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Efficient Application of Westgard Multi-Rules and Quality Control Implementation Improvement (Westgard Multi-Rules의 효율적 적용과 조치사항의 개선)

  • Jung, Heung Soo;Oh, Youn Jung;Bae, Jin Soo;Baek, Jin Young;Hwang, Bo ra;Shin, Yong Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.60-64
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Westgard multi-rules application based on test quality improvement and commercialized international standard has been widely used in quality control. However, it is difficult to applicate the Westgard multi-rules in nuclear medicine in vitro tests due to the larger sample sizes and the simultaneous measurement of quality control material and patient sample. This study investigated the usefulness of Westgard multi-rules application in nuclear medicine in vitro tests. Materials and Methods A total of 282 systematic error multi-rules (22s, 101s) recorded in the samsung medical center computer system from January 2013 to June 2016 along with 117 cases of corrective measure record was analyzed. The Quality control implementation is recorded in Hospital information system were divided into 4 high-level areas including quality control material error, experimental procedural error, Kit lot number management error, and others. To prevent quality control material error, the existing method that each staff used their own method was changed. The staff who in charge of managing the quality control material was designated and daily consumption amount of every test was strictly controlled by one person. To prevent other errors, every test step was standardized so that the entire test procedures are identically implemented. Results The total quality control implementation was 117 cases; As a result, 62 quality control material errors were 62 cases, experimental process errors were 24 cases, Kit lot number control errors were 18 cases, and other errors were 13 cases. The quality control material error was corrected and could be used fresh materials within 2 days after thawing. The cases of systemic error were decreased to causes as quality control material error. The quality control materials were reduced above 10 vials to a monthly average. In addition, these errors of experimental processing and Kit lot number were improved by test standardization. Consequently, the cases of 101s and 22s in systematic error rules decreased at least 2 cases to a monthly average. Conclusion To confirm of systematic error through multi-rules application quickly, it is necessary to base on management of the QC material, target values and standard deviation. Moreover, in the event of a systematic error, it was found important to record measures based on test cause analysis. The experiment results are expected to contribute to internal quality control improvement and prompt and accurate result reporting through error recording and causal analysis based on Westgard multi-rules analysis.

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Characterization of quality changes of whole super sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) during thermal sterilization for shelf-stable products (상온유통을 위한 가열살균 중의 통 초당옥수수의 품질변화 연구)

  • Lee, Yun Ju;Yoon, Won Byong
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated the quality changes in whole super sweet corn during thermal processing to extend its shelf-life. To minimize the reduction of unique texture of whole sweet corn after the sterilization, the alcohol sanitation applied and the cold point of a whole corn ear was determined using a computer simulation. The cold point was located between the corn kernel and the cob. The microorganisms on the surface of sweet corn were reduced by more than 1 log CFU/g after alcohol sanitation, then the whole corn was treated to satisfy the degree of sterilization ($F_{121.1}=4$). The quality of sterilized sweet corn was compared with the control that was treated with steaming. The quality changes of sterilized sweet corn during storage were monitored for 9 months at $25^{\circ}C$. The hardness was maintained within 30% of its initial value. The minimum of hardness was $464.50{\pm}103.35g$ and maximum of hardness was $514.50{\pm}81.83g$. The differences in the sugar content among the samples were found, but the sugar content of corn kernel remained within 30% of the control, ranging from $28.83{\pm}1.05$ to $34.36{\pm}0.42%$. The yellowness was higher than that of control by 5%. The maximum value of yellowness was $34.36{\pm}0.42$. The general bacteria and molds and yeasts in corn kernel stored at $25^{\circ}C$ were not detected after 9 months of storage at $25^{\circ}C$. Therefore, in this study, we have demonstrated that the thermal sterilized method extends the shelf-life of whole sweet corn with minimizing its quality changes over 6 months in room temperature.

