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Expression Site of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Influences on Herbicide Resistance in Transgenic Rice (형질전환 벼에서 Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase의 발현 위치가 제초제 저항성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Sun-Yo
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2010
  • The effect of Protox expression site on herbicidal resistance was investigated in wild-type and transgenic rice plants imposed by peroxidizing herbicide oxyfluorfen. The transgenic rice systems involved the plastidal expression of Arabidopsis protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox; AP line) and the dual expression of Myxococcus xanthus Protox in chloroplasts and mitochondria (TTS line). The oxyfluorfen-treated TTS4 line showed the lower levels of cellular leakage and malonyldialdehyde and the sustained capacity of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis, compared to the oxyfluorfen-treated AP and wild-type lines. During oxyfluorfen action, the TTS4 line had greater herbicide resistance than the AP1 line, indicating that the dual expression of M. xanthus Protox in chloroplasts and mitochondria prevented the accumulation of photodynamic protoporphyrin IX more effectively than the expression of Arabidopsis Protox only in chloroplasts. These results suggest that the ectopic expression of Protox in mitochondria greatly contributes to the herbicidal resistance in rice plants.

Mechanism of Growth Inhibition in Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Rice Overexpressing Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (Protox) Gene (Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (Protox) 유전자 과다발현 제초제 저항성 형질전환 벼의 생육저해 기작)

  • Kuk, Yong-In;Shin, Ji-San;Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.122-134
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the levels of resistance and accumulation of terapyrroles, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidative enzymes for reasons of growth reduction in herbicide-transgenic rice overexpressing Myxococcus xanthus, Arabidopsis thaliana, and human protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) genes. The transgenic rice overexpressing M. xanthus (MX, MX1, PX), A. thaliana (AP31, AP36, AP37), and human (H45, H48, H49) Protox genes showed 43~65, 41~72 and 17~70-fold more resistance to oxyfluorfen, respectively, than the wild type. Among transgenic rice lines overexpressing Protox genes, several lines showed normal growth compared with the wild type, but several lines showed in reduction of plant height and shoot fresh weight under different light conditions. However, reduction of plant height of AP37 was much higher than other lines for the experimental period. On the other hand, the reduction of plant height and shoot fresh weight in the transgenic rice was higher in high light condition than in low light condition. Enhanced levels of Proto IX were observed in transgenic lines AP31, AP37, and H48 at 7 days after seeding (DAS) and transgenic lines PX, AP37, and H48 at 14 DAS relative to wild type. There were no differences in Mg-Proto IX of transgenic lines except for H41 and H48 and Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester of transgenic lines except for MX, MX1, and PX. Although accumulation of tetrapyrrole intermediates was observed in transgenic lines, their tetrapyrrole accumulation levels were not enough to inhibit growth of transgenic rice. There were no differences in reactive oxygen species, MDA, ALA synthesizing capacity, and chlorophyll between transgenic lines and wild type indicating that accumulated tetrapyrrole intermediate were apparently not high enough to inhibit growth of transgenic rice. Therefore, the growth reduction in certain transgenic lines may not be caused by a single factor such as Proto IX, but by interaction of many other factors.

Synthesis and herbicidal activities of heterocyclic PPO inhibitor derivatives substituted with epoxy groups (Epoxy Group이 치환된 헤테로고리형 PPO 저해제의 합성과 제초활성)

  • Jeon, Dong-Ju;Park, Kwaun-Yong;Park, Chang-Min;So, Won-Young;Kim, Hyoung-Rae;Song, Jong-Hwan;Hwang, In-Taek
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.181-184
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    • 2005
  • The heterocyclic PPO inhibitor compounds have been studied due to their potent herbicidal effects without toxic to human and animals. We have designed and synthesized 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazole, maleimide, and tetrahydrophthalimide compounds carrying diverse epoxide substituents at 5- position of the phenyl group. Their herbicidal activities were evaluated under submerged paddy conditions. These results showed that 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazole compounds gave potent herbicidal activities especially to ECHOR, MOOVA, and CYPSE at a relatively low rate of 16 g/ha and improved tolerance on rice compared to S-275 as a standard herbicide in this experiment.

Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - III. Differential Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase(Protox) Activity and Protoporphyrinogen IX(PPIX) Accumulation (Oxyfluorfen에 대한 내성(耐性) 및 감수성(感受性) 벼품종(品種)의 생리활성(生理活性) 기구 (機構) - III. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase(Protox)활성(活性)과 Protoporphyrinogen IX(PPIX) 축적(蓄積))

  • Kuk, Y.I.;Guh, J.O.;Chun, J.C.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.150-159
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the inhibition of protox activity and the PPIX accumulation of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and-susceptible rice cultivars with barnyardgrass, a typical susceptible weed in accordance by oxyfluorfen treatment. The susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass showed more inhibition of protox activity due to the treatment of oxyfluorfen than the tolerant rice cultivars. Especially in the concentration at $10^{-6}$M treatment, protox activity of the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass were the completely inhibited but the tolerant rice cultivars kept 32~59% of activity compared to the control. As the treatment concentration increased, the content of PPIX accumulation increased and it increased untill four hours of light exposure but it tended to decrease these after. The content of PPIX accumulation by the treatment of oxyfluorfen was more pronounced in the light condition than in the dark. Under the light and dark conditions, the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass showed more PPIX accumulation than the tolerant rice cultivate. Especialiy the susceptible barnyardgrass had more than the rice. With the treatment of GC and DA, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis inhibitor, the herbicidal activity by oxyfluorfen was inhibited, and the susceptible rice cultivars and barnyardgrass tended to have less effective than the tolerant rice cultivars and the content of chlorophyll or PPS accumulation tended to be similar.

