• Title/Summary/Keyword: protein kinase C

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Lipid emulsion inhibits vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine by suppressing bupivacaine-induced PKC and CPI-17 dephosphorylation but has no effect on vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of mepivacaine

  • Cho, Hyunhoo;Ok, Seong Ho;Kwon, Seong Chun;Lee, Soo Hee;Baik, Jiseok;Kang, Sebin;Oh, Jiah;Sohn, Ju-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.229-238
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    • 2016
  • Background: The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of lipid emulsion on vasodilation caused by toxic doses of bupivacaine and mepivacaine during contraction induced by a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), in an isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. Methods: The effects of lipid emulsion on the dose-response curves induced by bupivacaine or mepivacaine in an isolated aorta precontracted with PDBu were assessed. In addition, the effects of bupivacaine on the increased intracellular calcium concentration ($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) and contraction induced by PDBu were investigated using fura-2 loaded aortic strips. Further, the effects of bupivacaine, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and lipid emulsion, alone or in combination, on PDBu-induced PKC and phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of myosin phosphatase (CPI-17) phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was examined by western blotting. Results: Lipid emulsion attenuated the vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, whereas it had no effect on that induced by mepivacaine. Lipid emulsion had no effect on PDBu-induced contraction. The magnitude of bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced decrease in $[Ca^{2+}]_i$. PDBu promoted PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation in aortic VSMCs. Bupivacaine and GF109203X attenuated PDBu-induced PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-mediated inhibition of PDBu-induced PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation. Conclusions: These results suggest that lipid emulsion attenuates the vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine via inhibition of bupivacaine-induced PKC and CPI-17 dephosphorylation. This lipid emulsion-mediated inhibition of vasodilation may be partly associated with the lipid solubility of local anesthetics.

Mechanism Underlying the Anti-Inflammatory Action of Piceatannol Induced by Lipopolysaccharide (당지질로 유도한 염증반응에서 Piceatannol의 항염증 기전 연구)

  • Cho, Han-Jin;Shim, Jae-Hoon;So, Hong-Seob;YoonPark, Jung-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.1226-1234
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    • 2012
  • 3,4,3',5'-Tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene (piceatannol) is a derivative of resveratrol with a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-cancer activities. We assessed the mechanisms by which piceatannol inhibits inflammatory responses using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw264.7 murine macrophages. Piceatannol (0~10 ${\mu}mol/L$) decreased LPS-induced release of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-$1{\beta}$, and inhibited LPS-induced protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-${\kappa}B$), activator protein (AP)-1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are crucial steps during an inflammatory response. Piceatannol prevented LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor of ${\kappa}B$ ($I{\kappa}B$), translocation of p65 to the nucleus, and phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK). Additionally, piceatannol inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and IL-6-induced translocation of STAT3 to the nucleus. Furthermore, piceatannol increased the protein and mRNA levels of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1, the rate-limiting enzyme of heme catabolism that plays a critical role in mediating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Piceatannol further induced antioxidant response elements (ARE)-driven luciferase activity in Raw264.7 cells transfected with an ARE-luciferase reporter construct containing the enhancer 2 and minimal promoter region of HO-1. These results suggest that piceatannol exerts anti-inflammatory effects via the down-regulation of iNOS expression and up-regulation of HO-1 expression.

The Signal Transduciton of Ginsenosides, Active Ingredients of Panax ginseng, in Xenopus oocyte: A Model System for Ginseng Study