Electroencephalographic Changes Induced by a Neurofeedback Training : A Preliminary Study in Primary Insomniac Patients (뉴로피드백 훈련에 의한 뇌파 변화 연구 : 일차성 불면증 환자에 대한 예비 연구)

  • Lee, Jin Han;Shin, Hong-Beom;Kim, Jong Won;Suh, Ho-Suk;Lee, Young Jin
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.44-48
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. Recent studies suggest that cognitive and physical arousal play an important role in the generation of primary insomnia. Studies have also shown that information processing disorders due to cortical hyperactivity might interfere with normal sleep onset and sleep continuity. Therefore, focusing on central nervous system arousal and normalizing the information process have become current topics of interest. It has been well known that neurofeedback can reduce the brain hyperarousal by modulating patients' brain waves during a sequence of behavior therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of neurofeedback therapy on electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics in patients with primary insomnia. Methods: Thirteen subjects who met the criteria for an insomnia diagnosis and 14 control subjects who were matched on sex and age were included. Neurofeedback and sham treatments were performed in a random order for 30 minutes, respectively. EEG spectral power analyses were performed to quantify effects of the neurofeedback therapy on brain wave forms. Results: In patients with primary insomnia, relative spectral theta and sigma power during a therapeutic neurofeedback session were significantly lower than during a sham session ($13.9{\pm}2.6$ vs. $12.2{\pm}3.8$ and $3.6{\pm}0.9$ vs. $3.2{\pm}1.0$ in %, respectively; p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in other EEG spectral bands. Conclusion: For the first time in Korea, EEG spectral power in the theta band was found to increase when a neurofeedback session was applied to patients with insomnia. This outcome might provide some insight into new interventions for improving sleep onset. However, the treatment response of insomniacs was not precisely evaluated due to limitations of the current pilot study, which requires follow-up studies with larger samples in the future.

Consideration of a Bacteria Contamination Management in the Dispensation of 99mTc Radiopharmaceutical (테크네슘 방사성의약품의 조제와 분배 과정에서 오염균에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Do Chul;Gim, Yeong Su;Jo, Gwang Mo;Gim, Hui Jeong;Seo, Han Gyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.84-87
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    • 2018
  • Purpose The radiopharmaceutical used in the nuclear medicine department is used only for the specific patient according to the prescription or instruction of the doctor without selling, so it is dispensed and it is distributed and used for the examination. Radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients should be managed appropriately as well as radiation safety management during dispensation. The purpose of this study is to investigate microbial contamination during dispensation of radiopharmaceuticals Materials and Methods This study distinguished between general workbench and clean workbench and performed three tests. First, microbial cultivation test of radiopharmaceutical prepared and dispensed in general workbenches and sterile workbenches were carried out five times, respectively. The second test was performed settle plate method three times before and after the use of the exhaust filter. Finally, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) measurement was performed in each workbench to measure bacterial counts. In addition, ATP measurement were carried out by designating locations and items that may be contaminated during dispensation. Results In the microbial culture test, no microorganisms were detected in both samples. In the settle plate method, it was detected without using of the exhaust filter in a general workbench once. In the ATP measurement test, it was measured at the level of 400 RLU or less, which is the standard value of contamination, in both workbenches surface. In additional ATP measurement test, the refrigerator handle in the distribution room was measured above the reference value of 1217 RLU, the vacuum vial shield of the Tech Generator at 435 RLU, and the syringe holder at 1357 RLU. After environmental disinfection, the results were reduced to 311 RLU, 136 RLU, and 291 RLU. Conclusion No contamination by bacteria was found in both workbenches. However, microbial contamination may occur if the use of an exhaust filter or proper hand hygiene is not achieved. Regular inspections and management for aseptic processing themselves will be necessary.

A Study on the Quality Improvement of Brain Perfusion SPECT Image (뇌혈류 단일광자방출단층촬영 영상 품질 향상에 대한 연구)

  • Kil, Sang-Hyeong;Lim, Yung-Hyun;Park, Gwang-Yeol;Cho, Seong-Mook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2019
  • Purpose Tc-99m HMPAO is widely used radiopharmaceutical for brain perfusion SPECT. Tc-99m HMPAO is chemically unstable and is liable to show deterioration of labeling efficiency due to high incidence of secondary Tc-99m HMPAO complex, free pertechnetate and reduced-hydrolyzed Tc-99m. In this study, we investigated whether sialogogues administration could reduce the impurities of Tc-99m HMPAO. Materials and Methods In thirty subjects(20 male and 10 female, age range 19~89 years, mean age $60.7{\pm}14.5years$), brain perfusion SPECT were performed at basal and citric acid stimulation states consecutively after injection of 555 MBq of Tc-99m HMPAO. In the salivary glands, the uptake coefficient was calculated using Siemens processing program. Statistical comparison between before and after the citric acid stimulation performed paired t-test. P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results Salivary glands uptake was $12900{\pm}3101$ counts in basal and $10677{\pm}2742$ counts in citric acid stimulation states. Unnecessary impurities in the body is much decreased after citric acid administration(t=10.78, P<0.05). The image quality was much improved after administration of citric acid and the regional cerebral perfusion was clearly from demarcated the background. Conclusion The impurity is distributed throughout the body particularly in the salivary glands and nasal mucosa when Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT is performed. If this impurities is not removed, the quality of the image may deteriorate, resulting in errors in visual evaluation. The use of sialogogues could be helpful for decreasing unnecessary impurities in the body.