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Disease Assessment in Transgenic Rice (CPPO06) Resistant to the Protox-inhibiting Herbicide (Protox 저해 제초제 내성 형질전환 벼(CPPO06)에서의 병 발생 조사)

  • Kim, Ga-Hye;Lee, Ho-Taek;Park, Se-Jung;Kim, A-Hyeong;Gwon, Hyeon-Wook;Kim, Joo-Hyung;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.24-28
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    • 2012
  • The rice diseases occurring on the transgenic rice plant carrying protox gene (CPPO06) was assessed and compared with other varieties of rice such as Dongjin, Chucheong, Ilpeum, and Onnuri in the fields located in Cheongwon of Chungbuk, Suwon of Gyeunggi, and Gwangju of Chonnam. In the field of Cheongwon, the diseases such as blast, leaf spot, sheath blight and Fusarium blight were observed. False smut were observed only in the field of Suwon, where the ratio of diseased plants was 0.28% in CPPO06 and 0.37% in Onnuri, respectively. In the field of Gwangju, leaf spot caused by Cochlioborus miyabeanus was the most severely occurring disease among rice diseases mentioned above. Fusarium blight occurred in all the 3 fields, which were more severe in CPPO06 plants treated with or without oxadiazon as the herbicide. Except for Fusarium blight, there was no significant difference in the rice diseases as blast, leaf spot, sheath blight and false smut between CPPO06 and other rice varieties.

Different Physiological Activity of Selected Rice Cultivars to Diphenylether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen - VI. Responses of Oxyfluorfen - Similar Herbicides (Oxyfluorfen에 대한 내성(耐性) 및 감수성(感受性) 벼품종(品種)의 생리활성(生理活性) 기구(機構) - VI. 유사제초제(類似除草劑)에 대한 반응(反應))

  • Kuk, Y.I.;Guh, J.O.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.337-345
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to investigate the protox activity, the PPIX accumulation and the activity of antioxidative enzymes of the oxyfluorfen-tolerant and -susceptible rice cultivars by oxyfluorfen and oxytluorfen-similar herbicides treatment. When treated with acifluorfen, bifenox or oxadiazon, the oxyfluorfen-tolerant rice cultivars showed less decreased in fresh weight than the susceptible rice cultivars. The inhibition of protox activity was in the order of acifluorfen > oxyfluorfen > bifenox > oxadiazon, and the PPIX accumulation was in the sequence of oxadiazon > acifluorfen > oxyfluorfen > bifenox. The inhibition of protox activity and the PPIX accumulation by the herbicide was greater in the susceptible rice cultivars than in the tolerant rice cultivars. The effect inhibiting the decrease of chlorophyll content resulting from the treatment of GC, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis inhibitor, was in the order of oxyfluorfen > acifluorfen > bifenox > oxadiazon, and the tolerant rice cultivar had more than the susceptible rice cultivar. In the treatment of DPE and oxadiazon, the activities of MDAR, POX and GR was higher in the tolerant rice cultivar than in the susceptible rice cultivar, and in the case of POX isozyme the activities of main D and E bands increased in the tolerant rice cultivars at tested herbicides but they didn't in the susceptible rice cultivar.

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Mechanism of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-inhibiting Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen Tolerance in Squash leaves of Various Ages (Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase 저해형 제초제 Oxyfluorfen에 대한 호박 엽령별 내성기작)

  • Kuk, Yong-In;Yun, Young-Beom
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.111-121
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    • 2010
  • Differential tolerance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox)-inhibiting herbicides, oxyfluorfen was observed between leaf ages in squash. Physiological responses to oxyfluorfen, including leaf injury, cellular leakage, accumulation of tetrapyrroles, and antioxidative enzymes activity, were investigated in leaf age classes of squash to identify mechanisms of oxyfluorfen tolerance. Leaf 1, 2, and 3 injuries for Joongangaehobak were >10,000, 1,286, and 1.6-fold higher than that of leaf 4, after treatment of oxyfluorfen. On the other hand, leaf 1, 2, and 3 injuries for Sintowjahobak were 725, 366, and >0.6-fold higher than that of leaf 4, after treatment of oxyfluorfen. However, in contrast to oxyfluorfen treatment results, leaf injury of squash leaf 4 treated with paraquat was much smaller than in leaves 1, 2 and 3. Electrolyte leakage from the tissues treated with oxyfluorfen was higher in the youngest leaf (Leaf 4) than in the older leaves 1, 2, and 3. Differential leaf response to oxyfluorfen of squash appears to be due in large part to differences in protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), Mg-Proto IX, and Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester accumulation in treated leaves. In contrast, leaf 4 had higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase than leaf 1 after treatment with oxyfluorfen. However, the induction in antioxidant activity in leaf 4 was not enough to overcome the toxic effects of a Protox inhibitor, oxyfluorfen, so the leaf eventually died.

