• Title, Summary, Keyword: polysaccharide

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Changes of Fruit Characteristics and Cell Wall Component during Maturation and Ripening in Asian Pear 'Hanareum', 'Manpungbae', and 'Niitaka' (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) ('한아름', '만풍배' 및 '신고' 배의 성숙 기간 중 과실특성 및 세포벽 관련물질의 변화)

  • Vu, Thi Kim Oanh;Lee, Ug-Yong;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Han-Chan;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.345-356
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    • 2012
  • We investigated the changes of fruit quality parameters, polysaccharide contents and cell wall components during maturation and ripening of two Korean pear cultivar 'Hanareum' and 'Manpungbae' compared with 'Niitaka' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) which showed different physiological maturity based on days after full bloom (DAFB). Flesh firmness decreased continuously with fruit development and maturation, reaching a final level of 29.4, 33.5, and 27.4N at maturity in 'Hanareum' (127 DAFB), 'Manpungbae' (163 DAFB), and 'Niitaka' (170 DAFB), respectively. The level of ethylene production was very low in early season 'Hanareum' pear which showed at most 0.39 ${\mu}L{\cdot}L^{-1}$ at maturity and no ethylene was detected in 'Manpungbae' and 'Niitaka' at maturity. Fructose was the most abundant soluble sugar during fruit maturation in the pears tested and an increase of sucrose was observed during fruit ripening in the Asian pears commonly. Ethanol insoluble solids (EIS) content decreased gradually with different levels among the pear cultivars as fruit ripens consisted of 10.79, 12.72, and 12.75 $mg{\cdot}g^{-1}$ FW. The amount of total soluble polyuronides was higher in early season cultivars 'Hanareum' than those of mid-season cultivar 'Manpungbae' and 'Niitaka'. In 'Niitaka' which harvested most late season, the level of 4% KOH soluble hemicelluloses was lower than 'Hanareum' and 'Manpungbae' and maintained constantly during fruit ripening period. Cellulosic residues were determined high level in 'Niitaka' which showed 612.33 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS at maturity when compared with 'Hanareum' (408.0 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS) and 'Manpungbae' (538.67 ${\mu}g{\cdot}mg^{-1}$ EIS). The main constituents of cell wall neutral sugars which consisted of arabinose, xylose, galactose, and glucose were decreased gradually with onset of fruit ripening regardless of cultivar. Arabinose which was predominant in 'Hanareum' pear decreased at the last stage of ripening, but the changes of cell wall neutral sugar during ripening were not occurred in 'Niitaka' pear. The change of molecular mass distribution in water soluble pectin observed dominantly at the early stage of fruit development. Depolymerization of 4% KOH-soluble hemicelluloses and degradation of xyloglucan showed in early-season cultivar 'Hanareum' during fruit maturation, and degradation of those fractions were detected only at the early stage fruit development in mid-season cultivar 'Manpungbae' and 'Niitaka'. The molecular mass profile of CDTA soluble pectin, $Na_2CO_3$-SP and 24% KOH soluble hemicelluloses showed no significant change during fruit maturation regardless of cultivar.

Lowering Effects in Plasma Cholesterol and Body Weight by Mycelial Extracts of Two Mushrooms: Agaricus blazai and Lentinus edodes. (아가리쿠스와 표고버섯 균사체 추출물의 혈중롤레스테롤 및 체중감소 효과)

  • 권미향;권석태;권석형;마민숙;박영인
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.402-409
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    • 2002
  • The effects of protein-bound polysaccharides (A-PBP and L-PBP) that were extracted from the mycelia of two edible mushrooms, namely Agaricus blazai and Lentinus edodes, on serum cholesterol and body weight were investigated in mice and female volunteers. Six groups of Male Balb/c mice were fed six kinds of diet supplement- solutions composed of L-PBP, A-PBP, chitosan, and other fiber constituents, for 30 days under the normal diet. Ninety female volunteers were also supplemented for 8 weeks with six kinds of capsules including control and five test groups as the same manners (two times a day, 4 capsules). From 12 days after feeding of L-PBP (Group I) and A-PBP (Group II), the weight of mice began to reduce as compared with control, whereas that of Group III fed chitosan was decreased 15 days after feeding. Group W and Group V which were fed mixture of L-PBP, A-PBP, chitosan, and other dietary fiber, were more significant in lowering weight. After 4 weeks of the supplementation in women, their serum LDL-cholesterol level and body weights in Group I and II were reduced, but Croup 111 taken with chitosan capsule showed weaker effect than Group I and II. After 8 weeks, LDL-cholesterol content in the sera of Group I (132.5 mg/dL) and II(131.5 mg/dL) was decreased to ideal level (125.4 and 122.8 mg/dL) for healthy blood vessel. In the case of Group W supplemented with mixture of L-PBP, A-PBP, and chitosan, the weight-reduction effect (11.8%) and hypocholesterolemic effect (11.0%) was most significant, indicating their synergistic action. These data suggested that the weight-controlling and hypolipidemic effect of L-PBP and A-PBP was involved, at least in part, in absorption of cholesterol as their role of dietary fiber, as well as cholesterol metabolism.

