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Analysis of Physiological Activity and Cytotoxicity of Fermented and Hot Water Extracts Using Residues after Onion Harvest (양파 수확 후 잔재물을 이용한 발효 및 열수 추출물의 생리활성과 세포독성 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Won;Lee, Geon-Hee;Jeon, Byeong-Gyun;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1163-1169
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    • 2018
  • In order to utilize the residue that is thrown away after an onion harvest, we analyzed the physiological activity and cytotoxicity of fermented and hot water extracts of the residue. The pH of the extracts were all acidic, and organic matter content was 0.75% in the fermented extract and four times more than 0.19% in the hot water extract. The contents of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, calcium, and magnesium components, except for the potassium component among macroelements, were higher in the fermented extract than in the hot water extract. The content of iron and silicon among the micro-elements was also higher in the fermented extract than in the hot water extract. In addition, the content of boron was higher in the hot water extract than in the fermented extract. The total polyphenol contents of the fermented and hot water extracts were $16.2{\pm}3.3mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ and $14.6{\pm}1.4mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$, respectively, which was $1.6mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ higher in the fermented extract than in the hot water extract. However, the total flavonoid contents of the fermented and hot water extracts were $0.1{\pm}0.1mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ and $4.8{\pm}0.7mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$, respectively, which was $4.7mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ higher in the hot water extract than in the fermented extract. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability for antioxidant activity were higher in the hot water extract than the fermented extract. The cytotoxicity of the extract using MTT assay showed cell viability of 101.6% and 97.9% in the fermented and hot water extracts, respectively. It was confirmed that there was no cytotoxicity in either extract.

Physico-chemical, Nutritional, and Enzymatic Characteristics of Shiitake Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) (표고버섯 수확 후 배지의 이화학적, 영양적, 효소적 특성)

  • Sung, Hwa-Jung;Pyo, Su-Jin;Kim, Jong-Sik;Park, Jong-Yi;Sohn, Ho-Yong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1339-1346
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    • 2018
  • In Korea, edible mushrooms are produced largely on commercial artificial media, so the annual production of spent mushroom substrate (SMS), as a by-product of the mushroom industry, is estimated at over 200 million tons. This SMS is assumed to contain abundant fungal mycelia and pre-fruiting bodies, as well as various nutritive and bioactive compounds that are presently discarded. This study examined the physico-chemical, nutritional, and enzymatic characteristics of uninoculated sterilized medium (USM) and SMS of shiitake mushrooms with the aim of developing a high-value added product from SMS. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash were higher after the third SMS harvest ($SMS-A-3^{rd}$) than in USM or $SMS-A-1^{st}$. The contents of Ca, Mg, and P in $SMS-A-3^{rd}$ were 2.95, 2.35, and 2.1-fold higher compared than in USM. No As or Cd was detected in USM or SMS. The pH, Brix, and acidity were 4.6, 20.0, and 1.4, respectively in $SMS-A-3^{rd}$, but 5.6, 6.0, and 0.0, respectively, in USM. These results suggest a highly active production of soluble components and organic acids in $SMS-A-3^{rd}$. The distinct color differences noted for USM, $SMS-A-1^{st}$, and $SMS-A-3^{rd}$ could be used as a mycelial growth indicator. Enzyme activity assays using the APIZYM system showed that SMS is a potent source of hydrolysis-related enzymes, especially esterase (C4) and ${\beta}$-glucuronidase. Our results suggested that the SMS of shiitake has a high potential for use in environmental, agricultural, and stock-breeding industries, for example, as active ingredients for sewage treatment, waste-polymer degradation, and feed additives.

Growth Promotion in Red Pepper and Tomato Seedlings by Fermented Liquid Fertilizers and Elution of Mineral Nutrients by Extraction Methods (발효액비별 고추와 토마토 육묘 생육 촉진 및 추출방법별 무기양분 용출)

