• Title, Summary, Keyword: poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid)

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Production of poly-$\beta$-hydroxybutyric acid(PHB) from Liquefied Natural Gas using an Obligatory Methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (메탄자화균 Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b를 이용한 액화 천연가스로부터 poly-$\beta$-hydroxybutyric acid(PHB)의 생산)

  • 황재웅;박성훈
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.246-253
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    • 1996
  • An obligatory methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was cultivated for the production of poly-${\beta}$-hydroxybutyric acid(PHB) in shake-flask using liquefied natural gas(LNG) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The maximal specific growth rate decreased by 40% using LNG compared with that obtained with pure methane. This is attributed to the inhibition by ethane and propane presents in the LNG as impurities. For the production of PHB, two-stage culture separating the production stage from the growth stage was carried out. PHB accumulation was observed after switching nutrient-sufficient to nutrient-limited condition of non-carboneous component (NO3-, PO43-, K+, Na+, Fe2+, or Mg2+). The limitation of K+ or Mg2+ resulted in relatively high PHB content, but the highest content was obtained by nitrate limitation. The optimal pH and temperature for PHB accumulation was 7.0 and $30^{\circ}C$. Under the optimal condition the maximal PHB content was about 45% after 4-day cultivation.

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Polymeric Micelle Using Poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Amphiphilic Block Copolymer for Drug Delivery System (Poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid)/Poly(ethylene glycol) 양친성 블록 공중합체를 이용한 약물전달체용 고분자 미셀)

  • Jeong, Kwan-Ho;Kim, Young-Jin
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.512-518
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    • 2006
  • A biodegradable polymer poly((R) -3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) was conjugated with a hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by the ttansesterification reaction to form the amphiphilic block copolymer. PHB with low molecular weight ($3000{\sim}30000$) was appropriated for the drug delivery materials. High molecular weight PHB was hydrolyzed by an acid-catalyst to produce the low molecular weight one. Amphiphilic block copolymer was formed the self-assembled polymeric micelle system in the aqueous solution that the hydrophillic PEG was wraped the hydrophobic PHB. Generally, polymeric micelle forms the small particle between $10{\sim}200nm$. These polymeric micelle systems have been widely used for the drug delivery systems because they were biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic and patient compliant. The hydroxyl group of PEG was substituted with carboxyl group which has the reactivity to the ester group of PHB. Amphiphilic block copolymer was conjugated between PHB, and modified PEG at $176^{\circ}C$ which was higher than the melting point of PHB. Transesterification reaction was verified with DSC, FTIR, $^1H-NMR$. In the aqueous solution, critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the mPEG-co-PHB copolymer measured by the fluororescence scanning spectrometer was $5{\times}10^{-5}g/L$. The shape and size of the nanoparticle was taken by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. The size of the nanoparticle was about 130 nm and the shape was spherical. Our polymeric micelle system can be used as the passive targeting drug delivery system.

Effect of Complex Nitrogen Sources on Poly(3-Hydroxybutyric Acid) Synthesis by Recombinant Escherichia coli Using Sucrose as a Carbon Source (Sucrose를 탄소원으로 재조합 대장균에 의한 Poly(3-Hydroxybutyric Acid) 합성시 복합질소원이 미치는 영향)

  • 이상엽;장호남
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 1995
  • When Escherichia coli W, which is able to utilize sucrose as a carbon source, harboring a high-copy-number plasmid (pSYL105) containing the Alcaligenes eultrophus polyhydroxyalkanoate(PHA) biosynthetic genes was cultured in a defined medium, the final poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid), PHB, concentration obtained was as low as $0.21g/\ell$. Ten different complex nitrogen sources were, therefore, examined for their ability to enhance PHB synthesis when supplemented to a defined medium. Addition of tryptone, casamino acids, casein hydrolysate, or soy bean hydrolysate enhanced PHB synthesis most significantly, resulting in more than 10 times higher PHB concentration compared with that obtained in a defined medium. Furthermore, PHB yield on sucrose was also increased by more than a 10 fold by the addition of these complex nitrogen sources, which suggested that PHB might be efficiently produced by the recombinant E. coli W(pSYL105) using sucrose as a carbon source.

