• Title, Summary, Keyword: pitch

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A Study of Intonation Curve Slopes in Korean Spontaneous Speech (자유 발화 자료에서 나타나는 한국어 억양 곡선의 기울기 특성에 대한 연구)

  • Oh, Jeahyuk
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2014
  • This study aims to discuss pitch slope on Korean intonation curve in spontaneous speech data. For this study, 656 utterances were taken in the spoken corpus and used 'close-copy stylization'. And then the physical feature of pitch movements was extracted for the study. The pitch slope was calculated on the basis of time and pitch range in each utterance. As a result, the average and distribution of pitch slope is similar between men and women in the range of the pitch movement except for essential differences. The slope of pitch movement confirms that there are no differences between men and women. Pitch slope on a scale of -10 to 10 is 90% of the entire pitch slope; pitch slope that moves by time scale without curve is 33.1%; pitch slope that moves half of the pitch bandwidth during the average time for pitch movement is 23.4%; pitch slope that moves 100% of pitch bandwidth during a half of the average time for pitch movement is 10.4%. Those results imply the possibility of standardization methods of Korean intonation by pitch slope.

An acoustical analysis of emotional speech using close-copy stylization of intonation curve (억양의 근접복사 유형화를 이용한 감정음성의 음향분석)

  • Yi, So Pae
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2014
  • A close-copy stylization of intonation curve was used for an acoustical analysis of emotional speech. For the analysis, 408 utterances of five emotions (happiness, anger, fear, neutral and sadness) were processed to extract acoustical feature values. The results show that certain pitch point features (pitch point movement time and pitch point distance within a sentence) and sentence level features (pitch range of a final pitch point, pitch range of a sentence and pitch slope of a sentence) are affected by emotions. Pitch point movement time, pitch point distance within a sentence and pitch slope of a sentence show no significant difference between male and female participants. The emotions with high arousal (happiness and anger) are consistently distinguished from the emotion with low arousal (sadness) in terms of these acoustical features. Emotions with higher arousal show steeper pitch slope of a sentence. They have steeper pitch slope at the end of a sentence. They also show wider pitch range of a sentence. The acoustical analysis in this study implies the possibility that the measurement of these acoustical features can be used to cluster and identify emotions of speech.

An acoustical analysis of synchronous English speech using automatic intonation contour extraction (영어 동시발화의 자동 억양궤적 추출을 통한 음향 분석)

  • Yi, So Pae
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2015
  • This research mainly focuses on intonational characteristics of synchronous English speech. Intonation contours were extracted from 1,848 utterances produced in two different speaking modes (solo vs. synchronous) by 28 (12 women and 16 men) native speakers of English. Synchronous speech is found to be slower than solo speech. Women are found to speak slower than men. The effect size of speech rate caused by different speaking modes is greater than gender differences. However, there is no interaction between the two factors (speaking modes vs. gender differences) in terms of speech rate. Analysis of pitch point features has it that synchronous speech has smaller Pt (pitch point movement time), Pr (pitch point pitch range), Ps (pitch point slope) and Pd (pitch point distance) than solo speech. There is no interaction between the two factors (speaking modes vs. gender differences) in terms of pitch point features. Analysis of sentence level features reveals that synchronous speech has smaller Sr (sentence level pitch range), Ss (sentence slope), MaxNr (normalized maximum pitch) and MinNr (normalized minimum pitch) but greater Min (minimum pitch) and Sd (sentence duration) than solo speech. It is also shown that the higher the Mid (median pitch), the MaxNr and the MinNr in solo speaking mode, the more they are reduced in synchronous speaking mode. Max, Min and Mid show greater speaker discriminability than other features.

An Acoustic Study of Pitch Rules of Chinese Poetry (한시의 평측법에 대한 음향음성학적 연구)

  • Cho, Sung-Moon
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.59-76
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the pitch rules of Chinese poetry. Pitch rules are concerned with the high tone and the low tone. Because Chinese poetry is a fixed form of verse, it must keep pitch rules to compose Chinese poetry. But until now there has been no acoustic study of pitch rules of Chinese poetry. So, for the first time the present study investigates pitch rules of Chinese poetry acoustically. Pitch contours were analyzed from the sound spectrogram made by Praat. Results showed that actual pitch patterns did not coincide with theoretical pitch rules in reciting Chinese poetry. Therefore, in studying Chinese classics, the Chinese poetry, which has traditionally been considered to be recited according to original Chinese pitch rules, must now be considered in terms of how pitch rules may have changed over time in Korea since it was first introduce to Korean scholars.

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Chaos Control of the Pitch Motion of the Gravity-gradient Satellites in an Elliptical Orbit (타원궤도상의 중력구배 인공위성의 Pitch운동의 혼돈계 제어)

  • Lee, Mok-In
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2011
  • The pitch motion of a gravity-gradient satellite can be chaotic, depending on the ratio of mass moments of inertia and the eccentricity of the satellite orbit. For a precise prediction of motion, chaotic pitch motion has to be changed to non-chaotic motion. Feedback control can be used to obtain nonchaotic pitch motion. For chaos control and stabilization of the pitch motion of a gravity-gradient satellite, a feedback control system is designed, based on the linear nonautonomous system obtained by linearizing the nonlinear pitch motion. The control law obtained has two parameters and is applied to chaotic nonlinear pitch motion. The nonlinear control system satisfies the proposed control objectives in the range of the nonchaotic parameter space.