  • Jang, Se Ji;Kuk, Yong In
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.130-141
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to determine which fermented liquid fertilizer and application method yields the greatest amount of growth in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.) plants. Additionally, we investigated which extraction methods produce the most effective fertilizer with the highest levels of mineral nutrients. The liquid fertilizers used in this study were made from fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake, and were extracted using fermentation or water and boiled water. In tomato plants, foliar-application of fermented fertilizer is known to promote more growth than application by drenching, regardless of the number of treatments (once or twice). In our studies, however, drenching with fertilizer promoted growth more effectively than foliar-application in red pepper plants. Studies in both tomato and red pepper have shown that the number of treatments does not significantly alter growth. Liquid fertilizers produced by a fermentation-extraction method promoted greater levels of growth in tomato compared to red pepper, and growth was greater when fertilizers were applied 20 (rather than 40) days post-sowing. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight were affected more by fermented fertilizers than plant height 20 days post-sowing. In red pepper, we observed increased shoot fresh weight when using fermented liquid fertilizers with concentrations of 0.1% or greater. Tomato shoot fresh weight increased similarly in response to fermented fertilizer treatments at the same concentration levels, except those derived from fish. Fermented fish liquid fertilizer was only effective in increasing tomato shoot fresh weight in concentrations exceeding 1%. Red pepper and tomato shoot fresh weight also increased more than plant height in our studies using fermentation liquid fertilizers at 40 days after sowing. Red pepper fresh weight increased with application of bone + fish meal, red pepper leaf, and oil cake fertilizers at concentrations of 0.1%, but not with fish liquid fertilizer in concentrations under 0.5%. Shoot fresh weight in tomato increased with all liquid fertilizers. Growth in red pepper and tomato may be influenced by different kinds of fertilizers due to combinations of macro- and micro-nutrients, or specific macro-nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. The mineral nutrients found in fish, bone and fish meal, red pepper leaves, and oil cake were not easily extracted by fermentation; thus, liquid fertilizers made using water and boiled water methods more effectively promoted growth in red pepper and tomato due to the larger amounts of macronutrients eluted.

Chronic Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I with Novel Mutation in FAH Gene (FAH gene novel mutation을 가진 만성형 Hereditary tyrosinemia 1형)

  • Yang, Sungmin;Choi, Hyo Won;Kang, Yun Koo;Lee, Jin-Sung;Namgoong, Mee Kyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2020
  • A 22-month-old girl who had taken iron supplements due to iron deficiency anemia, presented bloody mucoid stool for one month. She had a bruise at the right periorbital area due to minor trauma and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory studies showed anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hypophosphatemia, decreased haptoglobin, hypocomplementemia, negative direct/indirect Coomb's test, normal vitamin D3 level and high PTHi. Wrist x-ray showed no signs of rickets. The abdominal ultrasound showed only accessory spleen. Tandem mass spectrometry was normal. During follow up, bloody stool regressed after seven days of withdrawal of iron supplement and cow milk, and the total CO2 level had been within 15-20 mEq/L with normal anion gap. NGS (next generation sequencing) panel test for evaluation of renal tubular acidosis showed negative results. After low dose steroid and vitamin D supplements under the impression of hypocomplementemic vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, C3/C4, decreased haptoglobin, and elevated ALP level became normal. At 57 months of age, laboratory findings showed elevated liver enzyme, ALP and gamma-glutamyl transferase again. And liver cirrhosis with splenomegaly and diffuse renal disease were reported with abdomen CT scan. Liver biopsy reported macro- and micronodular cirrhosis. Urine organic acid profile showed elevated succinylacetone level. Whole exome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous mutations (NM_00137.2:c.107T>C, NM_00137, 2:c.614T>C) in FAH gene and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as chronic hereditary tyrosinemia type I. She started low phenylalanine/tyrosine diet and nitisinone treatment. Our case had presented symptoms very slowly, which is the first case of chronic tyrosinemia type I in South Korea.

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Comparison of Soil Physicochemical Properties According to the Sensitivity of Forest Soil to Acidification in the Republic of Korea (우리나라 산림토양의 산성화 민감도평가와 그에 따른 토양 이화학적 특성 비교분석)

