• Title, Summary, Keyword: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)

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Gastroprotective Activities of Sennoside A and Sennoside B via the Up-Regulation of Prostaglandin E2 and the Inhibition of H+/K+-ATPase

  • Hwang, In Young;Jeong, Choon Sik
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.458-464
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    • 2015
  • Sennoside A (erythro) and sennoside B (threo) are dianthrone glycosides and diastereomers. We investigated their abilities to prevent the gastric lesions associated with diseases, such as, gastritis and gastric ulcer. To elucidate their gastroprotective effects, the inhibitions of $HCl{\cdot}tOH$-induced gastritis and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers were assessed in rats. It was observed that both sennoside A and sennoside B increased prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) levels and inhibited $H^+/K^+$-ATPase (proton pump). In a rat model, both compounds reduced gastric juice, total acidity and increased pH, indicating that proton pump inhibition reduces gastric acid secretion. Furthermore, sennoside A and B increased $PGE_2$ in a concentration-dependent manner. In a gastric emptying and intestinal transporting rate experiment, both sennoside A and sennoside B accelerated motility. Our results thus suggest that sennoside A and sennoside B possess significant gastroprotective activities and they might be useful for the treatment of gastric disease.

Effects of Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture on Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 Production in Macrophage (당귀약침액이 대식세포에서 산화질소(NO) 및 프로스타글란딘 (Prostaglandin) 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, You-Jin;Roh, Jeong-Du
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : Angelicae Gigantis Radix has been known traditional medicine with antimicrobial activities and it has been widely used for treatment of blood and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, some studies examined anti-inflammation effects of Angelicae Gigantis Radix but they usually were performed by ethanol extracted Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture. So We investigated the inhibitory effects of Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture by hot water and ethanol extract on Nitric oxide(NO) and Prostaglandin $E_2$($PGE_2$) production in lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced macrophage cell. Methods : Angelicae Gigantis Radix was extracted by ethanol and hot water. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. To evaluate anti-inflammation effects of Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture, we examined NO and $PGE_2$ production in LPS induced macrophages. The concentrations of NO and $PGE_2$ were measured by Griess assay and Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Results : 1) The MTT assay demonstrated that cytotoxic effect of Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture by hot water extract and ethanol extract in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were not appeared. 2) Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture by ethanol extract and hot water extract inhibited NO production in LPS induced macrophages significantly. 3) Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture by ethanol extract tended to inhibiting $PGE_2$ production in LPS induced macrophages. And Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture by hot water extract inhibited LPS induced production of $PGE_2$ in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells significantly. Conclusions : This study suggests that Angelicae Gigantis Radix pharmacopuncture may have an anti-inflammatory property through the inhibition of NO and $PGE_2$ production in LPS induced macrophages. It may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.

Comparative Study of the Biological Activity Effects of Manjakani (Quercus infectoria Olivier) Extract using Water and 80% Ethanol (열수 및 80% 에탄올로 추출한 만자카니(Quercus infectoria Olivier)의 생리활성 비교연구)

  • Lee, Hea-Jin;Kim, Dong-Han;Lee, Eun-Jin;Lim, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.124-132
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological activities such as cytotoxicity and anti-inflammation using Manjakani (Quercus infectoria Olivier) extract. Manjakani was extracted from hot DW and 80% ethanol. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay on RAW 264.7 cells. Also, anti-inflammatory activities were measured through changes in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotrien B4 (LTB4), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) and transcription factor on LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. The results confirmed that significant cytotoxicity does not appear in the concentration range of 1, 5, and 10 ㎍/㎖ of both extracts of this study. The production of NO was slowed by approximately MDE 37.2% and MEE 43.7% at 10 ㎍/㎖ concentration. Also, level of PGE2 and LTB4 was decreased MDE 30.9%/MEE 43.7% and MDE 37.1%/MEE 43.7%. In the case of inflammatory cytokine was reduced to MDE 38.8%/MEE 50.8% for IL-1β, MDE 35.0%/MEE 44.2% for IL-6 and MDE 31.9%/MEE 36.6% for TNF-α at 10 ㎍/㎖ concentration. The mRNA expression of NF-κB, iNOS and COX-2 significantly decreased by MDE 44.0%/MEE 16.0%, MDE 44.0%/MEE 55.0% and MDE 45.0%/MEE 40.0%, respectively, following the 10 ㎍/mL sample treatment when compared to the control. Both extracts were effective in anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, both extracts showed efficient changes of production of NO, PGE2, LTB4, pro-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factor. But MEE was found to have a higher inhibitory effect than MDE. In other words, Manjakani was showed significant biological activities showing anti-inflammation without cytotoxicity. These results will be provided as fundamental data for further development of the new health food and therapeutics related to the results above.

