in major dishes contributing to between-person sodium intake variations between men and women. Short rib soup for men and Korean sausage for women were the largest contributors to sodium variations, which are common dishes served with salt. Men consumed more drinks and also more sodium from drinks than women. In conclusion, there were significant differences in major dishes contributing to absolute and between-person sodium intake variations in university students between men and women. Further studies on effects of gender on blood pressure, sodium and drink intake, and obesity are necessary.

Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activities of Bread Containing Corn Silk, Job's Tears, Lentinus edodes, and Apple Peel in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes (옥수수수염, 율무, 표고버섯 그리고 사과껍질을 함유한 빵의 항산화 및 3T3-L1 지방 전구세포 분화 억제 활성)

  • Lee, Chang Won;Park, Yong Il;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Lim, Heekyung;Chung, Mi Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.651-663
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    • 2016
  • Corn silk, Job's tears, Lentinus edodes, and apple peel 70% ethanol extracts (CS, JT, LE, and AP) were studied for their antioxidant activities. CS among all extracts showed the highest antioxidant activities based on total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 2,2-diphenyl-${\beta}$-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. Adipocyte differentiation was investigated by Oil Red O staining assay using CS, JT, LE, AP, and extract of developed bread containing corn silk, Job's tears, Lentinus edodes, and apple peel (DB) treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DB1 and DB2 showed anti-adipogenic and antioxidant effects. Triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured, and among the samples tested (CS, JT, LE, and AP), CS was found to have the highest inhibitory activity against TG accumulation of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and regulated factors associated with adipogenesis. CS suppressed lipid droplet formation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We examined the effects of CS on the levels of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein ${\beta}(C/EBP{\beta})$, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ${\gamma}(PPAR{\gamma})$, and adipocyte-specific lipid binding protein (aP2) mRNA as well as protein levels in 3T3-L1 cells treated with CS at various concentrations (0, 10, 50, and $100{\mu}g/mL$) during adipocyte differentiation and treatment with CS in 3T3-L1 adipocytes down-regulated expression of $PPAR{\gamma}$ and aP2 mRNA. CS also significantly inhibited up-regulation of $C/EBP{\beta}$, $PPAR{\gamma}$, and aP2 proteins during adipocyte differentiation. These data indicate that DBs have anti-adipogenic activity induced by CS in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and CS exerts anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting expression of $C/EBP{\beta}$, $PPAR{\gamma}$, and aP2 signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. JT, LE, and AP had no inhibitory effects on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but displayed strong antioxidant effects. These results suggest that the developed bread may be a health beneficial food that can prevent or treat obesity and diseases induced by oxidative stress.

Antiadipogenic Effect of Korean Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Water Extract on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (세포배양 모델을 통한 함초(Salicornia herbacea L.) 물 추출물의 항비만 효과 탐색)

  • Kim, Mi Joung;Jun, Hyun Young;Kim, Jung Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.814-821
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    • 2014
  • As a natural plant ingredients, glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) contains various physiological activities, mainly anti-oxidative and anti-diabetic activities. However, only a few studies have been carried out on its anti-adipogenic effect. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of Salicornia herbacea L. on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. As adipogenesis of preadipocytes to adipocytes involves proliferation and differentiation of cells, we treated three concentrations (125, 250, and $500{\mu}g/mL$) of Salicornia herbacea L. water extracts (SLW) in both pre-processing and post-processing stages. When 3T3-L1 adipocytes were differentiated and dyed with Oil Red O, adipocytes size and the value of relative Oil Red O staining were reduced by all concentrations of SLW in post-processing stage. Following adipogenic differentiation, the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) in the cell supernatant significantly increased upon treatment with $125{\mu}g/mL$ of SLW and further rose at concentrations of 250 and $500{\mu}g/mL$ during post-processing stage. There was no significant difference in glycerol production upon SLW treatment. Leptin production significantly decreased at all SLW concentrations during post-processing stage, whereas peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-${\gamma}$ (PPAR-${\gamma}$) and adiponectin secretions were significantly enhanced. Overall results showed that SLW might have an anti-adipogenic effect via enhancement of TNF-${\alpha}$ production, which causes dedifferentiation and inhibits lipid accumulations in adipocyte. Furthermore, SLW might prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as it reduces leptin secretion and enhances production of both PPAR-${\gamma}$ and adiponectin. However, further research is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism and bioactive compounds of glasswort.

