• Title/Summary/Keyword: protein kinase C

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The Effects of Chronic Carbamazepine Administration on Protein Kinase A and Protein Kinase C Activities in Rat Brain (카바마제핀 장기 투여가 백서(白鼠) 뇌의 Protein Kinase A와 Protein Kinase C 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Rheem, Doo-Won;Kim, Leen;Suh, Kwang-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 1998
  • Objective : Many evidences suggest that patients with bipolar disorder have functional abnormalities in their postreceptor signal transduction pathways, and mood stabilizing effect of lithium is exerted by modulating this dysfunctioning system. Carbamazepine, an antiepileptic agent, is also known to be effective in the treatment and prevention of bipolar disorder. But the precise mechanism of action of the drug is still poorly understood. This study was performed to elucidate the possible therapeutic mechanism of carbamazepine. Method : The effects of chronic carbamazepine administration on protein kinase A and protein kinase C activities in frontal cortex of rat brain after 2 weeks of drug administration were measured and compared with those of control subjects. Results : Mean(${\pm}SE$) value of activity(phosphate transfer ${\mu}mol/mg$ of $protein{\cdot}min$) of protein kinase A in control and test group was $0.249563{\pm}0.036$ and $0.539853{\pm}0.078$, and that of protein kinase C was $0.654817{\pm}0.053$ and $1.146205{\pm}0.052$ respectively, being increased in test group. And differences between the two groups were statistically significant for both enzymes(protein kinase A ; p<0.01, protein kinase C ; p<0.001). Conclusion : These results show that chronic carbamazepine administration increases protein kinase A and C activities, and concerning the possible mode of therapeutic action in bipolar disorder it is suggested that enhanced enzymes phosphorylate receptor-G-protein-effector complexes to dampen hyperfunctioning neuronal activity and thus stabilize the system.

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The Role of Protein Kinase C and Protein Tyrosine Kinase in the Signal Transduction Pathway of Stimulus Induced by Endotoxin in Peripheral Blood Monocyte (말초혈액 단핵구에 대한 내독소 자극의 신호 전달에서 Protein Kinase C와 Protein Tyrosine Kinase의 역할)

  • Kim, Jae-Yeol;Park, Jae-Suk;Lee, Gwi-Lae;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.338-348
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    • 1997
  • Background : Endotoxin, the component of outermembrane of gram negative organism, plays an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory reaction by its effects on inflammatory cells. Until recently, there have been continuing efforts to delinate the mechanisms of the signal trasduction pathway of endotoxin stimuli on inflammatory cells. By uncovering the mechanisms of signal transduction pathway of endotoxin stimuli, we can expect to have tools to control the excessive inflammatory responses which sometimes may be fatal to the involved host. It was generally accepted that endotoxin exerts its inflammatory effects through inflammatory cytokines that are produced by endotoxin-stimulated inflammatory cells and there were some reports on the importance of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase activation in the production of inflammatory cytokines by endotoxin So we evaluated the effect of pretreatment of protein kinase C inhibitors (H7, Staurosporin) and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors(Herbimycin, Genistein) on the endotoxin-stimulated cytokines(IL-8 & TNF-$\alpha$) mRNA expression. Method : Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient method and purified by adhesion to 60mm Petri dishes. Endotoxin(LPS 100ng/ml) was added to each dishes except one control dish, and each endotoxin-stimulated dishes was preincubated with H7, Staurosporin(protein kinase C inhibitor), Herbimycin or Genistein(protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor) respectively except one dish. Four hours later the endotoxin stimulation, total RNA was extracted and Northern blot analysis for IL-8 mRNA and TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA was done. Result : Endotoxin stimulation increased the expression of IL-8 mRNA and TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA expression in human peripheral blood monocyte as expected and the stimulatory effect of endotoxin on TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA expression was inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitors(H7, Staurosporin) and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Herbimycin, Genistein). The inhibitory effect of each drugs was increased with increasing concentration. The stimulatory effect of endotoxin on IL-8 mRNA was also inhibited by H7 and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Herbimycin, Genistein) dose-dependently but not by Staurosporin. Conclusion : Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase are involved in the endotoxin induced signal transduction pathway in human peripheral blood monocyte.