  • Nah Seung-Yeol;Lee Sang-Mok
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • 2002.10a
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    • pp.66-83
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    • 2002
  • Recently, we have provided evidence that ginsenosides, the active components of Panax ginseng, utilize pertussis toxin (PTX)-insensitive $G{\alpha}_{q/11}-phospholipase\;C-{\beta}3(PLC-{\beta}3)$ signal transduction pathway for the enhancement of $Ca^{2+}-activated\;Cl^{-}$ current in the Xenopus oocyte (British J. Pharmacol. 132, 641-647, 2001; JBC 276, 48797-48802, 2001). Other investigators have shown that stimulation of receptors linked to $G{\alpha}-PLC$ pathway inhibits the activity of G proteincoupled inwardly rectifying $K^+$ (GIRK) channel. In the present study, we sought to determine whether ginsenosides influenced the activity of GIRK 1 and GIRK 4 (GIRK 1/4) channels expressed in the Xenopus oocyte, and if so, the underlying signal transduction mechanism. In oocyte injected with GIRK 1/4 channel cRNAs, bath-applied ginsenosides inhibited high potassium (HK) solution-elicited GIRK current $(EC_{50}:4.9{\pm}4.3\;{\mu}g/ml).$ Pretreatment of the oocyte with PTX reduced the HK solution-elicited GIRK current by $49\%,$ but it did not alter the inhibitory ginsenoside effect on GIRK current. Prior intraoocyte injection of cRNA(s) coding $G{\alpha}_q,\;G{\alpha}_{11}\;or\;G{\alpha}_q/G{\alpha}_{11},\;but\;not\;G{\alpha}_{i2}\;or\;G{\alpha}_{oA}$ attenuated the inhibitory ginsenoside effect. Injection of cRNAs coding $G{\beta}_{1{\gamma}2}$ also attenuated the ginsenoside effect. Similarly, injection of the cRNAs coding regulators of G protein signaling 1, 2 and 4 (RGS1, RGS2 and RGS4), which interact with $G{\alpha}_i\;and/or\;G{\alpha}_{q/11}$ and stimulates the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP in active GTP-bound $G{\alpha}$ subunit, resulted in a significant reduction of ginsenoside effect on GIRK current. Preincubation of GIRK channel-expressing oocyte in PLC inhibitor (U73122) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (staurosporine or chelerythrine) blocked the inhibitory ginsenoside effect on GIRK current. On the other hand, intraoocyte injection of BAPTA, a free $Ca^{2+}$ chelator, had no significant effect on the ginsenoside action. Taken together, these results suggest that ginsenosides inhibit the activity of GIRK 1/4 channel expressed in the Xenopus oocyte through a PTX-insensitive and $G{\alpha}_{q/11}$-,PLC-and PKC-mediated signal transduction pathway.

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Interaction of Calmodulin- and PKC-Dependent Contractile Pathways In Cat Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES)

  • Kang, Hee-Yun;Lee, Tai-Sang;Lee, Yul-Pyo;Lee, Doo-Won;La, Hyun-O;Song, Hyun-Ju;Sohn, Uy-Dong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.546-551
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    • 2001
  • We have previously shown that, in circular muscle cells of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) isolated by enzymatic digestion, contraction in response to maximally effective doses of acetylcholine (ACh) or Inositol Triphosphate ($IP_3$) depends on the release of $Ca^{2+}$ from intracellular stores and activation of a $Ca6{2+}$-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent pathway. On the contrary, maintenance of LES tone, and response to low doses of ACh or $IP_3$ depend on a protein kinase C (PKC) mediated pathway. In the present investigation, we have examined requirements for $Ca6{2+}$ regulation of the interaction between CaM- and PKC-dependent pathways in LES contraction. Thapsigargin (TG) treatment for 30 min dose dependently reduced ACh-induced contraction of permeable LES cells in free $Ca6{2+}$ medium. ACh-induced contraction following the low level of reduction of $Ca6{2+}$ stores by a low dose of TG ($10^{-9}{\;}M$) was blocked by the CaM antagonist, CCS9343B but not by the PKC antagonists chelerythrine or H7, indicating that the contraction is CaM-dependent. After maximal reduction in intracellular $Ca{2+}$ from $Ca6{2+}$stores by TG ($10^{-6}{\;}M$), ACh-induced contraction was blocked by chelerythrine or H7, but not by CCS9343B, indicating that it is PKC-dependent. In normal $Ca^{2+}$medium, the contraction by ACh after TG ($10^{-9}{\;}M$) treatment was also CaM-dependent, whereas the contraction by ACh after TG ($10^{-9}{\;}M$) treatment was PKC-dependent. We examined whether PKC activation was inhibited by activated CaM. CCS 7343B Inhibited the CaM-induced contraction, but did not inhibit the DAC-induced contraction. CaM inhibited the DAC-induced contraction in the presence of CCS 9343B. This inhibition by CaM was $Ca{2+}$dependent. These data are consistent with the view that the switch from a PKC-dependent pathway to a CaM dependent pathway can occur and can be regulated by cytosolic $Ca{2+}$ in the LES.