  • Lee, Ah Lim;Koo, Namin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2020
  • The sensitivity of forest soil to acidification in the Republic of Korea (ROK) was evaluated based on pHH2O, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and base saturation (BS). Sensitivity to acidification was categorized into three grades: adequate level (AL, pH ≧ 4.2, CEC ≧ 15cmol/kg, BS ≧ 15%), caution level (CL, at least one indicator is below AL), and severe Level (SL, all three indicators are below AL). Soil samples were collected from the 65 stationary monitoring plots (40 × 40 ㎢), distributed throughout ROK. Only 19% of soil samples were classified as AL, while 66% and 15% were CL and SL, respectively. The median of pHH2O, CEC, BS, and Ca/Al indicator in AL soils was pH 4.64, 20.7cmol/kg, 29%, and 6.3, respectively. Moreover, BCex (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and available phosphorus (AP) concentration compared with a threshold value and molar ratio of BCex and AP to total nitrogen (TN) was high. This indicates that AL soils have a good nutrient condition. The molar Ca/Al ratio, an indicator for toxicity of exchangeable aluminum (Alex), was more than 1, indicating no negative impact of Alex on plant growth. On the contrary, the median of pHH2O, CEC, and BS in SL soils was pH 4.02, 13.2cmol/kg, and 10%, respectively. The Ca/Al index was less than 0.6, which indicates that negative impacts of Alex on plants were high. Furthermore, both the concentration of BCex in SL soils and the BCex/TN ratio were the lowest among the three acidity degrees. This shows that SLsoils can be degraded by soil acidification compared with less acidic soils.

Antioxidant Activities of Peucedanum insolens Kitagawa Root Extracts and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects on LPS-treated RAW264.7 Cells (왕산방풍의 뿌리로부터 제조한 유기용매 분획물에서의 항산화 활성 및 RAW264.7 세포주에서의 항염증 효능)

  • Kim, Jin-Ik;Choi, Yong-Won;Choi, Geun-June;Kang, Ji-An;Lee, In-Young;Narantuya, Nandintsetseg;Oh, Myong-Seok;Cho, Sik-Jae;Moon, Ja-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2021
  • This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant activities of subfractions of Peucedanum insolens Kitagawa root in various organic solvents and their anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. First, P. insolens Kitagawa roots were dried at room temperature for one week, chopped, and extracted with 70% ethanol. The resulting extracts were successively sub-fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water. The antioxidant potential of the fractions was evaluated using a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and by measuring total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The anti-inflammatory potency of the fractions was evaluated by measuring the inhibition levels of the expressions of inflammatory-mediated genes and proteins (e.g., iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6) in RAW264.7 cells. The results clearly showed that the ethyl acetate fraction of the P. insolens Kitagawa root contained relatively high total flavonoid (34.08±1.68 ㎍ of quercetin equivalents per mg) and total polyphenol (154.1±3.2 ㎍ of gallic acid equivalents per mg) contents. The DPPH assay results showed that the P. insolens Kitagawa root possessed strong free radical scavenging activity in the ethyl acetate fraction. Both the ethyl acetate and hexane fractions showed strong inhibitory potencies to nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (1 ㎍/ml) treatment for 24 hr in RAW264.7 cells. The results also showed that both the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of the P. insolens Kitagawa root strongly inhibited mRNA levels of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-6, which were overexpressed by LPS treatment for 24 hr in the RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that P. insolens Kitagawa root may contain compounds that possess strong potency for anti-inflammatory activity. Further studies are needed to discover more detailed modes of action of P. insolens Kitagawa root fractions against inflammation modulation, such as the regulation of cytokine signaling and inflammatory signaling pathways.

