• Title, Summary, Keyword: palm stearin

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Effect of Palm Stearin on Rheological Properties of Metal Injection Molding (MIM) Feedstock

  • Ismail, Muhammad Hussain;Omar, Mohd Afian;Subuki, Istikamah;Jumahat, Aidah;Halim, Zahurin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.223-224
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, rheological characteristics of Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) feedstock using locally binder of palm stearin are presented. The feedstock consisted of 316L-grade stainless steel powder with three different particle sizes and the binders comprise palm stearin and polyethylene. The viscosity of MIM feedstock at different temperatures and shear rates was measured and evaluated. Results showed that, the feedstock containing palm stearin exhibited suitable rheological properties and suitable to produce a homogeneous feedstock that is favorable for injection molding process.

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Synthesis of Cocoa Butter Alternative from Coconut Oil Fraction and Palm Oil Fractions by Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification (Coconut Oil 분별유와 Palm 분별유로부터 효소적 Interesterification에 의한 코코아 버터 대체유지 합성)

  • Bae, Sang-Kyun;Lee, Kyung-Su;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.10
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    • pp.1487-1494
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    • 2010
  • Structured lipid (SL) for cocoa butter alternative was synthesized by interesterification of coconut oil fraction and palm stearin (6:4 and 8:2, by weight) in a shaking water bath at $60^{\circ}C$ and 180 rpm. It was performed for various reaction times (1, 2, 3, and 6 hr). The reaction was catalyzed by sn-1,3 specific Lipozyme TLIM (immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus). SL-solid part was obtained from acetone fractionation at $0^{\circ}C$. SL-solid part was blended with other palm oils and fractions for desirable property of cocoa butter alternative (SL-solid part : palm middle fraction : palm stearin solid : palm oil, 70.4:18.4:2.9:8.3, by weight). In reversed-phase HPLC analysis, triacylglycerol species of cocoa butter alternative had partition number of 40 (10.77%), 42 (13.06%), 44~46 (17.38%) and 48 (51.88%). Major fatty acids of cocoa butter alternative were lauric acid (16.5%), myristic acid (12.28%), palmitic acid (46.03%), and linoleic acid (14.75%). Solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic form (${\beta}'$ form) of cocoa butter alternative prepared were similar to those of commercial cocoa butter replacer (CBR).

Lipase-catalyzed Production of Solid Fat Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Binary Models

  • Zhu, Xue-Mei;Alim, Abdul;Hu, Jiang-Ning;Adhikari, Prakash;Lee, Jeung-Hee;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.803-807
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    • 2009
  • Solid fats were esterified with solid phase of rice bran oil (S-RBO), palm stearin (PS), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at 2 substrate mole ratios (S-RBO:PS:CLA of 1:1:2 and 1:3:4). The major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic, and CLA in 36 hr products. The solid fat content (SFC) of the 1:1:2 product was 12.8% while the SFC of 1:3:4 product was 45.1% at $20^{\circ}C$. The SFCs after $20^{\circ}C$ reduced when the reaction time increased from 1 to 36 hr, suggesting that the change of triacylglycerol species was augmented by extending reaction time.

Comparison of Solid Fat Index and Triacylglycerol Composition of the Blends from Natural Vegetable Fats and Palm Stearin Fraction (천연 식물고체지와 팜스테아린 분별유 혼합물의 Solid Fat Index 및 Triacylglycerol 조성 비교)

  • Sung, Min-Hye;Hong, Soon-Taek;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.10
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    • pp.1438-1446
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    • 2011
  • Palmitoyl-oleoyl-oleoyl (POO) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-palmitoyl triacylglycerol rich fraction (PSL) was obtained from the acetone fractionation of palm stearin. The fatty acid composition (total and positional), tri-acylglycerol species, and solid fat index (SFI) were compared among the blends of natural vegetable fats (sal fat, illipe fat, kokum fat, shea stearin fat, and shea butter) and PSL with different ratios (50:50, 60:40, 65:35, 70:30). In total fatty acid composition of PSL, palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were the major fatty acids, whereas in natural vegetable fats stearic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids. Moreover, oleic acid was a major fatty acid at sn-2 position in sal fat, illipe fat, and kokum fat. The TAG species was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, from which the PN value ranged from 46 to 54. When natural vegetable fats and PSL were blended with different ratios, decreasing the amount of PSL resulted in increasing SFI in most cases. Among blends, the SFI of sal fat and PSL were most similar to commercial cocoa butter equivalent (CBE).

