• Title, Summary, Keyword: pigment bleaching

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Investigation on the Photooxidation of Pigment in Leaf-Burning Disease of Panax ginseng 1. Phenomenological observation and analysis on the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon (인삼 엽소병에서 색소의 광산화작용에 관한 연구 1. Chlorophyll bleaching의 현상학적 연구)

  • Yang, Deok-Jo;Yu, Hui-Su;Yun, Jae-Jun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.91-100
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    • 1987
  • This study was investigated and analyzed the side of phenomenological of the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon on the leaf burning-disease of the Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) leaf. Red light (660-700 nm) was confirmed as one which induced the bleaching phenomenon and blue light (400-500 nm) did not at all. Temperature as 1 environmental factor had not any influence on chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon at all. Therefore, simple burning (thermal damage) hypothesis was perfectly ruled out by the result of this study. And, low pH accelerated chlorophyll bleaching velocity. A primary factor of chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon may be peculiar structural difference of the Ginseng leaf compared with other plant.

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Investigation on the Photooxidation of Pigment in Leaf-Burning II. Investigation and analysis of physiological reaction mechanism on the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon (인삼 엽소병에서 색소의 광산화작용에 관한 연구 II. Chlorophyll bleaching의 생리적 반응기작에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Deok-Jo;Yu, Hui-Su;Yun, Jae-Jun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 1987
  • This study was investigated and analyzed the physiological reaction mechanisms and the factors of the chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon on leaf burning-disease of the Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon was mainly caused by the photooxidation of singlet oxygen and the autooxidation of hydrogen peroxide($H_2O_2$) accumulation resulted from inactivation of catalase and peroxidase. Chlorophyll bleaching phenomenon was remarkably accelerated by addition of saponin.

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Studies on the Surface Color and Tensile Property of Hair according to Bleaching Treatment (모발(毛髮)의 탈색정도(脫色程度)에 따른 인장특성(引長特性)과 표면색 변화 연구(表面色 變化 硏究))

  • Kim, Kyung-Sun;Jeon, Dong-Won;Ha, Byung-Jo
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.94-105
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    • 2006
  • Hair bleaching is a treatment process in which the melanic pigment is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. With the increase of the number of treatments, $1{\sim}10$ levels of various colors develop, the hair luster diminishes, and the appearance becomes very rough. In this study, by changing the number of hair bleaching and bleaching conditions, the changes in the degree of hair damage and its process were observed through the use of scanning electron microscopy. The color changes were also compared through the use of spectrophotometer. In order to study the physical changes of the bleached hairs and to search for the optimum conditions to keep the hair damages minimum during bleaching, tensile properties were measured and reviewed. By increasing the number of hair bleaching and by the severe conditions, the scales became eroded and the protection layers were decreased, and the oxidation reached the inner sectors resulting in rough surface and fibrillation. The surface of the hairs became bright yellowish and transparent by the bleaching of melanic pigments or by the destruction of pigments. With the increase of bleaching degree, in terms of physical changes, the breaking strength decreased while the elongation increased a little.

Lipid Peroxidation of Ginseng Thylakoid Membrane (인삼 틸라코이드 막의 지질과 산화)

  • 양덕조
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 1990
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of the leaf-burning disease of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), the relationships between thylakoid membrane peroxidation and chlorophyll bleaching were investigated in comparison with the ones of soybean (Glycine max L). When I measured the rate of lipid peroxidation in the thylakoids of ginseng and soybean by irradiation of light(60 w.m-2), it was identified that, the remarkably lower rate of lipid peroxidation was found in the ginseng thylakoid than the case of soybean. When lipid peroxidation of ginseng thylakoid was induced in the dark, chlorophyll contents of thylakoid was not changed. The results suggest that lipid peroxidation does not affect the chlorophyll bleaching in ginseng thylakoid. Thylakoid membrane peroxidation as well as chlorophyll bleaching was closely related with photosynthetic electron transport. But, according to the quenching experiment active oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation may be different species in the case of chlorophyll bleaching.