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Facilitation of Glucose Uptake by Lupeol through the Activation of the PI3K/AKT and AMPK Dependent Pathways in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes (3T3-L1 지방세포에서 PI3K/AKT 및 AMPK 경로의 활성화를 통한 루페올의 포도당 흡수촉진 효과)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ah;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.86-93
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    • 2022
  • Lupeol is a type of pentacyclic triterpene and has been reported to have pharmacological activities against various diseases; however, the effect of lupeol on glucose absorption has not been elucidated yet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lupeol on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Lupeol significantly facilitated glucose uptake by translocating glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was related to activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and 5 'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways. In the PI3K/AKT pathway, lupeol stimulates the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), which activates PI3K. Its activation by lupeol promotes the phosphorylation of AKT, but not the atypical protein kinase C isoforms ζ and λ. Lupeol also promoted the phosphorylation of AMPK. The activation of AMPK increased the expressions of the plasma membrane GLUT4 and the intracellular glucose uptake. The increase in the glucose uptake by lupeol was suppressed by wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and compound C (AMPK inhibitor) in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results indicate that lupeol can facilitate glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity through the stimulation of the expression of plasma membrane glucose transporter type 4 via the PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Effects of Membrane-filtered Powder of Sunmul on the Quality Characteristics of Noodles (막분리한 순물의 농축분말 첨가가 국수의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Hai-Jung;Choi, Min-Hee;Kim, Woo-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.199-204
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of noodles prepared with the addition of nanofiltered (NF) powder of sunmul. Noodles were prepared with different levels $(0\%,\;1.5\%,\;3\%\;and\;5\%,\;w/w)$ of NF powder and physico-chemical properties were examined. Results of rapid visco analyzer showed that peak, trough, final viscosity and set back decreased as the NF powder level increased. The weight and volume of cooked noodles increased with the addition of NF powder. Turbidity of soup also increased as the amount of NF powder increased, indicating higher cooking loss. The color of wet and cooked noodles became greenish yellow as the NF powder level increased. Hardness, springiness, gumminess and brittleness of cooked noodles decreased with the increasing amount of NF powder. Results of sensory evaluation showed that noodles prepared with up to $3\%$ addition of NF powder was considered to be as acceptable as noodles prepared without NF powder.

Effect of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor on Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Rats (Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor가 저산소성-허혈성 뇌손상이 유도된 신생쥐에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Dae-Ho;Oh, Yeon-Kyun;Park, Seung-Tak
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.732-742
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : In order to evaluate the hypoxia-ischemia(H-I) induced neurotoxicity and the protective effect of xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibitor(allopurinol), cell number, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), protein synthesis(PS) and protein kinase C(PKC) activity were measured in cerebral neurons and astrocytes. Methods : Cytotoxic effect was measured by in vitro assay at 12-72 hours after H-I on cerebral neurons and astrocytes derived from 7-day old neonatal rats which were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and exposed to hypoxic condition for 3 hours. The protective effect of XO inhibitor was examined by the cell number, cell viability, LDH and PS on 14 days after H-I with allopurinol intraperitoneal injection 15 minutes prior to H-I. In addition, the effect of allopurinol on PKC activity in hypoxic conditions was examined in neurons. Results : 72 hours from H-I, the cell numbers and viability were decreased significantly in time-dependent manner on neurons and those of astrocytes also decreased slightly, compared with control. In neonatal rats treated with H-I, the cell number, cell viability, and PS in neurons were decreased, but LDH was increased significantly compared with control. In neonatal rats pretreated with allopurinol, the cell number and viability, and PS in neurons were increased and LDH was decreased significantly compared with H-I. PKC was increased remarkably after hypoxic condition. But PKC was decreased significantly against hypoxic condition after allopurinol pretreatment. Conclusion : From these results, it is suggested that H-I is more toxic in neurons than astrocytes and allopurinol is very protective with increasing of PS, and decreasing of LDH and PKC in neurons from hypoxic-ischemic condition.

Mechanisms of Insulinotropic Effect of YHB-2017 [Genistein] Isolated from fermentation Broths of Streptomyces sp. (방선균에서 유래한 YHB-2017 [Genistein]의 인슐린 분비 촉진 작용 기전)

  • Kwag, Won-Jae;Park, You-Hoi;Park, Jun-Chul;Lee, Byung-Kyu;Kang, Yup;Choe, Tae-Boo
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.21 no.6 s.101
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    • pp.466-473
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    • 2006
  • Impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells in response to glucose is an important feature in the pathology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In the course of screening for useful insulin secretagogues, we have isolated and identified YHB-2017 (Genistein) as a insulin secretion potentiator from fermentation broths of our in-house microbial library. The insulinotropic activity of YHB-2017 in isolated rat pancreatic islets was exerted only at high concentration of glucose (8.3-16 mM) but not at low concentration of glucose (3.3-5.5 mM). Also, in perifusion study with isolated rat pancreatic islets, YHB-2017 stimulated insulin secretion in a time-dependent manner when YHB-2017 was added to KRB buffer containing 16 mM glucose. In the presence of $200\;{\mu}M$ diazoxide and 35 mM KCI, which stimulates maximum $Ca^{2+}$ influx independently of KATP channel, YHB-2017 enhanced KATP channel-independent insulin secretion at high concentration glucose (16 mM). To elucidate the mechanisms of the glucose-dependent potentiation effect of YHB-2017, pharmacologic inhibitors for protein kinase A, protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin kinase II were pre-treated and then the potentiation effect of YHB-2017 on insulin secretion was investigated. Pre-treatment of H89 as a PKA inhibitor had a significant inhibitory effect on YHB-2017-induced potentiation effect. Furthermore, western immunoblotting analyses revealed that YHB-2017 increased phosphorylation of PKA substrates and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) under high concentration of glucose. These results demonstrated that the insulinotropic effect of YHB-2017 is mediated through PKA signal pathway and activated amplifying $K_{ATP}$ channel-independent insulin secretion pathway.