Preparation and Characterization of Mesophase Pitches as a Matrix Precursor of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite (탄소/탄소 복합재 매트릭스 전구체로서의 메조페이스 핏치의 제조 및 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 정현진;임연수
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.1387-1393
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    • 1996
  • A study on mesophase pitch as a matrix precursor of carbon fiber reinforced carbon (C/C) composite has been recently presented. This study is concerned with the production of mesophase pitch as matrix precursors for C/C composite from coal tar pitch. A commercial coal tar pitch was heat-treated at 25$0^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours to remove low molecular weight fraction from the pitch then increasing the temperature of the pitch to between 350~45$0^{\circ}C$ to produce mesophase pitch. The pitch was continuously stirred during this time and nitrogen gas was continuously bubbled through the pitch. Spherical and bulk mesophases were formed in the pitch after heat-treatment,. Parent and mesophae pitches were characterized by elemental analysis coke yield solubi-lity in tetrahydrofuran and hexane and an optical microscopy to measure the mesiophase content. It was neces-sary to produce C/C composite that a mesophase pitch with about 30-40 vol% mesophase spherulites can be infiltrated into a fiber preform without a filter effect as a matrix precursor conditions. This condition was satisfied with mesophase pitch heat treated at 40$0^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours. The other heat treatment conditions showed the nuclei of mesophase or bulk mesophae which were not satisfied with the matix precursor condition.

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An acoustical analysis of speech of different speaking rates and genders using intonation curve stylization of English (영어의 억양 유형화를 이용한 발화 속도와 남녀 화자에 따른 음향 분석)

  • Yi, So Pae
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 2014
  • An intonation curve stylization was used for an acoustical analysis of English speech. For the analysis, acoustical feature values were extracted from 1,848 utterances produced with normal and fast speech rate by 28 (12 women and 16 men) native speakers of English. Men are found to speak faster than women at normal speech rate but no difference is found between genders at fast speech rate. Analysis of pitch point features has it that fast speech has greater Pt (pitch point movement time), Pr (pitch point pitch range), and Pd (pitch point distance) but smaller Ps (pitch point slope) than normal speech. Men show greater Pt, Pr, and Pd than women. Analysis of sentence level features reveals that fast speech has smaller Sr (sentence level pitch range), Sd (sentence duration), and Max (maximum pitch) but greater Ss (sentence slope) than normal speech. Women show greater Sr, Ss, Sp (pitch difference between the first pitch point and the last), Sd, MaxNr (normalized Max), and MinNr (normalized Min) than men. As speech rate increases, women speak with greater Ss and Sr than men.

Thai Classical Music Matching Using t-Distribution on Instantaneous Robust Algorithm for Pitch Tracking Framework

  • Boonmatham, Pheerasut;Pongpinigpinyo, Sunee;Soonklang, Tasanawan
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1213-1228
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    • 2017
  • The pitch tracking of music has been researched for several decades. Several possible improvements are available for creating a good t-distribution, using the instantaneous robust algorithm for pitch tracking framework to perfectly detect pitch. This article shows how to detect the pitch of music utilizing an improved detection method which applies a statistical method; this approach uses a pitch track, or a sequence of frequency bin numbers. This sequence is used to create an index that offers useful features for comparing similar songs. The pitch frequency spectrum is extracted using a modified instantaneous robust algorithm for pitch tracking (IRAPT) as a base combined with the statistical method. The pitch detection algorithm was implemented, and the percentage of performance matching in Thai classical music was assessed in order to test the accuracy of the algorithm. We used the longest common subsequence to compare the similarities in pitch sequence alignments in the music. The experimental results of this research show that the accuracy of retrieval of Thai classical music using the t-distribution of instantaneous robust algorithm for pitch tracking (t-IRAPT) is 99.01%, and is in the top five ranking, with the shortest query sample being five seconds long.

The Role of Pitch and Length in Spoken Word Recognition: Differences between Seoul and Daegu Dialects (말소리 단어 재인 시 높낮이와 장단의 역할: 서울 방언과 대구 방언의 비교)

  • Lee, Yoon-Hyoung;Pak, Hyen-Sou
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to see the effects of pitch and length patterns on spoken word recognition. In Experiment 1, a syllable monitoring task was used to see the effects of pitch and length on the pre-lexical level of spoken word recognition. For both Seoul dialect speakers and Daegu dialect speakers, pitch and length did not affect the syllable detection processes. This result implies that there is little effect of pitch and length in pre-lexical processing. In Experiment 2, a lexical decision task was used to see the effect of pitch and length on the lexical access level of spoken word recognition. In this experiment, word frequency (low and high) as well as pitch and length was manipulated. The results showed that pitch and length information did not play an important role for Seoul dialect speakers, but that it did affect lexical decision processing for Daegu dialect speakers. Pitch and length seem to affect lexical access during the word recognition process of Daegu dialect speakers.

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A Study on the Detection and the Correction of Prosodic Errors Produced by Chinese Korean-Learners (중국인 학습자들의 한국어 강세구 실현양상과 오류진단 및 교정방안 연구)

  • Yune, Young-Sook
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the pitch pattern of Korean accentual phrases produced by Chinese Korean-learners in the reading of a Korean text. Korean accentual phrase is determined by a specific F0 contour. And the pitch contour of APs differ depending on their length and the nature of initial segment. In order to examine if Chinese speakers are also aware such a phonetic properties, we have examined the AP pitch contours produced by 15 Chinese speakers differing in proficiency, and compared them to pitch contours produced by six Korean native speakers. The results show that Chinese speakers' pitch errors were observed in initial segment-tone interaction and in type of pitch patterns. However, even though Chines speakers produced the same type of pitch patterns, internal tonal modulation differs from native speakers. Finally, on the basis of theses results, we proposed a teaching method that visualizes the F0 contour.