Components and Biological Activity of Aqueous Extract Isolated from Winged Stem of Euonymus alatus (화살나무 물 추출물의 구성성분과 생리활성)

  • Oh, Bong-Yun;Hwang, Soo-Kyung;Cheong, Mi-Young;Sin, Hong-Sig;Park, Bock-Hee;Lee, Jeong-Ho;Kim, Soo-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.898-904
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    • 2005
  • Although Euonymus alatus (EA) has been used as traditional medicine for cancer treatment, exact substances involved in curing of the disease are not yet known. Free radical scavenging and reactive oxygen species (ROS) removal activities of aqueous extract components isolated from winged stem of EA in animal cell line were investigated. Aqueous extract of EA (AEEA) was fractionated by ultrafiltration. All fractions mainly consisted of polysaccharide (44.8%), protein (2.1%), small amounts of phenol compounds and organic acids. Antioxidant activity of AEEA increased depending on concentration fractions, as determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. ROS removal activity was visualized in Chinese hamster ovary cell line using laser scanning confocal microscope, and AEEA activity increased in order of F IV>F III>F I>F II. These results suggest AETA has bioactive carbohydrates with potentials as functional foods and antioxidants.

Optimum Conditions for the Culture of Hericium erinaceum in a Jar Fermenter with the Addition of Ginseng Extract in the Liquid Medium (수삼추출물을 이용한 노루궁뎅이버섯 균사체의 jar fermenter에서의 발효조건 최적화)

  • Park, Chang-Kyu;Tu, Qi;Cho, Ju-Hyun;Yu, Kwang-Won;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Jeong, Jae-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.82-89
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    • 2010
  • To obtain functional materials from a submerged culture of Hericium erinaceum, a suitable basal medium for flask culture was screened and the optimal culture conditions in a jar fermenter were investigated with the addition of ginseng extracts (GE) to the basal liquid medium. Of all tested basal liquid media, the mushroom complete medium (MCM) supplemented with 0.5% of GE produced the highest mycelial dry weight (MDW) of 5.91 g/L in the flask, which reached a plateau at $25^{\circ}C$, pH 5.5 after 10 days. The submerged culture conditions for the mass production of mycelia in a 50 L jar fermenter were also optimal at $25^{\circ}C$, pH 5.5, 120 rpm agitation speed and 0.4 vvm aeration rate. Under these conditions, the maximum MDW was produced, which reached a value of 4.28 g/L within 5 days. When we investigated the effects of the amount of GE in the MCM on the production of MDW in the jar fermenter, the addition of 5% GE (HE-GE-5) under the optimal culture conditions produced the maximum MDW (4.93 g/L). In addition, the crude polysaccharide of HE-GE-5 contained mainly neutral sugars (63.2%) with considerable amounts of uronic acid (19.3%) and a small amount of proteins (8.8%) and it had potent immunostimulation properties.

Studies on the Comparative Analysis of Immunofunction of Agaricus blazei Murill Cultivated with Fermented Media Containing Pueraria thunbergiana (칡혼합 발효배지로 생산된 신령버섯의 면역기능성 비교 분석에 관한 연구)

  • 김주남;서정식;박동철
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.114-119
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    • 2002
  • This research was performed to investigate the immnomodulative effects of ploysaccharides extracted from the fruiting body of Agarcus blazei cultivated with the media which are fermented with sugar cane bagasse containing Pueraria thunbergiana in open-air storage. In MTT test, methanol extracts from the fruiting body of A. blazei cultivated with P. thunbergiana media showed in colon carcinoma line(HT29) by 1.5∼3.5 fold and human heptoma cell line (HepG2) by 1.3 ∼2.4 fold antitumor activites compared to two types media (rice straw plus sugar cane bagasse, rice straw only) often used in the fauns. To clarify the antimutagenic principles, three extracts, Ab-l, Ab-2 and Ab-3, were separated by the solvent fractionations such as hot water, cold & hot sodium hydroxide respectively, and their antimutagenic effects was determined against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-cnitrso-guanidine(MNNG) using Salmonella typhymurium. There was no significant differencies of inhibition levels among the used media, but Ab-3 tractions still showed a high antimutagenicity in the Ames test regardless of cultivating areas or media. To prove the cell immunofunction, nitric oxide (NO) produced from Raw 264.7 matrophage cultured with three fractions (Ab-l, Ab-2, Ab-3) was measured, and showed generally increase about 45 ∼58 percent compared to another two media (rice straw plus sugar cane bagasse, rice straw only), in the fraction of hot alklai extracts of the fruiting body cultivated with P. thunbergiana, which means that the media selection could be very important factors for improving medicinal effects in agaricus blazei fruiting body.