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Alteration of the Activated Responses in Platelet-Activating Factor-Stimulated Neutrophils by Protein Kinase Inhibitors (Protein Kinase 억제제 첨가 후 Platelet-Activating Factor에 의하여 자극된 호중구반응의 변경)

  • Lee, Kang-Kun;Ko, Ji-Young;Ham, Dong-Suk;Shin, Yong-Kyoo;Lee, Chung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 1996
  • Roles of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase in the activation of neutrophil respiratory burst, degranulation and elevation of cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated neutrophils were investigated. Superoxide and $H_2O_2$ production and myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase release in PAF-stimulated neutrophils were inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitors, staurosporine and H-7 and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and tyrphostin. The PAF-induced elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in neutrophils was inhibited by staurosporine, genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate. Staurosporine inhibited both intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Mn^{2+}$ influx in PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate inhibited $Mn^{2+}$ influx induced by PAF, whereas their effects on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release were not detected. In neutrophils preactivated by PMA, the stimulatory effect of PAF on the elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was reduced. Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in respiratory burst, lysosomal enzyme release and $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization in PAF-stimulated neutrophils. The elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ appears to be accomplished by intracullular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Ca^{2+}$ influx which are differently regulated by protein kinases. Preactivation of protein kinase C appears to attenuate the stimulatory action of PAF on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization.

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Potential Role of Protein Kinase C on the Differentiation of Erythroid Progenitor Cells

  • Lee, Sang-Jun;Cho, In-Koo;Huh, In-Hoe;Yoon, Ki-Yom;Ann, Hyung-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.90-99
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    • 1995
  • The effect of protein kinase C inhibitors, sturosporine and 1-(5-isoquinolinyl sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine(H7) on in vitro differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells which were isolated from spleens of mice infected with the anemia-inducing strain of Friend virus were examined. Erythropoietin-mediated differentitation of erythroid progenitor cells, as determined by the incorporation of $^{59}Fe$ into protoporphyrin, was inhibited by staurosporine and H7 in a concentration -dependent manner. Scatchard analysis of the $^3H-phorbol-12$, 13-dibutyrate binding to erythroid progenitor cells revealed that at the high affinity sites the dissociation constant was 22nM and the maximum number of $^3H-phorbol-12$, 13-dibutyrate binding to erythroid progenitor cells revealed that at the high affinity sites the dissociation constant was 22nM and the maximum number of $^3H-phorbol-12$, 13-dibutyrate binding sites per cell was approximately $3.7\times10^5$. Cytosonic protein kinase C was isolated from erthroid progenitor cells and then purified by sequential column chromatogrphy. Two isoforms of protein kinase C were found. Photoaffinity labeling of the purified protein kinase C samples with $^3H-phorbol-12$12-myristate 13-acetate followed by analysis of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and autofluorography showed radiolabeled 82-KDa pepticles. Rediolabeling of the 82-KDa peptides with $^3H-phorbol-12$myristate 13-acete was almost completely blocked by excess unlabeled phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was almost 12-muristate 13-acetate-promoted phosphorylation with the puyrified protein kinase C samples showed that the phosphorylation of 82-KDa peptides was increased as the concentration of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was increased from $10^{-8}M{\;}to{\;}10^{-4}$M. In light of the findings that erythroid progenitor cells possessed an abundance of protein kinase C and that stauroporine and H7 inhibited erythroid differentiation, it seemed likely that protein kinase C would play a role in the erythroid progenitor cell development.

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Effect of Phorbol ester on $K^+$channel in an G292 osteoblast-like cell (G292 세포에서 $K^+$통로에 대한 phorbol ester의 효과)

  • Kim, Mi-Kyung;Park, Su-Byung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.32 no.3 s.92
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2002
  • In order to investigate the action mechanism of protein kinase C on $K^+$ channel in osteoblastic cell, effects of phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate on human osteoblast-like cells (G292) were studied by patch clamp technique with cell-attacked configuration. 111 this experiment, 45pS ion channel was dominant in G292 cell line according to their approximate conductances in symmetrical 140mM KCl saline at holding potential of 60mV. In torrent-voltage relationship, reversal potential was 5.5mV at the condition of potassium enriched saline in the pipette and -27 mV at the condition of standard extracellular saline In the pipette. Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate 10nM increased the open probability of 45pS channel and staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, suppressed this effect. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate moved the reversal potential of 45pS channel to more negative potential and increased the single channel current at the same membrame potential. In order to check the activation of protein kinase C in G292 cell by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, western blot of protein kinase C was performed. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate $0.1{\mu}M$ translocated protein kinase C from cellular compartment to membrane compartment of the cell. These findings suggest that phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, one of phorbol esters, activate 45pS channel In G292 cell and affect cell membrane potential, that regulate cellular function.