Soil Classification of Paddy Soils by Soil Taxonomy (미국신분류법(美國新分類法)에 의(依)한 답토양의 분류(分類)에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Yeong-Hee;Shin, Yong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 1979
  • According to Soil Taxonomy which has been developed over the past 20 years in the soil conservation service of the U. S. D. A, Soils in Korea are classified. This system is well suited for the classification of the most of soils. But paddy field soils have some difficulties in classification because Soil Taxonomy states no proposals have yet been developed for classifying artificially irrigated soils. This paper discusses some problems in the application of Taxonomy and suggestes the classification of paddy field soils in Korea. Following is the summary of the paper. 1. Anthro aquic, Aquic Udipsamments : The top soils of these soils are saturated with irrigated water at some time of year and have mottles of low chroma(2 or less) more than 50cm of the soil surface. (Ex. Sadu, Geumcheon series) 2. Anthroaquic Udipsamments : These sails are like Anthroaquic, Aquic Udipsamments except for the mottles of low chroma within 50cm of the soil surface. (Ex. Baegsu series) 3. Halic Psammaquents : These soils contain enough salts as distributed in the profile that they interfere with the growth of most crop plants and located on the coastal dunes. The water table fluctuates with the tides. (Ex. Nagcheon series) 4. Anthroaquic, Aquic Udifluvents : They have some mottles that have chroma of 2 or less in more than 50cm of the surface. The upper horizon is saturated with irrigated water at sometime. (Ex. Maryeong series) 5. Anthro aquic Udifluvents : These soils are saturated with irrigated water at some time of year and have mottles of low chroma(2 or less) within 50cm of the surface soils. (Ex. Haenggog series) 6. Fluventic Haplaquepts : These soils have a content of organic carbon that decreases irregularly with depth and do not have an argillic horizon in any part of the pedon. Since ground water occur on the surface or near the surface, they are dominantly gray soils in a thick mineral regolith. (Ex Baeggu, Hagseong series) 7. Fluventic Thapto-Histic Haplaquepts : These soils have a buried organic matter layer and the upper boundary is within 1m of the surface. Other properties are same as Fluventic Haplaquepts. (Ex. Gongdeog, Seotan series) 8. Fluventic Aeric Haplaquepts : These soils have a horizon that has chroma too high for Fluventic Haplaquepts. The higher chroma is thought to indicate either a shorter period of saturation of the whole soils with water or some what deeper ground water than in the Fluventic Haplaquepts. The correlation of color with soil drainage classes is imperfect. (Ex. Mangyeong, Jeonbug series) 9. Fluventic Thapto-Histic Aeric Haplaquepts : These soils are similar to Fluventic Thapto Histic Haplaquepts except for the deeper ground water. (Ex. Bongnam series) 10. Fluventic Aeric Sulfic Haplaquepts : These soils are similar to Fluventic Aeric Haplaquepts except for the yellow mottles and low pH (<4.0) in some part between 50 and 150cm of the surface. (Ex. Deunggu series) 11. Fluventic Sulfaquepts : These soils are extremely acid and toxic to most plant. Their horizons are mostly dark gray and have yellow mottles of iron sulfate with in 50cm of the soil surface. They occur mainly in coastal marshes near the mouth of rivers. (Ex. Bongrim, Haecheog series) 12. Fluventic Aeric Sulfaquepts : They have a horizon that has chroma too high for Fluventic Sulfaquepts. Other properties are same as Fluventic Sulfaquepts. (Ex. Gimhae series) 13. Anthroaquic Fluvaquentic Eutrochrepts : These soils have mottles of low chroma in more than 50cm of the surface due to irrigated water. The base saturation is 60 percent or more in some subhroizon that is between depth of 25 and 75cm below the surface. (Ex. Jangyu, Chilgog series) 14. Anthroaquic Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrepts : These soils are similar to Anthroaquic Fluvaquentic Eutrochrepts except for the low chroma within 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Weolgog, Gyeongsan series) 15. Anthroaquic Fluventic Dystrochrepts : These soils have mottles that have chroma of 2 or less within 50cm of the soil surface due to artificial irrigation. They have lower base saturation (<60 percert) in all subhorizons between depths of 25 and 75cm below the soil surface. (Ex. Gocheon, Bigog series) 16. Anthro aquic Eutrandepts : These soils are similar to Anthroaquic Dystric Fluventic Eutrochrepts except for lower bulk density in the horizon. (Ex. Daejeong series) 17. Anthroaquic Hapludalfs : These soils' have a surface that is saturated with irrigated water at some time and have chroma of 2 or less in the matrix and higher chroma of mottles within 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Hwadong, Yongsu series) 18. Anthro aquic, Aquic Hapludalfs : These soils are similar to Anthro aquic Hapludalfs except for the matrix that has chroma 2 or less and higher chroma of mottles in more than 50cm of the surface. (Ex. Geugrag, Deogpyeong se ries)

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The Standing Crops and Soil-borne Microfungal Flora of Phyllostachys reticulata in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 왕대나무의 현존량(現存量)과 토양(土壤) 미세균류상(微細菌類相))