Anti-Diabetic Effects of Sprouts in High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type II Diabetes Mellitus Mice (고지방식이와 STZ 유도 제2형 당뇨 마우스에서 새싹의 항당뇨 효과)

  • Lee, Hyun-Seo;Kang, Hyun Ju;Jeon, In Hwa;Youm, Jung Ho;Jang, Seon Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1658-1664
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    • 2014
  • Sprout vegetables containing various types of polyphenols and flavonoids, are known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, and anti-obesity activities. However, there have been few reports on the anti-diabetic efficacy of sprout vegetables. Here, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of sprout extract obtained from buckwheat, beet, rape, broccoli, kohlrabi, red young radish, and dachai, in high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetes mellitus mice. The mice were fed a HFD (60% calories as fat) for 8 weeks prior to intraperitoneal injection with STZ (75 mg/kg). The diabetic mice were divided into four groups: standard diet (STD, 10% calories fat), HFD, HFD with sprout extract (SPE) and HFD with metformin (MET). After 4 weeks, body weight gain was much lower in both SPE and MET groups than in HFD group. In contrast, there was no difference experiment groups regarding food intake ratio. The level of fasting blood glucose was significantly lower in the SPE and MET groups compared to the HFD group. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in the SPE and MET groups were significantly ameliorated in comparison to the HFD group. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol in the SPE and MET groups were remarkably reduced in comparison to the HFD group, and HDL cholesterol concentration was higher in the SPE and MET groups than in the HFD group. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels were between SPE and HFD groups. The serum insulin and leptin concentrations were significantly reduced in both the SPE and MET groups compared to the HFD group. Therefore, these results indicate that sprout extract could improve insulin resistance and attenuate blood glucose level in HFD/STZ-induced type II diabetes mellitus mice. We conclude that this study may provide positive insights into sprout extract as a functional food ingredient for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus.

Other Processed Products, Monitoring and the Exposed Dose Assessment of Heavy Metal, the Illegal Compounds (기타가공품의 중금속, 부정유해물질 모니터링 및 노출량 평가)

  • Jang, Jin-Seob;Kwon, Mun-Ju;Kim, Meyong-Hee;Park, Jin-Soo;Lim, Soo-Sun;Kwon, Sung-Hee;Song, Sung-Min;Yeo, Eun-Young;Hong, Seong-Hee;Kim, Jung-Im;Om, Ae-Son
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed for both evaluating the safety of other processed products and providing basic information for making the general standard for contaminants in the category of other processed products. We analyzed the contents of three heavy metals, thirty six anti-impotence drugs and their analogues, three anti-obesity drugs and their analogues, twenty eight steroid drugs and their analogues, collecting in Incheon Metropolitan City. Any illegal compound was not detected in those products. However the contents of lead, cadmium and mercury of those products were at the range of 0.001-13.390 mg/kg, 0.03-1.231 mg/kg and 0.001-0.650 mg/kg respectively. Because there are no standards of heavy metals against other processed products, we compared the analytical results with relevant standards of both S. Korea and foreign countries. As a result, two products exceeded the relevant standards of lead, and other two products exceeded the relevant standards of mercury. The relative hazards compared to PTWI of FAO/WHO (Codex), Seafoods-pajeonmix, Perilla seed powder exceeded PTWI standards 0.214. The compulsory standards of each food product are determined by the category of the products. Because there is no standard of heavy metals in the category of other processed products in S. Korea, any food products registered as other processed product by manufacturer are free with those standards. Abusing similar problems on the categorization of food products could cause consumers' health problem. To prevent these problems, detail regulations on the categorization of food products have to be introduced.

Effect of Diet Containing Whole Wheat Bread with Capsosiphon fulvescens and Lindera obtusiloba Ethanol Extracts on Plasma Glucose and Lipid Levels in Rats (매생이와 생강나무잎 에탄올 추출물이 첨가된 통밀빵을 섭취한 랫트의 혈당과 지질수준에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Ah-Ram;Kim, Se-Wook;Chun, Su-Hyun;Nam, Mi-Hyun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Kim, Bok Hee;Kim, Tae Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of whole wheat bread with added Lindera obtusiloba (LO) and Capsosiphon fulvescens (CF) ethanol extracts on serum glucose and lipid levels in Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were divided into five groups depending on the diet administered: normal bread (NC), whole wheat bread (W), whole wheat bread with LO leaves extract (WL), whole wheat bread with CF extract (WC), and whole wheat bread with freeze-drying CF (WDC). After 4 weeks of consuming the experimental diet, the blood glucose level and hemoglobin A1c contents were found to be significantly lower in the W, WL, WC, and WDC groups than in the NC group. The high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased in the WL group when compared to those in the NC group and triglycerides levels decreased in all wheat groups compared to those in the NC group. These results suggest that wheat breads containing LO and CF extracts are effective for preventing hypercholesterolemia and obesity.