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The Bleaching Effects of Potato Lipoxygenase Isoenzymes on ${\beta}-Carotene$ (감자 Lipoxygenase Isoenzymes의 베타-카로텐 탈색효과)

  • 문정원;조순영;서명자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.777-784
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    • 1993
  • The bleaching effect of potato lipoxygenase Isoenzymes on ${\beta}-carotene$ was studied. Two lipoxygenase Isoenzymes(LOX-1, LOX-2) from potato tuber were purified by CM-cellulose, DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. LOX-1 and LOX-2 seemed to have bleaching effect on ${\beta}-carotene$ in the presence of linoleic acid, which the decrease in the formation of conjugated dienes. LOX-2 was founded to have a greater pigment bleaching activity than that of LOX-1.

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Internal Structure and Pigment Granules in Colored Alpaca Fibers

  • Wang Huimin;Liu Xin;Wang Xungai
    • Fibers and Polymers
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2005
  • Alpaca fibers have some distinct properties such as softness and warmth, which have not been fully understood in combination with the fiber internal structures. In the present investigation, the internal structures of alpaca fibers have been closely examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM), especially in the longitudinal direction. The results showed that numerous pigment granules reside loosely inside pockets in brown and dark-brown alpaca fibers. These pigment granules were mainly distributed inside the cortical cells, the medullation regions as well as underneath the cuticles. Their size in the brown alpaca fibers was smaller and more uniformly round than in the dark-brown fibers. These granules in colored alpaca fibers loosen the bundle of cortical cells, providing many crannies in the fibers which may contribute to the superior flexibility, warmth and softness of the fibers. Moreover, there are no heavy metal elements found in the granules. The mordant hydrogen peroxide bleaching employed could eliminate the pigment granules and create many nano-volumes for further dyeing of fibers into more attractive colors.

Bleaching Observation of Cosmetic Color Lenses According to Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions (다목적 콘택트렌즈 용액에 대한 미용 칼라렌즈의 탈색 관찰)

  • Kim, Hyojin
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study aims to observe bleaching resulted from multipurpose contact lens solutions used to manage lenses with the subjects of colored contact lenses being distributed in Korea. Methods: The lenses have been worn for six months, and their refraction is 0.00D. Three types of colored contact lenses of which margin has been colored with a different manufacturing method have been adopted (type 1: pigment application method, type 2: chemical bonding process, type 3: sandwich method), and multipurpose solutions used were two types containing different components. Each of the colored contact lenses was stored in the multipurpose solutions for 20 days and went through vortexing for 15 seconds per day. Their fluorescence absorbance, surface roughness, brightness index, and color coordinate index were measured before and after the vortexing to see the degree of bleaching. Results: In the two types of multipurpose solutions, every type of the color contact lenses showed no statistically significant difference in their fluorescence absorbance value before and after the vortexing. Regarding surface image, the front surface of the lenses was smooth in every type, and about the back surface, type 3 indicated less protrusion than type 1 and 2. About the difference of color on the lens surface before and after the vortexing, type 3 showed significantly less difference than type 1 and 2; however, all fell into the permissible error. Conclusions: About the bleaching of colored contact lenses resulted from multipurpose solutions for soft contact lenses, there was no difference observed in terms of fluorescence absorbance and color. According to the methods of manufacturing dyes, however, there was difference in the protrusion of the posterior surface image.

Dyeability and Colorfastness of Knitted Fabrics with Natural Dye PinuxTM (Part I)

  • Wang, Geom-Bong;Song, Kyung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.1477-1485
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    • 2011
  • Dyeability and colorfastness of the blended knits of cotton/rayon (40/60; C/R) and wool/tencel (10/90; W/T) are examined using the natural dyestuff ($Pinux^{TM}$) manufactured from Pinus radiata pine bark extract. In addition, pre-treatments (such as bleaching, mercerization and cationization) are performed to improve dyeability and colorfastness. The $Pinux^{TM}$ powder dyestuffs produced by Pinux Co., Ltd. are used as dyestuffs and their properties are examined for dyeing concentration (0.5-2% (owb)), dyeing time (30-120 minutes) and dyeing temperature (30-$90^{\circ}C$). Dyeability is evaluated with K/S value at 400nm, which is the maximum absorption wavelength for $Pinux^{TM}$. The results show the dyeability of W/T sample containing protein fiber with $Pinux^{TM}$ is superior to all cellulose fiber C/R. A concentration of dyestuff greater than 1.5% (owb), dyeing time 120 minutes and dyeing temperature of $90^{\circ}C$ are the most optimized conditions. It shows that the dyeability of C/R and W/T samples are high in the condition of an acid-dyeing bath and that dyeability highly declined in alkaline bath due to the instability of the proanthocyanidin pigment. After analyzing the effect of bleaching, mercerizing and cationizing (as pre-treatments on dyeability) it was concluded that the dyeability of the C/R sample was enhanced by mercerization but no significant effect by cationization. However, the simultaneous treatment of cationizing and dyeing resulted in far improved dyeability compared to dyeing after cationizing pre-treatment. As for the W/T sample, the effect of cationization was more prominent than the C/R sample. Colorfastness to color changes in the control W/T sample was higher than that of C/R's level 1-2, and it increased to Level 2 when bleaching pre-treatment was given and when a simultaneous cationizing treatment was adopted to the dyeing process. Colorfastness to light in W/T control sample resulted in Level 3 and further increased to an excellent Level of 4 with bleaching and simultaneous cationizing during dyeing process.