Effect of Cinnamon Extract on the Inflammatory Response in the LPS-shock Rat

  • Lee, Eun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2015
  • This study measured the plasma and liver concentrations of cytokines, the distribution of blood lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 and CD8), plasma levels of nitrite (NO3) and nitrate (NO2), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and CINC-1 in order to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the cinnamon extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed rats. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were lower in the cinnamon extract groups than in the control group at both 2 and 5 h after LPS injection. Furthermore, the liver concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were lower in the cinnamon extract groups than in the control group at 5 h after LPS injection. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were higher in the cinnamon extract groups than in the control group at both 2 and 5 h after LPS injection, and liver concentrations of IL-10 did not differ significantly among all treatment groups at 5 h after LPS injection. The distribution of CD4 tended to increase, and that of CD8 tended to decrease in the cinnamon extract groups. The CD4/CD8 ratio was increased in the cinnamon extract groups. The plasma concentrations of NO3/NO2, ICAM-1, CINC-1, and PGE2 and the PLF concentrations of MCP-1 and CINC-1 exhibited a tendency to decrease in the cinnamon extract groups. These results indicate that cinnamon extract can exert functional anti-inflammatory effects.

The Effect of Prostaglandin E1 on Apoptosis Induced by Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rat Intestinal Mucosa (흰쥐소장 점막의 허혈재관류손상에서 프로스타글란딘 E1이 세포자멸사에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Tae Hui;Kim, Seung Hong;Kim, Cheol Kyu;Kim, Han Koo;Kim, Woo Seob
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.369-375
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    • 2005
  • Apoptosis is a physiologic or programmed cell death process which is controlled by genes. It is essential for the function and the appropriate development of multicellular organism. It is also thought to be one of the main mechanisms of cell death in ischemic tissues. The effect of prostaglandin $E_1$($PGE_1$) is proven to be useful in the recovery of ischemic changes by inducing vasodilation of peripheral vessels and platelet disaggregation. $PGE_1$ is also known to suppress apoptosis in human liver sinusoidal endothelial cell from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of $PGE_1$ on the apoptosis in the ischemia reperfusion injury of rat intestine. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were used. In control group(N=15), superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 minutes and after removing the vessel clamp, it was reperfused for 60 minutes and harvested. In experimental group(N=15), a jejunal flap was also made as in the control group except for the intraarterial administration of the $PGE_1$ right after clamping the artery and removing the clamp. H&E, TUNEL and immunohistochemical stains for p53, bax, and bcl-2 were performed. There were ischemic changes in gross and microscopic findings in both groups. The apoptotic index was significantly lower in the experimental group($1.29{\pm}0.82$(p=0.003)) than in the control group ($2.33{\pm}0.95$). The rat intestinal ischemia apoptosis by ischemia-reperfusion was partly related to the modulating of bcl-2, bax, and p53 expression. Our results indicate that $PGE_1$ suppresses the apoptosis in the ischemic jejunal flap and this effect is probably the result of a increase in expression of bcl-2.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Detoxified Bacterial Strains in Wistar Rats

  • Sur, Tapas Kumar;Auddy, Biswajit;Mitra, Susil Kumar;Sarkar, Dipak Kumar;Bhattacharyya, Dipankar
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.159-163
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    • 2010
  • A mixture of several detoxified bacterial strains ($Sterodin^{(R)}$) has been studied for anti-inflammatory effect in Wistar rats on carrageenin, dextran and prostaglandin $E_1$ ($PGE_1$) induced edema in acute model and cotton pellet and carrageenin induced sub-acute model, while, Freund's adjuvant induced chronic model. The bacterial strains showed strong inhibitory activity in acute, sub-acute and chronic models of inflammation. Further, it reduced ${\alpha}1$ acid glycoprotein and ${\alpha}2$ macroglobulin levels in serum and prostaglandin $E_2$ in inflamed paw. These results indicated that the bacterial strains probably act through prostaglandin mediatory pathways and may be useful in treatment of inflammation.