Effects of Die Temperature and Repeated Extrusion on Chemical Components and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded White Ginseng (사출구 온도와 반복 압출성형이 백삼압출성형물의 화학적 조성 및 항산화 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Kwan-Hyung;Gui, Ying;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.258-264
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the effects of die temperature and repeated extrusion on the chemical components and antioxidant properties of extruded white ginseng (EWG). Die temperature was adjusted to 100, 120, and followed by repeated extrusion under the same conditions with corresponding samples. Secondary extruded white ginseng (SEWG) at a die temperature of $120^{\circ}C$ had the highest acidic polysaccharide content of all extrudates. Increasing die temperature and repeated extrusion both increased crude saponin content of the extrudate. Ginsenoside Rh1 was detected in the EWG ($140^{\circ}C$) and SEWGs, whereas ginsenosides Rg3s and Rg3r were only detected in SEWG ($140^{\circ}C$). The highest total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and reducing power obtained from SEWG ($140^{\circ}C$) were $8.55{\pm}0.03$ mg/g, $72.05{\pm}0.63%$, and $0.80{\pm}0.004$, respectively. In conclusion, repeated extrusion increases antioxidant activity and crude saponin contents for the development of improved ginseng products.

Immunogenicity and Safety of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b Polysaccharide-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine (PRP-T: HiberixTM) in Korean Infants (우리나라 영아에서 PRP-T(HiberixTM)백신의 면역원성 및 안전성에 대한 연구)

  • Chung, Eun Hee;Kim, Yae Jean;Kim, Yun Kyung;Kim, Dong Ho;Seo, Jeong Wan;Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Four kinds of Haemophilus influenzae type b protein conjugate vaccines, PRPD, PRP-T, PRP-OMP and PRP-CRM197, have been developed, and PRP-T vaccines are currently produced by two manufacturer, $ActHib^{(R)}$ by Aventis and $Hiberix^{TM}$ by GlaxoSmith-Kline Biologicals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of $Hiberix^{TM}$ in Korean infants. Methods : Seventy-three healthy infants(43 male infants) were recruited for this study after parental informed consent was obtained. Each infant was vaccinated at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with the study vaccine. At each visit, infants were also immunized with DTaP, trivalent oral polio vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine when indicated. The serum anti-PRP antibody was measured at prevaccination, 2 month later after the 2nd dose, and 1 month later after the 3rd dose by the ELISA method. The local and systemic adverse reactions of vaccination were monitored for 3 consecutive days after each immunization. Immunogenicity of vaccine was evaluated in infants who received all the scheduled immunization and the adverse reactions were evaluated for infants who received at least one dose of the study vaccine. Results : Among seventy three infants, enrolled in this study; sixty three(37 male infants) completed all the scheduled immunizations. The geometric mean titer(GMT) of anti-PRP antibodies at prevaccination was 0.17 ${\mu}g/mL$(95% confidence interval[CI]; 0.13~0.22). The GMT of anti-PRP antibodies increased to 4.14 ${\mu}g/mL$(95% CI; 2.65~6.48) at 2 month later after the 2nd dose of PRP-T and 14.65 ${\mu}g/mL$(95% CI; 10.83~19.81) at 1 month later after the 3rd dose. Anti-PRP antibody ${\geq}0.15$ ${\mu}g/mL$, was observed in 98.4%(95% CI; 91.8~100) after 2 doses and 100%(95% CI; 100~100) after 3 doses. Anti-PRP antibody ${\geq}1.0$ ${\mu}g/mL$, was obtained in 77.8%(95% CI; 67.5~88.0) after 2 doses, and 98.4%(95% CI; 95.3~100) after 3 doses. Most of the adverse reaction after vaccination were mild. Irritability, the most common systemic reaction, was observed in 45.5%, followed by drowsiness(30.5%), poor feeding(26.7%) and fever(5.6%). Among the local reactions tenderness was observed in 7.9%, redness(${\geq}5$ mm) in 2.8% and swelling(${\geq}5$ mm) in 1.8%. Conclusion : The PRP-T vaccine used in this study was highly immunogenic and safe in Korean young infants. The finding that high GMT and high frequency of infants with a protective titer achieved after 2 doses is consistent with the previous studies which were done with a PRP-T vaccine of other manufacturer. This study suggests that the immunization schedule of PRP-T vaccine for Korean infants may need re-evaluation.

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