Differential Responses of Three Cyanobacteria to UV-B and Cd

  • Atri, Neelam;Rai, Lal-Chand
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.544-551
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    • 2003
  • Interactive effects of UV-B and Cd on growth, pigment, photosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation have been studied in Anabaena, Microcystis, and Nostoc; all the tested cyanobacteria showed differential sensitivity to different dosage of UV-B and Cd alone as well as in combination. Phycocyanin was severely affected by UV-B and Cd by all the strains; the degree of pigment bleaching was most pronounced in Anabaena followed by Microcystis and Nostoc. $UV-B_2+Cd_2$ produced nearly 83, 78, and 65% inhibition of phycocyanin in Anabaena, Microcystis, and Nostoc, respectively. The above treatment also significantly decreased the contents of Chl ${\alpha}$ and carotenoid. Presence of capsule in Microcystis protected the phycocyanin bleaching as compared to decapsulated cells. Laboratory-grown Microcystis revealed about 75 and 80% inhibition, following $UV-B_2+Cd_2$ treatment, respectively. in capsulated and decapsulated cells. Damage caused by Cd was more pronounced than UV-B. Inhibition of photosynthesis did occur in all the test strains, being maximum in Anabaena. PS II was the most sensitive component of the electron transport chain, showing 84, 80, and 70% inhibition in Anabaena, Microcystis, and Nostoc, respectively. As compared to control, significant lipid peroxidation (6.5-fold higher) was observed in Anabaena with $UV-B_2+Cd_2$, $^{14}C-uptake$ was more susceptible to Cd and Uv-B than oxygen-evolution. Approximately 84, 80, and 76% inhibition of $^{14}C-uptake$ was observed in Anabaena, Microcystis, and Nostoc, respectively. Similarly, $UV-B_2+Cd_2$ inhibited APT content of Anabaena by 87%. This ,study suggests that inhibition of carbon fixation was due to decreased ATP content of the test cyanobacteria by UV-B+Cd, where Anabaena was the most sensitive and Nostoc the most tolerant.

Development of Anti-Melanogenic Agent for Skin Whitening

  • Ahn, Soo-Mi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2007
  • Many modalities of treatment for acquired skin hyperpigmentation are available including chemical agents or physical therapies, but none are completely satisfactory. The ideal depigmenting compound should have a potent. rapid and selective bleaching effect on hyperactivated melanocytes, carry no short- or long-term side-effects and lead to a permanent removal of undesired pigment. acting at one or more steps of the pigmentation process. Depigmentation can be achieved by regulating (i) the transcription and activity of tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1), tyrosinase related protein-2 (TRP-2), and/or peroxidase; (ii) the uptake and distribution of melanosomes in recipient keratinocytes and (iii) melanin and melanosome degradation and turnover of pigmented keratinocytes. One of the interesting point for development of skin whitening agent is Mitf(Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor). Mitf belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix-zip family of trabscription factors and it is crucial as it regulates both melanocyte proliferation as well as melanogenesis and is the major regulator of tyrosinase and the related enzymes (TRPs), as well as many melanosome structural proteins such as pMel17. Recently, we developed MITF-down-regulating agents from natural and synthetic sources, which have anti-melanogenic effect on in vitro and in vivo. We suggested that potent MITF-down regulating agents might be used for skin whitening cosmeceuticals.

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