  • Kim, Kwan-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 1979
  • This paper is to investigate the standing crops and microfungal flora in soil in Phyllostachys reticulata forests in both the Yesan area (A) and the Kwangsan area (B). The stand density of the bamboo revealed 17,250 shoots per ha in area A, and in area B 14,780 shoots which were 16.1% less in number than area A. In respect to the environmental factors between the two areas, the mean temperature during the growth period was $1.5{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ higher in area B than in area A, soil tempeature also was $1{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ higher in area B, and the total quantities of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and organic compounds contained in the soil of area B were also slightly higher than those of area A. In area B the quantities of dried leaf matter, humus, and vegetation in the bamboo forest were also larger than in area A. In addition, five more species of microfungi which playa role in the decomposition of the various organic materials in the bamboo forests were identified in area B: Mortierella elongata, Mucor circinelloides, Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium waksmani and Trichoderma lignorum. The atmospheric temperature in the inner portions of the bamboo forests was lower than the outside temperature, but the humidity was higher. The rates of relative illuminance were measured in area A at 4.19%, and in area B at 2.7%. These values revealed that the photosynthetic acitivity in the lower part of the bamboo was lost but it was considered that lower illuminance increased the microfungal activities in the vicinity of the surface soil. Since the productive structure of the bamboo showed that the maximum amount of photosynthesis was located in the upper portion of the bamboo in area B, it was considered to be an effective structure in maintaining the high productivity of the bamboo. The allometric relation between $D^2H$ and dry weight of stems(Ws), branches(Wb) and leaves(Wl) of the bamboo in area A were appoximated by log Ws=0.5262 log $D^2H$+1.9546; log Wb=0.6288 log $D^2H$+1.5723; log Wl=0.5181 log $D^2H$+1.8732, and those of the bamboo in area B were approximated by log Ws=0.5433 log $D^2H$+1.8610; log Wb=0.1630 log $D^2H$+2.3475; log Wl=0.4509 log $D^2H$+2.0041. From the above, the standing crops in area A were measured thus: Ws was 1,128. 83kg; Wb, 689.05kg; Wl, 926.69kg and Wl, 2,744.57kg per 10a. In area B, Ws was 1,206. 66kg; Wb, 679.92kg; Wl, 1,112.51kg and Wt, 2.999kg per l0a. Significant differences from the result of t-test were for $D^2H$ Ws, Wl and Wt between areas A and B. But no significant difference was found for Wb. In order to record as completely as possible the microfungal flora of the areas, every possible means was tried, and 158 strains of fungi were isolated, and of these, the microfungi of 55 species were identified. The dominant species were Trichoderma viride, Penicillium janthinellum, P. commune, Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, A. gigantus, A. fumigatus, Mortierella ramaniana, var. anguliFPora, Mucor hiemalis and Zygorhynchus moelleri. According to the above results, it was revealed that optimum soil, the increases of soil materials, more species of soil microfungi, and the atmospheric temperature during the growth period have made the bamboo flourish and bring more species and larger quantities of vegetation in the bamboo forests. The correlation between the standing crops and environmental factors in the bamboo forest is considered to be a complicated relationship of all the factors, but the stand density is thought to be the most important factor involved.

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The Effect of Stage of Maturity on the Composition and Feeding Value of Silage (생육시기가 Silage의 사용가치에 미치는 영향)

  • 신정남;윤익석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.41-60
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    • 1983
  • Experiments were conducted to study the effect of stage of maturity at harvest on the quality of silage. Herbage samples taken from the barley plant, rye plant, wheat plant, oat plant, Orchardgrass, Italian ryegrass, a mixed grass sward of Orchardgrass and Italian ryegrass and corn plant at different stages of maturity and ensiled in order to evaluate the effect of maturity on the chemical composition and feeding value as well as digestibility using sheep. Forage material were ensiled in small concrete silo. 1. The dry matter yield per 10a increased with advancing the maturity. Yield of brarley plant was 404, 635 and 900 kg at heading, milk and milk dough stage, respectively. Rye plant yield was 279, 589, 708, 10,000, 1,265, 1,376 and 1,492 kg at booting, before heading, early heading, late heading, early flowering, late flowering and after flowering stage, respectively. Italian ryegrass yield was 355, 613, 844 and 1,109 kg at vegetative, booting, heading and flowering, respectively. Orchardgrass/Italian ryegrass production was 477, 696, 891 and 1,027 kg at before was 458, 1,252, 1,534, 1,986 and 2,053 kg at tassel, early milk, yellow ripe and ripe stage, respectively. 2. Dry matter content increased with advancing maturity, but crude protein declined markedly. The NFE content decreased with advancing maturity of all the herbages except corn plant where NFE content increased, but corn plant increased. The content of crude fiber increased with advancing maturity except corn plant. The content of crude ash decreased with advancing maturity. In the rye plant, the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and cellulose increased with advancing maturity. 3. In vitro dry matter digestibilities of the rye plant was 53.6, 54.1, 50.7, 47.1, 44.9, 40.1 and 38.9% booting, before hcading, early heading, late heading, early flowering, late flowering and after flowering stage, respectively. The regression equation was $Y=56.22-0.74X+0.009X^2$ (X=cutting date from the first cut, Y=dry matter digestibilities). 4. In vitro digestible dry matter yield (kg/10a) of rye plant increased with advancing maturity, but declined from the flowering stage. The regression equation was $Y=168.88+26.09X-0.41X^2$ (X=cutting date from the first cut). 5. In vitro digestibility of dry matter in the corn plant was 69.2, 71.5, 69.8 and 69.9% at tassel, early milk, milk and yellow ripe stage, respectively. 6. The digestibility of crude protein and crude fiber of all plants decreased with advancing matuity, but NFE of the barley and corn generally increased. 7. The TDN contents on the dry matter basis decreased, but those of barley and corn silage were not different. TDN content of barley was 57.8, 57.1 and 57.9% at heading, milk and milk dough stage, respectively. That of rye silage was 50.0, 27.2 and 43.7% at early flowering, after flowering and milk stage, respectively. Italian ryegrass silage was 67.9, 63.7, and 54.9% at before heading, early heading and after heading, respectively. In case of Orchardgrass silage the TDN was 54.8, 52.9 and 46.1% at after heading, after flowering and milk, respectively. Corn shows TDN value of 59.5, 62.8 and 61.6% at milk, yellow ripe and ripe, respectively. 8. The pH value increased slightly by advancing maturity. 9. the content of organic acid decreased by advancing maturity and also increasing the DM content.

