• Title, Summary, Keyword: photosynthetic electron transport

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Influence of Respiration on Photosynthetic Electron Transport in psaB Mutants from Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.PCC6803 psaB 돌연변이주의 광합성 전자전달에 미치는 호흡의 영향)

  • 윤병철;장남기
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.59-72
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    • 1997
  • The influence of respiration on photosythetic electron transport were investigated in the Wid type and psaB mutants from Syneehocystis sp. PCC6803. The amount of glucose uptake in the wild type was proportional to the glucose concentration added in wild type and less than that of psaB mutants in the dark. It was suggested that psaB mutants more depend on the glucose than the wild type. It was investigated how the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase(IDH) and glucose-6-phos-phate dehydrogenase(G6PDH) were changed. The activities of IDH were very low. While, the ac-tivities of G6PDH were much higher than that of IDH. These results agree to the reports that ex-ogenous glucose was dismilated aerobically via Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway in heterotrophic cyanobacteria. PsaB mutants showed high G6PDH activity in the presence of glucose as well as in the dark and high respiratory activities especially in the dark. It was also investigated how photosynthetic electron transport activities were changed. PsaB mutants showed higher photosynthetic electron tranasport activities than wild type in the presence of glucose as well as in the dark. In the results, it was proposed that photosynthetic electron transport between PS I and PS U was complemented by respiratory electron transport through the NADPH generated by Dxidative Pentose Phophate Pathway in psaB mutant from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Key words: Photosynthetic electron transport, Respiration, Synechoystis sp. PCC6803, psaB mutant, Glucose uptake, IDH, G6PDH, Respiratory electron transport activity.

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Transcript accumulation of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 during the dark-to-light transition is mediated by photosynthetic electron transport

  • Ryu, Jee-Youn;Song, Ji-Young;Chung, Young-Ho;Park, Young-Mok;Chow, Wah-Soon;Park, Youn-Il
    • Plant Biotechnology Reports
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2010
  • Expression of the genes for carotenoid bio-synthesis (crt) is dependent on light, but little is known about the underlying mechanism of light sensing and signalling in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter, Synechocystis). In the present study, we investigated the light-induced increase in the transcript levels of Synechocystis crt genes, including phytoene synthase (crtB), phytoene desaturase (crtP), ${\zeta}$-carotene desaturase (crtQ), and ${\beta}$-carotene hydroxylase (crtR), during a darkto-light transition period. During the dark-to-light shift, the increase in the crt transcript levels was not affected by mutations in cyanobacterial photoreceptors, such as phytochromes (cph1, cph2 and cph3) and a cryptochrome-type photoreceptor (ccry), or respiratory electron transport components NDH and Cyd/CtaI. However, treatment with photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors significantly diminished the accumulation of crt gene transcripts. Therefore, the light induction of the Synechocystis crt gene expression is most likely mediated by photosynthetic electron transport rather than by cyanobacterial photoreceptors during the dark-to-light transition.

Photosynthetic Characteristics of Polyvinylalcohol-Immobilized Spinach Chloroplasts (Polyvinylalcohol에 고정화한 시금치 엽록체의 광합성특성에 대한 연구)

  • 박인호
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.215-221
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    • 1991
  • Photoxynthetic properties of polyvinylalcohol (PVA)-immobilized chloroplast especially regarded to stability of photosynthetic electron transport and the fluorescence induction pattern were studied. When isolated spinach chloroplasts were immobilized with PVA, it showed good preservation of photosynthetic electron transport activity, especially PS II activity, during storage at -15$^{\circ}C$, 4$^{\circ}C$ and 2$0^{\circ}C$. And immobilized chloroplasts revealed similar thermostability of whole chain electron transport to free chloroplsts. And the absorption peak of red band of chloroplasts showed the blue-shift of 2-4 nm after immobilization. Fv/Fm ratio of chlorophyll fluorescence slightly decreased after immobilization. White light pulse after continuous light do not induced the additional fluorescence rise. This means chlorophyll fluorescence at room temperature reached to Fmax under continuous light in the immobilized chloroplasts. It seems that PVA may be a good candidate for immobilization matrix for the preservation of photosynthetic function of thylakoids and for the continuous use of chloroplast membranes of higher plants for solar energy storage and conversion.