Effect of Sagunja-tang on Immune Function of Mouse Immune Cells (四君子湯이 免疫機能에 미치는 影響)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Jung, Myung;Lim, Kyu-Sang;Yun, Yong-Gab
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.14-29
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : The extract of Sagunja-tang has been traditionally used for restorative treatment of constitutional weakness, vascular and immune disorder, and nervous disease in Oriental country. This study investigated the regulatory effects of Sagunja-tang on the expression, production, and activity of immune mediators.Methods : In this study, the extract of Sagunja-tang was prepared by extracting with distilled water at 100$^{\circ}C$ for 2.5h. The extract was freeze-dried following filtration through 0.45${{\mu}m}$ filter. The extract was dissolved in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and filtered again through 0.45${{\mu}m}$ filter before use. The level of nitrite, an oxidative product of nitric oxide(NO) was measured in the culture medium by the Griess reaction. The levels of prostaglandin E2(PGE2), Th1 cytokines (IFN-${\gamma}$, IL-2) and Th2 cytokines(IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Also examined the effects of the extract on T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells.Results : In this investigation, Production levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by treatment with the extract. I also found that the extract increased T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conculsions : These results suggest that the water extract of Sagunja-tang may be useful for a therapeutic drug against a sickly constitution and immune diseases, probably by regulating the production of immune mediators.

Anti-inflammatory mechanism and Anti-oxidant Effects of Naesohwangryun-tang in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells (LPS로 유도된 RAW 264.7 대식세포주에서 내소황련탕(內疎黃連湯)의 항염증 기전 및 항산화 효능 연구)

  • Jeon, Seon-Hong;Kim, Tae-Jun;Kim, Yong-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.100-111
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    • 2020
  • Objectives : The aim of experiment is to examine anti-inflammatory effect and anti-oxidant effect of Naesohwangryun-tang (NSHRT) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Methods : In the present study, The cell viability was performed by MTT assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis were performed by NO assay and ELISA KIT. The anti-oxidant effect was performed by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The inhibitory effects of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were confirmed by realtime PCR and western blotting. Results : NSHRT was no cytotoxicity at treated group. NO and PGE2 production were inhibited compared to the LPS treated group and also mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased compared to the LPS treated group. Conclusions : According to the above experiments, we confirmed that NSHRT has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. It is suggested that NSHRT is potential ingredient of skin diseases.

Inhibitory Effects of Ginsenoside Rb1,Rg3, and Panax ginseng Head Butanol Fraction on Inflammatory Mediators from LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

  • Lee, Je-Hyuk;Jeong, Choon-Sik
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2008
  • Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (Araliaceae, P. ginseng) has been used for the enhancement of vascular and immune functions in Korea and Japan for a long time. Ginsenoside $Rb_1$ and $Rg_3$ isolated from P. ginseng head-part butanolic extract (PGHB) were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity. Ginsenosides and PGHB did not affect the cell viability within $0\;-\;100\;{\mu}g/ml$ concentration to RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Ginsenosides and PGHB inhibited partly lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrite production in a dose-dependent manner. The ginsenosides and PGHB showed partially chemical nitric oxide (NO) quenching (maximum 40%) in the cell-free system. Also, ginsenoside $Rb_1$ and $Rg_3$ inhibited markedly approximately 74 and 54% of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcription from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, the inhibitory effect of ginsenosides and PGHB on NO production did not occur as a result of cell viability, but was caused by both the chemical NO quenching and the regulation of iNOS. Additionally, the ginsenoside $Rb_1$ and PGHB inhibited prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, showed approximately 70-98% inhibition at $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ concentration. And the treatment with ginsenosides and PGHB attenuated partially LPS-upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene transcription. Ginsenoside $Rg_3$ suppressed LPS-stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) level to the basal in RAW 264.7 cells. From these results, ginsenoside $Rb_1,\;Rg_3$, and PGHB may be useful for the relief and retardation of immunological inflammatory responses and its action may occur through the reduction of inflammatory mediators, including NO, $PGE_2$, and IL-6 production.