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Decentralized Composting of Garbage in a Small Composter for Dwelling House I. Laboratory Composting of the Household Garbage in a Small Bin (가정용 소형 퇴비화용기에 의한 부엌쓰레기의 분산식 퇴비화 I. 실험실 조건에서 퇴비화 연구)

  • Seo, Jeoung-Yoon;Joo, Woo-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.321-337
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    • 1994
  • The garbage from the dwelling houses was composted in two kinds of small composter in laboratory to investigate the possibility of garbage composting. They were general small composters. One (type 1) was insullated but the other (type 2) was not. Because it was found that type 2 was not available for composting under our meteorological conditions through winter experiment, only type 1 was tested in spring and summer. The experiment was performed for 8 weeks in each season. The seasonal variation of several compounds in compost was evaluated and discussed. The result summarized belows are those taken at the end of the experiment, if the time was not specified. 1) The maximum temperature was $58^{\circ}C$ in spring, $57^{\circ}C$ in summer and $41^{\circ}C$ in winter. This temperature was enough to destroy the pathogen except for winter. 2) The mass was reduced to average 62.5% and the volume reduction was avergae 74%. 3) The density was estimated as 0.7kg/l in spring, 0.8kg/l in summer and 1.1kg/l in winter. 4) The water content was not much changed for composting periods. It had 75.6% in spring and 76.6% in summer and winter. 5) There was a great seasonal difference in pH value. It was reached to pH 6.13 in spring, pH 8.62 in summer and pH 4.75 in winter. 6) The faster organic matter was decomposed, the greater ash content was increased. Cellulose and lignin content were increased, but hemicellulose content was reduced during composting period. 7) Nitrogen contents were in the range of 3.1-5.6% and especially high in summer. After ammonium nitrogen contents were increased at the early stage of composting period, they were decreased. The maximum ammonium nitrogen content was 3,243mg/kg after 2 weeks in winter, 6,053mg/kg after 3 weeks in spring and 30,828mg/kg after 6 weeks in summer. C/N-ratios were not much changed. Nitrification occurred actively in spring and summer. 8) The contents of volatile and higher fatty acids were increased in early stage of composting and reduced after that. The maximum content of total fatty acid was 10.1% after 2 weeks in winter, 5.8% after 2 weeks in spring and 15.7% after 4 weeks in summer. 9) The contents of inorganic compounds were not accumulated as composting was proceeded. They were in the range of 0.9-4.4% $P_2O_5$, 1.6-2.9% $K_2O$, 2.4-4.6% CaO and 0.30-0.80% MgO. 10) CN and heavy metal contents did not show any tendency. They were in the range of 0.11-28.99mg/kg CN, 24-166mg/kg Zn, 5-129mg/kg Cu, 0.8-14.3mg/kg Cd, 7-42mg/kg Pb, ND-30mg/kg Cr and $ND-132.16\;{\mu}g/kg$ Hg.

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