• Title, Summary, Keyword: orthotropic

### Study on the Analysis of Orthotropic Thin Plates and Orthotropic Thick Plates (직교이방성 박판 및 후판의 해석연구)

• 박원태;최재진
• Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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• v.4 no.2
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• pp.76-80
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• 2003
• In this study, it is presented analysis results of bending problems in the orthotropic thick plates and the orthotropic thin plates. Finite element method in this analysis was used. Both Kirchoffs assumptions and Mindlin assumptions are used as the basic governing equations of bending problems in the orthotropic plates. The analysis results are compared between the orthotropic thick plates and the orthotropic thin plates for the variations of thickness-width ratios.

### An Analysis of Stress Intensity Factors of Composite Materials by Boundary Element Method (BEM) (경계요소법(BEM)에 의한 복합재료의 응력확대계수 해석)

• 이갑래;조상봉;최용식
• Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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• v.15 no.1
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• pp.179-189
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• 1991
• Composite materials are generally treated as anisotropic or an orthotropic materials. Unlike isotropic materials, the orthotropic materials can divided three groups depending upon the relationship of the four material constants or depending upon the characteristic roots of orthotropic materials. In particular, the fundamental solutions of two dimensional BEM for composite materials (orthotropic or anisotropic material) generally have a singularity in the conventional method when the characteristic roots are equal. In consideration of this singularity in the conventional method when the characteristic roots are equal. In consideration of this singular problems, in this paper, the fundamental solutions of BEM are systematically analysed for orthotropic materials. And the stress and displacement fields for a crack in an orthotropic materials are singular when the characteristic roots of orthotropic materials are equal. Therefore, these fields for a crack in an orthotropic materials are analysed by the analogous method to isotropic materials when the characteristic roots are equal.

### A Study on the Development of Reflection Type Photoelastic Experimental Hybrid Method for Orthotropic Materials (직교이방성체 반사형 광탄성 실험 하이브리드 법 개발에 관한 연구)

• Shin, Dong-Chul;Hawong, Jai-Sug;Nam, Jeong-Hwan;Lee, Joon-Hyun
• Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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• pp.228-233
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• 2008
• The reflection type photoelastic experiment can be used more effectively than the transparent type photoelastic experiment in industrial fields. However, the reflection type photoelastic experiment for orthotropic material has not been studied. Therefore, the reflection type photoelastic experimental hybrid method for the fracture mechanics of orthotropic material was developed in this research. Comparing the results obtained from this method with those from the hybrid method for isotropic material about the same isotropic specimen, the validity of this method was verified. And then, the reflection type photoelastic experiment for orthotropic material was applied to the orthotropic plates with a central crack of the various inclined angle. Using this hybrid method for the orthotropic material, it is able to obtain stress intensity factors and separate stress components at the vicinity of the crack-tip in orthotropic plates from only the isochromatic fringe patterns of isotropic coating material.

### Development of Live Load Moment Equations Using Orthotropic Plate Theory (직교 이방성 판 이론을 이용한 바닥판 활하중 모멘트 산정식 개발)

• Ahn Ye-Jun;Nam Suk-Hyun;Park Jang-Ho;Shin Yung-Seok
• Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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• pp.749-756
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• 2006
• Because of the orthotropic elastic properties and significant two-way bending action, orthotropic plate theory may be suitable for describing the behavior of concrete filled grid bridge decks. Current AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification(2004) has live load moment equations considering flexural rigidity ratio between longitudinal and transverse direction, but the Korea highway bridge design specification(2005) doesn't. The Korea highway bridge standard specification LRFD(1996) considers an orthotropic plate model with a single load to estimate live load moments in concrete filled grid bridge decks, which may not be conservative. This paper presents live load moment equations for truck and passenger car, based on orthotropic plate theory. The equations of truck model use multiple presence factor, impact factor, design truck and design tandem of the Korea highway bridge standard specification LRFD(1996). The estimated moments are verified through finite-element analyses.

### A dynamic nondestructive damage detection methodology for orthotropic plate structures

• Gandomi, Amir Hossein;Sahab, Mohammad G.;Rahai, Alireza
• Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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• v.39 no.2
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• pp.223-239
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• 2011
• This paper presents a methodology to detect and locate damages and faults in orthotropic plate structures. A specific damage index based on dynamic mode shapes of the damaged and undamaged structures has been introduced. The governing differential equation on transverse deformation, the transverse shear force equations and the invariant expression for the sum of transverse loading of an orthotropic plate are employed to obtain the aforementioned damage indices. The validity of the proposed methodology for isotropic and orthotropic damage states is demonstrated using a numerical example. It is shown that the algorithm is able to detect damages for both isotropic and orthotropic damage states acceptably.