Effects of Endotoxin and Verapamil on Superoxide Production by Rat Alveolar Macrophage (백서폐포대식세포에서의 Superoxide 생산에 미치는 내독소 및 Verapamil의 영향)

  • Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Keun-Youl
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.223-235
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    • 1993
  • Background: Superoxide anion which was produced by macrophage and neutrophil has a defensive role to kill invasive microorganisms and also an injurious role to produce self lung damage. Production of oxygen free radicals including superoxide is a main mechanism of acute lung injury caused by bacterial endotoxin. Endotoxin is known to activate alveolar macrophage to produce increased oxygen free radicals after the stimulation with various biological materials (priming effect). Calcium is a very important intracellular messenger in that cellular process of superoxide production. Method: This experiment was performed to elucidate the effects of endotoxin and calcium on superoxide production by phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated alveolar macrophage and the effect of verapamil on priming effect of endotoxin. Results: 1) Preincubation of macrophages with endotoxin (E. coli 055-B5) primed the cells to respond with increased superoxide production after the stimulation with PMA. Priming with endotoxin ($10^{-1}$ug/ml) produced a maximal enhancement of superoxide production (43%). 2) Verapamil could inhibit the superoxide production by PMA stimulated macrophage regardless of the presence of extracellular calcium. This means that the inhibitory effect of verapamil is caused by a mechanism independent of blocking calcium influx. 3) Verapamil could inhibit the priming effect of endotoxin on alveolar macrophage (from 30% increment to 13% increment) and could inhibit the superoxide production by PMA-stimulated macrophage preincubated with endotoxin. Conclusion: We concluded that verapamil could inhibit the superoxide production by PMA-stimulated rat alveolar macrophage and also inhibit the priming effect of endotoxin on alveolar macrophage. These inhibitory effects of verapamil could be one of the mechanisms of verapamil effects on endotoxin induced lung injury.

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Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2 Genes by Ionizing Radiation (이온화 방사선에 의한 TIMP1, TIMP2 유전자 발현 측정)

  • Park Kun-Koo;Jin Jung Sun;Park Ki Yong;Lee Yun Hee;Kim Sang Yoon;Noh Young Ju;Ahn Seung Do;Kim Jong Hoon;Choi Eun Kyung;Chang Hyesook
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Expression of TIMP, intrinsic inhibitor of MMP, is regulated by signal transduction in response to genotoxins and is likely to be an important step in metastasis, angiogenesis and wound healing after ionizing radiation. Therefore, we studied radiation mediated TIMP expression and its mechanism in head and neck cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods : Human head and neck cancer cell lines established at Asan Medical Center were used and radiosensitivity $(D_0)$, radiation cytotoxicity and metastatic potential were measured by clonogenic assay, n assay and invasion assay, respectively. The conditioned medium was prepared at 24 hours and 48 hours after 2 Gy and 10 Gy irradiation and expression of TIMP protein was measured by Elisa assay with specific antibodies against human TIMP. hTIMP1 promoter region was cloned and TIMP1 luciferase reporter vector was constructed. The reporter vector was transfected to AMC-HN-1 and -HN-9 cells with or without expression vector Ras, then the cells were exposed to radiation or PMA, PKC activator. EMSA was peformed with oligonucleotide (-59/-53 element and SP1) of TIMP1 promoter. Results : $D_0$ of HN-1, -2, -3, -5 and -9 cell lines were 1.55 Gy, 1.8 Gy, 1.5 Gt, 1.55 Gy and 2.45 Gy respectively. n assay confirmed cell viability, over $94\%$ at 24hrs, 48hrs after 2 Gy irradiation and over 73% after 10 Gy irradiation. Elisa assay confirmed that cells secreted TIMP1, 2 proteins continuously. After 2 Gy irradiation, TIMP2 secretion was decreased at 24hrs in HN-1 and HN-9 cell lines but after 10 Gy irradiation, it was increased in all cell lines. At 48hrs after irradiation, it was increased in HN-1 but decreased in HN-9 cells. But the change in TIMP secretion by RT was mild. The transcription of TIMP1 gene in HN-1 was induced by PMA but in HN-9 cell lines, it was suppressed. Wild type Ras induced the TIMP-1 transcription by 20 fold and 4 fold in HN-1 and HN-9 respectively. The binding activity to -59/-53, AP1 motif was increased by RT, but not to SP1 motif in both cell lines. Conclusions : We observed the difference of expression and activity of TIMPs between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell line and the different signal transduction pathway between in these cell lines may contribute the different radiosensitivity. Further research to investigate the radiation response and its signal pathway of TIMPs is needed.

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