Enzymatic Synthesis of Low Trans Fats Using Rice Bran Oil, Palm Stearin and High Oleic Sunflower Seed Oil (미강유, 팜스테아린 및 고올레인산 해바라기씨유를 이용한 저트랜스 유지의 효소적 합성)

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.470-478
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    • 2009
  • Low trans fats were synthesized by interesterification of rice bran oil (RBO), palm stearin (PS) and high oleic sunflower seed oil (HO) using TLIM from Thermomyces lanuginosa. After 24-h reaction, physicochemical characteristics such as fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content, melting point, tocopherol, oryzanol and phytosterol contents were evaluated. Trans fatty acid contents of the produced low-trans fats showed less than 0.5 wt%. Mostly, triacylglycerol species in the products were palmitoyl-linoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (PLO), palmitoyl-oleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol (POO) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-palmitoyl-glycerol (POP). Total tocopherol contents ranged from 6.94 to 11.83 mg/100 g while $0.18{\sim}0.49$ mg/100 g of $\gamma$-oryzanol and $182.47{\sim}269.08$ mg/100 g of phytosterols were observed depending on the substrates ratios. When the content of PS in the reaction substrate was increased, solid fat content and slip melting points were increased.

Change of solid fat index during interesterification of hydrogenated coconut oil (야자경화유를 이용한 Interesterification 반응 중의 고체지 함량 변화)

  • Shin, Jung-Ah;Bae, Sang-Kyun;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.69-72
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    • 2010
  • This study explored the solid fat index (SFI) of structured lipids (SLs) synthesized by lipase-catalyzed (Lipozyme TLIM) interesterification using hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO), palm oil (PO) and palm stearin solid (PSS). SLs were produced using three blends of HCO/PO (60:40, w/w), HCO/PSS (40:60 and 60:40, w/w), and HCO/PO/PSS (32:48:18, w/w/w) to find a desirable confectionary fat by monitoring melting and crystallization behaviors of SFI of SLs using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SFI of HCO/PSS (60:40) and HCO/PO/PSS (32:48:18) at $25^{\circ}C$ were 70% and 68%, respectively. These results suggest that HCO/PSS (60:40) and HCO/PO/PSS (32:48:18) may be useful as potential SLs of a confectionary fat.

Optimization of Acetone-Fractionation for 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-3-Oleoyl Glycerol and 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-3-Palmitoyl Glycerol by Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석법에 의한 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-3-Oleoyl Glycerol과 1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-3-Palmitoyl Glycerol의 아세톤 분별 공정 최적화)

  • Shin, Jung-Ah;Sung, Min-Hye;Lee, Sun-Mo;Son, Jeoung-Mae;Lee, Jeung-Hee;Hong, Soon-Taek;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.975-980
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    • 2011
  • 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol (POO) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-palmitoyl glycerol (POP) were enriched from palm stearin using an acetone fractionation process. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the purity of POO ($Y_1$, %) and POP ($Y_2$, %) along with POO+POP content ($Y_3$, g) based on independent variables such as fractionation temperature ($X_1$, 25, 30, and $35^{\circ}C$) and the ratio of palm stearin to acetone ($X_2$, 1:3, 1:6 and 1:9, w/v). Fractionation conditions were optimized to maximize $Y_1$, $Y_2$, and $Y_3$, in which fractionation temperature was $29.3^{\circ}C$ with a 1:5.7 acetone ratio. With such parameters, 60.9% of POP and 23.8% of POO purity were expected with a 75% yield (3.0 g) of POO and POP.