Relationship of Fitness and Substance of Porphyrin Biosynthesis Pathway in Resistant Transgenic Rice to Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase (Protox) Inhibitor (Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) 저해제 저항성 형질전환 벼의 적응성과 Porphyrin 생합성 경로물질과 관련성)

  • Yun, Young-Beom;Kwon, Oh-Do;Back, Kyoung-Whan;Lee, Do-Jin;Jung, Ha-Il;Kuk, Yong-In
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.134-145
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    • 2011
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate fitness difference in growth and rice yield in herbicide-transgenic rice overexpressing Myxococcus xanthus and Arabidopsis thaliana protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) genes and non-transgenic rice. We also aimed to determine whether these fitness differences are related to ALA synthesizing capacity, accumulation of terapyrroles, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidative enzymes at different growth stages of rice. Plant height of the transgenic rice overexpressing M. xanthus (MX) and A. thaliana (AP37) Protox genes at 43, 50, and 65 days after transplanting (DAT) was significantly lower than that of WT. Number of tiller of PX as well as MX and AP37 at 50 and 65 DAT was significantly lower than that of WT. At harvest time, culm length and yield of MX, PX and AP37 and rice straw weight of MX and AP37 were significantly low compared with WT. The reduction of yield in MX, PX, and AP37 was caused by spikelets per panicle and 1000 grain weight, ripened grain, spikelets per panicle, 1000 grain weight, and ripened grain, respectively. On the other hand, 135 the reduction of yield in MX, PX, and AP37 was also observed in another yearly variation experiment. The reduction of rice growth in MX, PX, and AP37 was observed in seedling stage as well as growth duration in field. There were no differences in tetrapyrrole intermediate Proto IX, Mg-Proto IX and Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester, reactive oxygen species ($H_2O_2$ and ${O_2}^-$), MDA, antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, POX, APX, and GR) and chlorophyll between transgenic lines and wild type, indicating that accumulated tetrapyrrole intermediate and other parameters were not related to growth reduction in transgenic rice. However, ALA synthesizing capacity in MX, PX, and AP37 at one day after exposure to light and 52 DAT was significantly lower than that of WT. Further study is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the growth and yield difference between transgenic and WT lines.

New method for the synthesis of 3-chloro-2-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole (3-Chloro-2-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole의 제조방법에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Chang-Min;Park, Kwan-Young;Kim, Hyoung-Rae;Song, Jong-Hwan;Hwang, In-Taek;Jeon, Dong-Ju
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-25
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    • 2005
  • 3-Chloro-2-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazole, which is the key intermediate of cyclic imide type compounds such as EK 5439 and S-275 series, were practically synthesized by the procedure of hydrolysis of by-products and were produced in the reaction of 2-(2-fluoro-4-chloro-5-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3a,4,5,6,7-hexahydroindazol-3-one with phosgene.

Understanding the protox inhibition activity of novel 1-(5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazolin-5-yl)methoxy-2-chloro-4-fluorobenzene derivatives using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) methodology (비교 분자장 분석 (CoMFA) 방법에 따른 1-(5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazolin-5-yl)methoxy-2-chloro-4-fluoro-benzene 유도체들의 Protox 저해 활성에 관한 이해)

  • Sung, Nack-Do;Song, Jong-Hwan;Yang, Sook-Young;Park, Kyeng-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.151-161
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    • 2004
  • Three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) studies for the protox inhibition activities against root and shoot of rice plant (Orysa sativa L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) by a series of new A=3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimino, B=3-chloro-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazolyl and C=3,4-dimethylmaleimino group, and R-group substituted on the phenyl ring in 1-(5-methyl-3-phenylisoxazolin-5-yl)methoxy-2chloro-4-fluorobenzene derivatives were performed using comparative molecular field analyses (CoMFA) methodology with Gasteiger-Huckel charge. Four CoMFA models for the protox inhibition activities against root and shoot of the two plants were generated using 46 molecules as training set and the predictive ability of the each models was evaluated against a test set of 8 molecules. And the statistical results of these models with combination (SIH) of standard field, indicator field and H-bond field showed the best predictability of the protox inhibition activities based on the cross-validated value $r^2_{cv.}$ $(q^2=0.635\sim0.924)$, conventional coefficient $(r^2_{ncv.}=0.928\sim0.977)$ and PRESS value $(0.091\sim0.156)$, respectively. The activities exhibited a strong correlation with steric $(74.3\sim87.4%)$, electrostatic $(10.10\sim18.5%)$ and hydrophobic $(1.10\sim8.30%)$ factors of the molecules. The steric feature of molecule may be an important factor for the activities. We founded that an novel selective and higher protox inhibitors between the two plants may be designed by modification of X-subsitutents for barnyardgrass based upon the results obtained from CoMFA analyses.