Effects of activation of protein kinase C on the regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) by isolated perfused left atria (백서의 심방관류모델에서 protein kinase C의 활성화가 atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) 조절에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Chang-won;Kang, Hyung-sub;Lee, Ho-il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.735-744
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    • 1997
  • 심방근 세포는 심방이뇨호르몬을 합성, 저장 그리고 분비하며, 세포내외 이온의 농도, 수분균형 및 혈압 등을 조절하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 또한 심방근의 인장자극에는 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide(ANP)를 2단계(분비, 유리)의 과정으로 이루어져 있으며, 이에 따른 심방이뇨호르몬의 분비 조절기전에 대하여서는 명확히 알려져 있지 않다. 따라서 본 연구는 백서의 심방근 적출관류 모델을 이용하여 protein kinase C와 ANP 조절의 상관관계를 밝히고 분비와 유리의 과정중 어떠한 과정을 이용하여 분비자극에 영향을 주는지를 관찰하기 위하여 본 실험을 실시하였다. PKC 활성제인 PMA(phorbol 12-mystrate 13-acetate)는 ANP의 유리를 현저하게 증가시켰으며, PKC 억제제인 H-7(1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methyl piperazine dihydrochlo-ride)에 의해 유리를 억제시켰다. PMA와 H-7을 동시에 처리한 경우 PMA에 의하여 증가된 ANP의 유리가 H-7에 의하여 차단됨을 관찰할 수 있었다. 따라서 백서의 관류 심방에서의 ANP 분비 증가는 PKC 활성화에 의하여 이루어지며, ANP분비의 2단계중 ANP 유리에 영향을 줌을 알 수 있었다.

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Effect of Antioxidant and Ampa/kainate Receptor Antagonist on Cerebral Neurons Damaged by Ischemia (허혈이 유도된 대뇌신경세포에 대한 항산화제 및 Ampa/kainate 수용체 길항제의 영향)

  • Oh, Yeon-Kyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.1022-1026
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    • 2005
  • To clarify the toxic effect on cultured neonatal mouse cerebral neurons damaged by ischemia, we examined the cytotoxicity induced by ischemia and the protective effect of antioxidant and AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist against ischemia-induced cytotoxicity on cultured cerebral neurons. For this study, mice were administrated with 20ug/kg cyclothiazide or 50U/kg vitamin E via intraperitoneal injection for 2 hours before ischemic induction. After cell culture for 7 days, cell viability, amount of neurofilament and protein kinase C activity were examined. Ischemia decreased significantly cell viability, amount of neurofilament and the increase of protein kinase C activity in these cultures. In the protective effect, vitamin I showed remarkably the increase of cell viability and amount of neurofilament, and the decrease of protein kinase C activity but, cyclothiazide did not showed any protective effect on ischemia-induced cytotoxicity. From these results, it is suggested that vitamin I is effective in blocking the neurotoxicity induced by ischemia, but cyclothiazide as a AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist is not.

Studies on the Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Cells in uitro : The Phosphorylation and Down Regulation of Protein Kinase C in Myoblasts of Chick Embryos (근세포 분화에 관한 연구 계배의 Myoblasts에 있어서 Protein Kinase C (PKC)의 인 산화작용과 Down Regulation)

  • 문현근;최원철
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 1992
  • In the short-term treahent of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), the'Wh and PDGF induced the Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation and migration from the cytoplasm to the peripheral nulcear membrane. And the activated PKC which was directly or indirectly stimulated by TPA or PDGF Phosphorylated many kinds of PKC's targeting proteins and induces various biological responses. Especially, the cytoplasmic PKC was phosphorylated within 1 hr and 10 min by TPA-and PDGF-treahent respectivelv. In the long-term treatment of TPA or PDGF, both of them induced the down-regulation and translocation of PKC in the mvoblasts. The down-regulation of PKC isozyrnes, the pattern of PKC I and ll was similar to the PKC 111 isozpnes in the cytoplasm. But in the nucleolus, the TPA did not induce and down-regulation or the inhibition of the immunoreactivity of PKC III antibody. This investigation indicates that each isozvmes of PKC mal be performed the different effects to the down-regulation of the cytoplasm or nucleolus. And douvn-regulated myoblasts contained low immunoreactivity of PKC antibodies.

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Expression of protein kinase C in the testes of horse (말 정소내 protein kinase C의 발현)

  • Jin, Jae-kwang;Shin, Tae-kyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1998
  • To investigate the involvement of protein kinase C(PKC) isoenzyme in the testes which control spermatogenesis and hormone secretion, we examined cellular distribution of four types of PKC $\alpha$, ${\beta}I$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ in the horse testes using PKC antisera by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. By the western blot analysis, PKC $\alpha$ and ${\beta}I$ were detected at 82KD, while PKC ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ were detected at 80KD in the testes of both juvenile and adult horses. In juvenile horse, PKC $\alpha$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ except ${\beta}I$ were not detected in the cells of the testes, whereas PKC ${\beta}I$ was immunoreacted with only in spermatocytes. In adult, PKC $\alpha$, ${\beta}I$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$isoenzymes were localized in interstitial cells of the testes. In the seminiferous tubules, PKC ${\beta}I$ is localized in spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoa, while PKC ${\delta}$ is localized only in spermatids. We suggest that this is a first report to localize PKC in the testes of horse and PKC isoenzymes are upregulated in the cells of horse testes depending on ages. These findings also suggest that certain PKC isoenzyme plays an important role in the signal transduction of spermatogenic cells and interstitial cells in horse testes.

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