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Effect of Simetryne on Chloroplast-Mediated Electron Transport and Photoacoustic Signal (엽록체의 전자전달과 광음향 신호에 미치는 Simetryne의 영향)

  • 김현식
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.205-215
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    • 1988
  • The effects of simetryne on light induced electron transport and phosphorylation in isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts were investigated in comparison with sencor and DCMU. Simetryne, like sencor and DCMU, completely, inhibited PSII electron transport and phosphoryltion with 10-6 M treatment but did not inhibit PSI electron transport. Interference with the electron transport pathway was evidenced by the greater sensitivity of oxygen evolution and uptake than phosphorylation. The following order of decreasing inhibitory effectiveness was exihibited; DCMU>simetryne>sencor. The photoacoustic technique was also used to monitor the relative photosynthetic activity in the leaves treated with the herbicides (simetryne, sencor or DCMU) in vivo and in vitro. Photoacoustic measurements on intact leaves provide quantitative information on two related aspects of the photosynthetic process, namely, photochemical energy storage and oxygen evolution. The relative photoacoustic signal of leaves treated with the herbicides showed low level in 21 Hz, but high level in 380 Hz and on isolated chloroplasts (both 21 Hz and 380 Hz) in comparison with that of the untreated leaves. These results suggest that some of photochemical energy is converted into the heat owing to the inhibition of electorn transport pathway by the herbicides.

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PHOSPHATE-DEFICIENCY REDUCES THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CAPACITIES OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANES THROUGH LIMITING PHOTOSYSTEM II IN LEAVES OF CHINESE CABBAGE

  • Park, Youn-Il;Hong, Young-Nam
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.95-105
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    • 1994
  • Experiments were carried out to investigate whether P, deficiency in detached 25 mM mannose-feeding led to a decline of the photosynthetic electron transport rates through acidification of the thylakoid lumen. With increasing mannose-feeding time, the maximal CO2 exchange rates and the maximal quantum yields of photosynthesis decreased rapidly up to 6 h by 73% then with little decrease up to 12 h. The ATP/ADP ratio declined by 54% 6 h after the treatment and then recovered to the control level at 12 h. However, the NADPH/NADP~ ratio was not significantly altered by mannose treatment. Electron transport rates of thylakoid membranes isolated from 6 h treated leaves did not change, but they decreased by 30% in 12 h treated leaves. The quenching analysis of Chl fluorescence in mannose-treated leaves revealed that both the fraction of reduced plastoquinone and the degree of acidification of thylakoid lumen remained higher than those of the control. The reduction of PSI in mannose fed leaves was inhibited due to acidification of thylakoid lumen (high qE). The reduction of primary quinone acceptor of PSII was inhibited by mannose feeding. Mannose treatment decreased the efficiency of excitation energy capture by PSII. Fo quenching was induced when treated with mannose more than 6 h, and had a reverse linear correlation with (Fv)m/Fm ratio. These results suggest that Pi deficiency in Chinese cabbage leaves reduce photosynthetic electron transport rates by diminishing both PSII function and electron transfer from PSII to PSI through acidification ofthylakoid lumen, which in turn induce the modification of photosynthetic apparatus probably through protein (de)phosphorylation.

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Inhibitory Effect of Simazine on Photosynthetic Electron Transport Activity in Anabaena inequalis (Anabaena의 광합성 전자전달 활성에 미치는 Simazine의 억제효과)

  • 권벽동
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.217-226
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    • 1988
  • Effects of simazine [2-chloro-4,6-bis(methylamino)-s-triazine] on the photochemical reactions of isolaed spinach chloroplasts and crude thylakoids of Anabaena inequalis UTEX B-381 were compared. Simazine inhibited photosynthetic O2 evolution and increased the chlorophyll fluorescence in whole cells of Anabaena. The electron transfer from diphenylcarbazide to 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol was inhibited by simazine treatment in spinach chloroplasts, but not in crude thylakoids of Anabaena. In spinach chloroplasts, the chlorophyll fluorescence was increased by simazine treatment in the presence of diphenylcarbazide and ferricyanide, but not in the presence of diphenylcarbazide and silicomolybdate. In crude thylakoids of Anabaena, simazine treatment did not increase the chlorophyll fluorescence in the presence of either diphenylcarbazide and silicomolybdate, or diphenylcarbazide and ferricyanide. There results suggest that the inhibitory site of simazine on photosynthetic electron transport chain of anabaena is different from that of spinach chloroplasts. And there may be a possiblity that the inhibition site of simazine in Anabaena lies on the donor side of photosystem II, before the site of electron donation by diphenylcarbazide.