Improved Original Entry Point Detection Method Based on PinDemonium (PinDemonium 기반 Original Entry Point 탐지 방법 개선)

  • Kim, Gyeong Min;Park, Yong Su
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.155-164
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    • 2018
  • Many malicious programs have been compressed or encrypted using various commercial packers to prevent reverse engineering, So malicious code analysts must decompress or decrypt them first. The OEP (Original Entry Point) is the address of the first instruction executed after returning the encrypted or compressed executable file back to the original binary state. Several unpackers, including PinDemonium, execute the packed file and keep tracks of the addresses until the OEP appears and find the OEP among the addresses. However, instead of finding exact one OEP, unpackers provide a relatively large set of OEP candidates and sometimes OEP is missing among candidates. In other words, existing unpackers have difficulty in finding the correct OEP. We have developed new tool which provides fewer OEP candidate sets by adding two methods based on the property of the OEP. In this paper, we propose two methods to provide fewer OEP candidate sets by using the property that the function call sequence and parameters are same between packed program and original program. First way is based on a function call. Programs written in the C/C++ language are compiled to translate languages into binary code. Compiler-specific system functions are added to the compiled program. After examining these functions, we have added a method that we suggest to PinDemonium to detect the unpacking work by matching the patterns of system functions that are called in packed programs and unpacked programs. Second way is based on parameters. The parameters include not only the user-entered inputs, but also the system inputs. We have added a method that we suggest to PinDemonium to find the OEP using the system parameters of a particular function in stack memory. OEP detection experiments were performed on sample programs packed by 16 commercial packers. We can reduce the OEP candidate by more than 40% on average compared to PinDemonium except 2 commercial packers which are can not be executed due to the anti-debugging technique.

The Effect of Accounts Receivable Management on Business Performance & Organizational Satisfaction: Focused on Micro Manufacturing Industries (매출채권관리가 재무적 경영성과와 조직만족에 미치는 영향: 도시형소공인을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jong Gab;Ha, Kyu Soo
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the management of receivables on the management performance of micro manufacturing industries. The results of the survey are as follows. First, among the factors of management of pre- and post-trade receivables in the micro manufacturing industries, management organization and regulations, contract execution management, bad debt control, which are the subordinate factors of credit control, are positive (+) significant effect on stability. In terms of profitability, management organizations and regulations, which are subordinate factors of credit control management, have a positive (+) significant effect on profitability. The recovery management, which is a factor of management of post - receivable receivables, did not have a significant effect on the stability and profitability of financial management performance. Second, the effect of financial performance on organizational satisfaction is positively related to stability, while profitability has no significant effect on organizational satisfaction. The implication of this study is that pre - trade receivables management is more important than post - trade receivables management in the management of accounts receivables of micro manufacturing industries. Proactive credit management refers to the procedure of establishing and managing personal guarantees and physical guarantees in order to smooth the execution of the obligations at the same time as the contract is concluded through processes such as credit investigation, analysis and evaluation, and sales decision before the contract is concluded. Post receivables management based on the assumption of default is a receivables management procedure from receipt of receivables that are already defaulted to bad debts to bad debt processing. If the collection of receivables is delayed or bad debt is increased, Furthermore, a corporation may be subject to bankruptcy risk (insolvency by paper profits). Therefore, it is meaningful that this study suggests direction to induce change of contract type in advance by understanding the possibility of settlement of accounts receivable and recovery of bad debts within the day of transition in case of contract of micro manufacturing industries.