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Synthesis of Copolymeric PHA by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava and Ralstonia eutropha H16 from Vari-ous Lactones and Their Microstructural Studies (락톤류로부터 Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava와 Ralstonia eutropha H16 두 세균에 의한 공중합 PHA의 합성 및 미세구조적 특성 연구)

  • Jang, Young-Ok;Nam, Won;Choi, Mun-Hwan;Song, Jae-Jun;Yoon, Sung-Chul
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2000
  • Two typess of copolyesters, poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxy-butyric acid)[P(3HB-co-4HB] and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid)[P(3HB-co-3HV)], with various monomer ratios and different degree of microstructural heterogeneity were synthesized from Ralstonia eutropha H16 and Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava by using ${\gamma}$-butyrolactone and ${\gamma}$-valerolactone, respectively. The two bacteria showed a large difference in the utilization of ${\gamma}$-butyrolactone for cell growth and PHA synthesis. H. pseudoflava synthesized P(3HB-co-4HB) copolyesters with a wide range of 4HB content from 13 to 96 mol% depending on culture conditions, whiel R. eutropha H16 was able to synthesize the copolyesters containing less than 20 mol% of 4HB. An increase in the 4HB content in the P(3HB-co-4HB) copolyesters synthesized by H. pseud-oflava induced an lowering of their melting temperatures as well as their enthalpies of fusion. The increase in the 4HB content, however, increased the rate of degradation by an extracellular P(3HB) depolymerase. NMR spectros-copy and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the P(3HB-co-4HB) copolyesters from H. pseudoflava were generally microstructurally heterogeneous. The P(3HB-co-4HB) copolyesters) synthesized by R. eutropha H16 were rather random copolymers showing less microstructural heterogeneity than those synthesized by H. pseudoflava. The NMR D value analysis suggested that the monomer distribution of the P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymers from the two bacteria were relatively random.

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Cloning, Nucleotide Sequence and Expression of Gene Coding for Poly-3-hydroxybutyric Acid (PHB) Synthase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1

  • Kim, Ji-Hoe;Lee, Jeong-Kug
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 1997
  • A gene, $phbC_{2.4.1}$ encoding poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) synthase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 was cloned by employing heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. R. sphaeroides chromosomal DNA partially digested with MboI was cloned in pUC19 followed by mobilization into E. coli harbouring $phbA,B_{AC}$ in pRK415, which code for ${\beta}$-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl CoA reductase of Alcaligenes eutrophus, respectively. Two E. coli clones carrying R. sphaeroides chromosomal fragment of $phbC_{2.4.1}$ in pUC19 were selected from ca. 10,000 colonies. The PHB-producing colonies had an opaque white appearance due to the intracellular accumulation of PHB. The structure of PHB produced by the recombinant E. coli as well as from R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 was confirmed by [$H^{+}$]-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Restriction analysis of the two pUC19 clones revealed that one insert DNA fragment is contained as a part of the other cloned fragment. An open reading frame of 601 amino acids of $phbC_{2.4.1}$ with approximate M.W. of 66 kDa was found from nucleotide sequence determination of the 2.8-kb SaiI-PstI restriction endonuclease fragment which had been narrowed down to support PHB synthesis through heterologous expression in the E. coli harbouring $phbA,B_{AC}$. The promoter (s) of the $phbC_{2.4.1}$ were localized within a 340-bp DNA region upstream of the $phbC_{2.4.1}$ start codon according to heterologous expression analysis.