Flavor Characteristic of Functional Modified-butterfat Synthesized by Lipase-catalyzed Interesterification (효소적 공법을 이용한 기능성 modified-butterfat의 향기성분 특성 분석)

  • Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2009
  • Two functional modified-butterfats (MF668 and MF866) were synthesized with two blends (6:6:8 and 8:6:6, w/w%) of anhydrous butterfat (ABF), palm stearin (PS) and flaxseed oil (FSO, omega-3) via lipase-catalyzed interesterification reaction. Their flavor characteristic was investigated using electronic nose and SPME-GC/MS analysis. Each flavor pattern of ABF, FSO, MF668 and MF866 was significantly discriminated with first principal component score of 95.16% in PCA plot. In functional modified-butterfats analyzed with SPME-GC/MS, various volatile compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acids, and alkanes were detected.

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Effect of dietary gamma-linolenic acid on milk production in cow

  • Park, Chang-Seok;Kim, Sang-Bouym;Kang, Sung-Sik;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Park, Sung-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.232-239
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    • 2016
  • Recently, research has been focusing on high quality and safer animal production by utilizing natural functional materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of natural Evening Primrose Oil (EPO) on gamma linolenic acid (GLA) levels in milk from Holstein dairy cows. Quality and quantity of milk as well as blood and fatty acids from Holstein cow fed diets supplemented with 2.7-4% calcium-salted EPO coated with palm stearin oil were analyzed. There was no significant difference in yield and composition of milk between control and EPO treatment. However, EPO treatment lowered blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), somatic cell count (SCC), and cholesterol levels (p < 0.05) compared to untreated control. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level was decreased (p < 0.05) in GLA 1 and GLA 2 group when compared with control group. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration was lower (p < 0.05) in GLA 1 and GLA 2 groups than in control group. The level of GLA in milk was increased in EPO group when compared to control. Therefore, results from the present study demonstrate that supplementary EPO has beneficial effects on cow health, showing a decrease in somatic cell count and levels of blood cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and AST. Furthermore, supplementation of EPO improves milk quality with increased amounts of GLA.

Enzymatic reaction model for the production of symmetrical lipid molecules using the response surface methodology

  • Hong, Joon-Sun;Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.265-282
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this research was to produce symmetric (Saturated-Unsaturated-Saturated, SUS) triacylglycerol (TAG) using palm stearin fraction oil (PSFO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) as substrates to replace cocoa butter. PSFO was blended with HOSO (1 : 2 weight ratio), and $lipozyme^{(R)}$ TLIM (20 weight % of the substrate) was added. Interesterification was carried out in a shaking water bath at $55^{\circ}C$ at 220 rpm for 6 hours. The response surface methodology (RSM) through the central composite face design was employed to observe the optimized SUS-TAG. The independent factors were the reaction temperature ($X_1$: 65, 75 and $85^{\circ}C$), reaction time ($X_2$: 1, 3 and 5 hours) and ratio of TLIM ($X_3$: 10, 15 and 20 weight %). The dependent variables were $Y_1$ = Saturated-Unsaturated-Unsaturated (SUU, area %), $Y_2=SUS$ (area %), $Y_3$ = Saturated-Saturated-Unsaturated (SSU, area %), $Y_4$ = Unsaturated-Unsaturated-Unsaturated (UUU, area %), and $Y_5=sn-2$ unsaturated fatty acid (area %). The optimal conditions from the central composite face design minimized acyl migration while maximizing the presence of unsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position (73.43 area %). The optimal conditions were $X_1=65^{\circ}C$, $X_2=1hour$, and $X_3=20weight%$. As a result of the response surface analysis, the lack of fits was found as $Y_1=0.622$, $Y_2=0.438$, $Y_3=0.264$, $Y_4=0.526$, and $Y_5=0.215$, and their $R^2$ were 0.897, 0.944, 0.826, 0.857, and 0.867, respectively.