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Analysis of Index Component Content and Antioxidant Activity According to the Root Diameter of Angelica gigas Nakai (참당귀 뿌리 직경별 지표성분 함량 및 항산화 활성 분석)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, So-Hee;Jin, Meilan;Hong, Chung-Oui;Hur, Mok;Han, Jong-Won;Lee, Woo-Moon;Yun, Hyeong Muk;Kim, Yeon Bok;Lee, Yi;Koo, Sung Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 2019
  • Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a traditional medicinal herb especially in Korea. It contains pyranocoumarins, which are major active components including decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA). This study was carried out to determine the change in active component content and antioxidant activity depending on the root diameter of AGN. Several processing steps are involved to use AGN roots as medicine. The dried AGN roots are divided into body (B), thick root (TkR), medium root (MR) and thin root (TnR) according to their diameter before cutting into medicine. The recovery rates of each root parts per 100 kg were measured as $32.3{\pm}2.5$, $9.0{\pm}1.0$, $39.3{\pm}2.1$ and $15.0{\pm}1.0%$, respectively and the mean diameters were measured as $51.95{\pm}4.55$, $7.05{\pm}0.89$, $2.88{\pm}0.49$ and $1.57{\pm}0.32mm$. Two index components, D and DA, were analyzed. The change of both D and DA content showed a similar tendency. Both D and DA content were increased as the root diameter decreased (higher in TnR). In addition, antioxidant activity was higher in B and TnR, and lower in TkR and MR than control. This study showed that the thinner the root diameter, the higher the D and DA content in AGN roots and that TnR has excellent antioxidant activity compared to other root parts, suggesting that the thinner root part of AGN could be used as a potential material.

Application Effects of Biochar Derived from Pruned Stems of Pear Tree on Growth of Crops and Soil Physico-chemical Properties (배 전정지 바이오차 시용이 작물 생육 및 토양이화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Jae-Eun;Lim, Gab-June;Park, Jung-Soo;Shim, Jae-Man;Kang, Chang-Sung;Hong, Sun-Seong
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to develop the manufacturing method of biochar using pruned stems of pear tree and its application effect on the crop growth and soil physico-chemical properties. In this study, biochar derived from pruned stems of pear tree at heating temperature of $300^{\circ}C$, $500^{\circ}C$ and $700^{\circ}C$ in heating times of 2, 3 and 4 hours, were tested in the changes of their chemical properties during biochar processing. The pH, Exch. K, Exch. Mg and cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased during the production of biochar, and the change of these properties rapidly occurred at $500^{\circ}C$. However, as the pyrolysis temperature increased, ash content increased and total carbon (T-C), yield decreased. And the change of the properties in response to the heating time was not shown. It was thought that it would be desirable to set the production conditions of biochar at $500^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours in consideration of the change of chemical properties and the ash content and yield. And also, were conducted the experiments to establish manufacturing method of farm-made biochar using drum biochar manufacturing machine and investigate the application effects of biochar on the cultivation of chinese cabbage and tomato. Application of biochar derived from pruned stems of pear tree could enhance pH, organic matter (OM), total carbon (T-C) of soil. On the other hand, soil electrical conductivity (EC), NO3-N were lowered compared to the control which has no application. The bulk density, porosity and aggregate formation of soil were improved by biochar application. The fresh matter yields of chinese cabbage and tomato were significantly increased in proportion to the application rate of biochar. This study demonstrated the effect of the biochar derived from agricultural byproduct to be as a low cost potential soil ameliorant by physico-chemical properties in eco-friendly greenhouse cultivation.

The Effect of Bilateral Eye Movements on Face Recognition in Patients with Schizophrenia (양측성 안구운동이 조현병 환자의 얼굴 재인에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Na-Hyun;Kim, Ji-Woong;Im, Woo-Young;Lee, Sang-Min;Lim, Sanghyun;Kwon, Hyukchan;Kim, Min-Young;Kim, Kiwoong;Kim, Seung-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : The deficit of recognition memory has been found as one of the common neurocognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, they were reported to fail to enhance the memory about emotional stimuli. Previous studies have shown that bilateral eye movements enhance the memory retrieval. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate the memory enhancement of bilaterally alternating eye movements in schizophrenic patients. Methods : Twenty one patients with schizophrenia participated in this study. The participants learned faces (angry or neutral faces), and then performed a recognition memory task in relation to the faces after bilateral eye movements and central fixation. Recognition accuracy, response bias, and mean response time to hits were compared and analysed. Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance was performed for statistical analysis. Results : There was a significant effect of bilateral eye movements condition in mean response time(F=5.812, p<0.05) and response bias(F=10.366, p<0.01). Statistically significant interaction effects were not observed between eye movement condition and face emotion type. Conclusions : Irrespective of the emotional difference of facial stimuli, recognition memory processing was more enhanced after bilateral eye movements in patients with schizophrenia. Further study will be needed to investigate the underlying neural mechanism of bilateral eye movements-induced memory enhancement in patients with schizophrenia.

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