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Poly-$\beta$-Hydroxybutyrate Produced by Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Bacterium from Methanol (분홍색 통성 메탄올 자화세균이 생산하는 Poly-$\beta$-Hydroxybutyrate)

  • 송미연;이재호;이용현
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 1990
  • For poly- $\beta$ -hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production, a pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacterium (PPFM) P-10 was newly isolated from soils through methanol-enrichment culture. The optimal medium composition for cell growth was 1.0% (vlv) of methanol as carbon source and l.Og/l of ,TEX>$NH_4Cl$, equivalent to C/N ratio of 13.2 at pH 7.0 and $30^{\circ}C$. To investigate the optimal condition for YHB accumulation, two-stage culture technique was adopted; first stage for cell growth and second stage for accumulation of PHB providing unbalanced growth conditions. The optimal PHB accumulation was 1.0% (vIv) of methanol and 0.26gll of $NH_4Cl$, C/N of 50.8 at pH 6.0. To overcome methanol inhibition on cell growth, intermittent feeding fed-batch culture technique was employed, and the cell concentration as high as 14gll with 40% of PHB was achieved. The purified PHB was identified using IR and $1^H NMR$ as homopolymer of 8hydroxybutyric acid. The absorption spectrum of extracted pink colored microbial pigment was alsa investigated.

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Production of Poly(Hydroxybutyric-Co-Hydroxyvaleric) Acid by Pseudomonas sp. HJ (Pseudomonas sp. HJ에 의한 Poly(Hydroxybutyric-Co-Hydroxyvaleric) Acid의 생산)

  • 손홍주;민관필이상준
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 1995
  • To produce PHA(polyhydroxyalkanoic acid) from microbr, dozens of microorganism have been screened from sewage sludge. Selected a strain HJ out of 50 strains of PHA producing bacteria has a capability of accumulating large amounts of PHB/HV copolymer when grown in batch culture with a single carbon source (glucose) that was not generally considered as precursor of hydroxyvalerate monomer unit. The strain HJ was identified as the genus Pseudomonas with respect to morphological, cultural, and biochemical characteristics. The optimal temperature and pH for cell growth were $37^{\circ}C$ and 7.0. The optimal medium compositions for cell growth were glucose 1% as a carbon source, (NH4) 2SO4 0.2% as a nitrogen source, K2HPO4 0.3%, and KH2PO4 0.45%. TO investigate she optimal condition for PHA production two-step cultivation method was employed. PHA production was inducted by deficiency of NH4+, SO4-2, Mg+2. Besides carbon source, deficiency of all nutrients stimulated PHA productivity but deficiency of NH4+ stimulated the most HV monomer content. The highest PHA production was C/N molar ratio 95.2. Pseudomonas sp. HJ was also able to pyoduc PHB/HV copolymer when cultivated on alkane, alkanoate, alcohol as carbon sources. The contents of PHA and she proportions of hydroxyvalerate monomer units varied depending on the carbon sources. Especially Pseudomonas sp. HJ was able to incorporate hydroxyvalerate into PHB/HV to level as high as from 49 to 74 mol% when grown in a medium containing hexadecane and propionate. The purified PHA was identified PHB/HV copolymer by HNMR analysis.

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Optimization of Growth Medium and Poly-$\beta$-hydroxybutyric Acid Production from Methanol in Methylobacterium organophilum (메탄올로부터 Methylobacterium organophilum에 의한 Poly-$\beta$-hydroxybutyric Acid의 생산과 배지성분의 최적화)