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Mercury-Specific Effects on Photosynthetic apparatus of Barley Chloroplasts Compared with Copper and Zinc Ions (구리${\cdot}$아연과 비교한 보리 엽록체의 광합성 기구에 미치는 수은 이온의 특이한 효과)

  • 문병용;전현식
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1.1-11
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    • 1992
  • To find heavy metal-specific effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants, we investigated effects of $CuCl_2$, HgCl_2$ and $ZnCl_2$ on electron transport activity and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics of chloroplasts isolated from barley seedlings. Effects on some related processes such as germination, growth and photosynthetic pigments of the test plants were also studied. Germination and growth rate were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by these metals. Mercury was shown to be the most potent inhibitor of germination, growth and biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments of barley plants. In the inhibition of electron transport activity, quantum yield of PS II, and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics of chloroplasts isolated from barley seedlings, mercury chloride showed more pronounced effects than other two metals. Contrary to the effects of other two metals, mercury chloride increased variable fluorescence significantly and abolished qE in the fluorescence induction kinetics from broken chloroplasts of barley seedlings. This increase in variable fluorescence is due to the inhibition of the electron transport chain after PS ll and the following dark reactions. The inhibition of qE could be attributed to the interruption of pH formation and do-epoxidation of violaxathin to zeaxanthin in thylakoids by mercury. This unique effect of mercury on chlorophyll fluorescence induction pattern could be used as a good indicator for testing the presence and/or the concentration of mercury in the samples contaminated with heavy metals.

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Lipid Peroxidation of Ginseng Thylakoid Membrane (인삼 틸라코이드 막의 지질과 산화)

  • 양덕조
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 1990
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of the leaf-burning disease of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), the relationships between thylakoid membrane peroxidation and chlorophyll bleaching were investigated in comparison with the ones of soybean (Glycine max L). When I measured the rate of lipid peroxidation in the thylakoids of ginseng and soybean by irradiation of light(60 w.m-2), it was identified that, the remarkably lower rate of lipid peroxidation was found in the ginseng thylakoid than the case of soybean. When lipid peroxidation of ginseng thylakoid was induced in the dark, chlorophyll contents of thylakoid was not changed. The results suggest that lipid peroxidation does not affect the chlorophyll bleaching in ginseng thylakoid. Thylakoid membrane peroxidation as well as chlorophyll bleaching was closely related with photosynthetic electron transport. But, according to the quenching experiment active oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation may be different species in the case of chlorophyll bleaching.

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Photoproduction of Hydrogen in Polyvinylalcohol-Iimmobilized Spinach Chloroplsats with Platinum Catalysts (Polyvinylalcohol에 고정한 시금치 엽록체와 백금 촉매를 이용한 광수소 발생)

  • 박인호
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 1993
  • Photoproduction of hydrogen by free and polyvinylalcohol (PVA)-immobilized spinach chloroplasts was investigated. Immobilization of chloroplast with PVA increased the functional stability of the chloroplast during storage. PVA-immobilized chloroplasts preserved photosynthetic electron transport activity much better than free chloroplasts. The hydrogen production of free chloroplast decreased to 17% of initial activity after storage of six days. The hydrogen production of the PVA-immobilized chloroplast, however, showed 44% of initial activity after storage of 15 days. The maximal rate of hydrogen production was accomplished at 2$^{\circ}C$ under the light intensity above 116 $\mu$E.m-2.s-1. The amount of hydrogen produced was proportional to the chlorophyll concentration. The hydrogen production was inhibited by DCMU treatment, indicating hydrogen production is dependent on photosynthetic electron transport. These results suggest that PVA is a good candidate for the immobilization matrix of chloroplasts for the photoproduction of hydrogen.

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The Effects of Salt Stress on Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Thylakoid Membrane Proteins in the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

  • Sudhir, Putty-Reddy;Pogoryelov, Denys;Kovacs, Laszlo;Garab, Gyozo;Murthy, Sistla D.S.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.481-485
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    • 2005
  • The response of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to high salt stress was investigated by incubating the cells in light of moderate intensity in the presence of 0.8 M NaCl. NaCl caused a decrease in photosystem II (PSII) mediated oxygen evolution activity and increase in photosystem I (PSI) activity and the amount of P700. Similarly maximal efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and variable fluorescence (Fv/Fo) were also declined in salt-stressed cells. Western blot analysis reveal that the inhibition in PSII activity is due to a 40% loss of a thylakoid membrane protein, known as D1, which is located in PSII reaction center. NaCl treatment of cells also resulted in the alterations of other thylakoid membrane proteins: most prominently, a dramatic diminishment of the 47-kDa chlorophyll protein (CP) and 94-kDa protein, and accumulation of a 17-kDa protein band were observed in SDS-PAGE. The changes in 47-kDa and 94-kDa proteins lead to the decreased energy transfer from light harvesting antenna to PSII, which was accompanied by alterations in the chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra of whole cells and isolated thylakoids. Therefore we conclude that salt stress has various effects on photosynthetic electron transport activities due to the marked alterations in the composition of thylakoid membrane proteins.