### The effect of non-homogeneity on the stability of laminated orthotropic conical shells subjected to hydrostatic pressure

• Zerin, Zihni
• Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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• v.43 no.1
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• pp.89-103
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• 2012
• In this study, the stability of laminated homogeneous and non-homogeneous orthotropic truncated conical shells with freely supported edges under a uniform hydrostatic pressure is investigated. It is assumed that the composite material is orthotropic and the material properties depend only on the thickness coordinate. The basic relations, the modified Donnell type stability and compatibility equations have been obtained for laminated non-homogeneous orthotropic truncated conical shells. Applying Galerkin method to the foregoing equations, the expression for the critical hydrostatic pressure is obtained. The appropriate formulas for the single-layer and laminated, cylindrical and complete conical shells made of homogeneous and non-homogeneous, orthotropic and isotropic materials are found as a special case. Finally, effects of non-homogeneity, number and ordering of layers and variations of shell characteristics on the critical hydrostatic pressure are investigated.

### Position optimization of circular/elliptical cutout within an orthotropic rectangular plate for maximum buckling load

• Choudhary, Prashant K.;Jana, Prasun
• Steel and Composite Structures
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• v.29 no.1
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• pp.39-51
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• 2018
• Position of a circular or elliptical cutout within an orthotropic plate has great influence on its buckling behavior. This paper aims at finding the optimal position (both location and orientation) of a single circular/elliptical cutout, within an orthotropic rectangular plate, that maximizes the critical buckling load. We consider linear buckling of simply supported orthotropic plates under uniaxial edge loads. To obtain the optimal positions of the cutouts, we have employed a MATLAB optimization routine coupled with buckling computation in ANSYS. Our results show that the position of the cutout that maximizes the buckling load has great dependence on the material properties, laminate configurations, and the geometrical parameters of the plate. These optimal results, for a number of plate geometries and cutout sizes, are reported in this paper. These results will be useful in the design of perforated orthotropic plates against buckling failure.

### Effects of Anisotropic Fiber Packing on Stresses in Composites (이방성 섬유의 배열이 복합재료의 응력에 미치는 영향)

• Lee, Jung-Ki;Lee, Hyeong-Min
• Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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• v.28 no.9
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• pp.1284-1296
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• 2004
• In order to investigate effects of anisotropic fiber packing on stresses in composites, a Volume Integral Equation Method is applied to calculate the elastostatic field in an unbounded isotropic elastic medium containing multiple orthotropic inclusions subject to remote loading, and a Mixed Volume and Boundary Integral Equation Method is introduced for the solution of elastostatic problems in unbounded isotropic materials containing multiple anisotropic inclusions as well as one void under uniform remote loading. A detailed analysis of stress fields at the interface between the isotropic matrix and the central orthotropic inclusion is carried out for square, hexagonal and random packing of orthotropic cylindrical inclusions, respectively. Also, an analysis of stress fields at the interface between the isotropic matrix and the central orthotropic inclusion is carried out, when it is assumed that a void is replaced with one inclusion adjacent to the central inclusion of square, hexagonal and random packing of orthotropic cylindrical inclusions, respectively, due to manufacturing and/or service induced defects. The effects of random orthotropic fiber packing on stresses at the interface between the isotropic matrix and the central orthotropic inclusion are compared with the influences of square and hexagonal orthotropic fiber packing on stresses. Through the analysis of plane elastostatic problems in unbounded isotropic matrix with multiple orthotropic inclusions and one void, it will be established that these new methods are very accurate and effective for investigating effects of general anisotropic fiber packing on stresses in composites.

### Effect of cross-beam on stresses revealed in orthotropic steel bridges

• Fettahoglu, Abdullah
• Steel and Composite Structures
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• v.18 no.1
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• pp.149-163
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• 2015
• Orthotropic steel highway bridges exist almost everywhere in world, especially in Europe. The design of these bridges started very early in 20th century and ended with a conventional orthotropic steel bridge structure, which is today specified in DIN FB 103. These bridges were mostly built in 1960's and exhibit damages in steel structural parts. The primary reason of these damages is the high pressure that is induced by wheel- loads and therefore damages develop especially in heavy traffic lanes. Constructive rules are supplied by standards to avoid damages in orthotropic steel structural parts. These rules are first given in detail in the standard DIN 18809 (Steel highway- and pedestrian bridges- design, construction, fabrication) and then in DIN- FB 103 (Steel bridges). Bridges built in the past are today subject to heavier wheel loads and the frequency of loading is also increased. Because the vehicles produced today in 21st century are heavier than before and more people have vehicle in comparison with 20th century. Therefore dimensioning or strengthening of orthotropic steel bridges by using stiffer dimensions and shorter spans is an essence. In the scope of this study the complex geometry of conventional steel orthotropic bridge is generated by FE-Program and the effects of cross beam web thickness and cross beam span on steel bridge are assessed by means of a parameter study. Consequently, dimensional and constructional recommendations in association with cross beam thickness and span will be given by this study.

### Elastic Buckling Analysis of a Simply Supported Orthotropic Plate with Exponentialy Variable Thickness (두께가 변하는 직교이방성판의 탄성좌굴해석)

• 장성열;정상균;윤순종
• Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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• pp.25-28
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• 2001
• The problem considered is the buckling of a rectangular orthotropic plate, tapered in thickness in a direction parallel to two sides and compressed in that direction. Curves are presented showing the variation of buckling stress coefficient with the special loads. The type of thickness variation is exponential. While this paper is presented how to design for an efficient orthotropic plate taper from physical consideration.