  • Choi, Joon-H;Kim, Jung H.;M. Daniel;J.M. Lebeault
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.392-396
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    • 1989
  • Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methylotroph was cultivated on a methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. The cell growth was affected by the various components of minimal synthetic medium and the medium composition was optimized with 0.5% (v/v) methanol at pH 6.8 and at 3$0^{\circ}C$. The maximum specific growth rate of M. organophilum was achieved to 0.26 hr$^{-1}$ in the optimized medium which has following composition: Methanol, 0.5% (v/v):(NH$_4$)$_2$SO$_4$, 1.0g/l:KH$_2$PO$_4$, 2.13g/l:KH$_2$PO$_4$, 1.305g/ι:MgSO$_4$.7$H_2O$. 45g/l and trace elements (CaCl$_2$.2$H_2O$, 3.3mg:FeSO$_4$.7$H_2O$, 1.3mg:MnSO$_4$.4$H_2O$, 130$\mu\textrm{g}$:ZnSO$_4$.5$H_2O$, 40$\mu\textrm{g}$:Na$_2$MoO$_4$.2$H_2O$, 40$\mu\textrm{g}$:CoCl$_2$.6$H_2O$, 40$\mu\textrm{g}$:H$_3$BO$_3$, 30$\mu\textrm{g}$ per liter). By the limitation of nitrogen and deficiency of Mn$^{+2}$ or Fe$^{+2}$, the cell growth was significantly repressed. Methanol greatly repressed the cell growth and the complete inhibition was observed at concentration above 4% (v/v). In order to overcome the methanol inhibition and to prevent the methanol limitation, intermittent feeding of methanol was conducted by a D.O.-stat technique. PHB production by M. organophilum was stimulated by deficiency of nutrients such as NH$_{4}^{+}$, SO$_{4}^{-2}$, $Mg^{+2}$, $K^{+}$, or PO$_{4}^{-3}$ in the medium. The maximum PHB content was obtained as 58% of dry cell weight under deficiency of potassium ion in the optimized synthetic medium.

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Production of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from Xylose by Bacillus megaterium J-65 (Bacillus megaterium J-65에 의한 xylose로부터 poly-3-hydroxybutyrate 생산)

  • Jun, Hong-Ki;Jin, Young-Hi;Kim, Hae-Nam;Kim, Yun-Tae;Kim, Sam-Woong;Baik, Hyung-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1625-1630
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    • 2008
  • A microorganism capable of producing high level of poly-3-hydoxybutyrate (PHB) from xylose was isolated from soil. The isolated strain J-65 was identified as Bacillus megaterium based on the morphological, biochemical and molecular biological characteristics. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of B. megaterium J-65 were $37^{\circ}C$ and 8.0, respectively. The optimum medium composition for the cell growth was 2% xylose, 0.25% $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 0.3% $Na_2HPO_4{\cdot}12H_2O$, and 0.1% $KH_2PO_4$. The optimum condition for PHB accumulation was same to the optimum condition for cell growth. Copolymer of ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyric and ${\beta}$-hydroxyvaleric acid was produced when propionic acid was added to shake flasks containing 20 g/l of xylose. Fermenter culture was carried out to produce the high concentration of PHB. In batch culture, cell mass was 9.82 g/l and PHB content was 35% of dry cell weight. PHB produced by B. megaterium J-65 was identified as homopolymer of 3-hydoxybutyric acid by GC and NMR.

Effect of Ratios Carbon Source to Nitrogen Source on the Yields of PHB Fermentation Variables (탄소원과 질소원의 비가 PHB 발효특성치 수율에 미치는 영향)

  • 백예영;허병기
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 1994
  • The effects of ratios of initial concentration of carbon source to the initial concentration of nitrogen source in the fermentation media on both the yields of PHB fermentation variables and the accumulation of poly-${\beta}$-hydroxybutyric acid(PHB) were investigated. The fermentation media were composed of the combination of varing glucose concentrations, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, $50g/\ell$ and the NH4Cl concentrations 0.33, 0.4, 0.5, 1.5, 3, $5g/\ell$. The yield of biomass on glucos, Yx/s, decreased very slowly according to the increase of the ratio of C to N. And the yield became constant at 0.35(g biomass/g glucose) with the ratio higher than 70. The yield of residual biomass, Yx/s, also decreased with the ratio of C to N and finally showed a constant value of 0.065(g residual biomass/g glucose) when the ratio was higher than 65. In accordance with the augmentation of the ratio, the yield of PHB, YPHB/S, however, increased and showed the maximum value of 0.35 (g PHB/g glucose) between 40 and 60 of the ratio. The maximum yield of PHB to the change of biomass, YPHB/S, was 0.87(g PHB/g biomass), and the yie1d YPHB/RX, was 4.2(g PHB/g residual biomass). The maximum accumulation percent of PHB to the final biomass was 81% when the ratio was higher than 67.

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