• Title/Summary/Keyword: pulse cycle

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Investigating the Au-Cu thick layers Electrodeposition Rate with Pulsed Current by Optimization of the Operation Condition

  • Babaei, Hamid;Khosravi, Morteza;Sovizi, Mohamad Reza;Khorramie, Saeid Abedini
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2020
  • The impact of effective parameters on the electrodeposition rate optimization of Au-Cu alloy at high thicknesses on the silver substrate was investigated in the present study. After ensuring the formation of gold alloy deposits with the desired and standard percentage of gold with the cartage of 18K and other standard karats that should be observed in the manufacturing of the gold and jewelry artifacts, comparing the rate of gold-copper deposition by direct and pulsed current was done. The rate of deposition with pulse current was significantly higher than direct current. In this process, the duty cycle parameter was effectively optimized by the "one factor at a time" method to achieve maximum deposition rate. Particular parameters in this work were direct and pulse current densities, bath temperature, concentration of gold and cyanide ions in electrolyte, pH, agitation and wetting agent additive. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface chemical analysis system (EDS) were used to study the effect of deposition on the cross-sections of the formed layers. The results revealed that the Au-Cu alloy layer formed with concentrations of 6gr·L-1 Au, 55gr·L-1 Cu, 24 gr·L-1 KCN and 1 ml·L-1 Lauryl dimethyl amine oxide (LDAO) in the 0.6 mA·cm-2 average current density and 30% duty cycle, had 0.841 ㎛·min-1 Which was the highest deposition rate. The use of electrodeposition of pure and alloy gold thick layers as a production method can reduce the use of gold metal in the production of hallow gold artifacts, create sophisticated and unique models, and diversify production by maintaining standard karats, hardness, thickness and mechanical strength. This will not only make the process economical, it will also provide significant added value to the gold artifacts. By pulsating of currents and increasing the duty cycle means reducing the pulse off-time, and if the pulse off-time becomes too short, the electric double layer would not have sufficient growth time, and its thickness decreases. These results show the effect of pulsed current on increasing the electrodeposition rate of Au-Cu alloy confirming the previous studies on the effect of pulsed current on increasing the deposition rate of Au-Cu alloy.

Leptin Is a Metabolic Signal for GnRH-LH/FSH Axis in Feed-restricted Ewes

  • Towhidi, A.;Khazali, H.;Zhandi, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1039-1048
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    • 2007
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine whether leptin is a metabolic signal for gonadotropin secretion in ewes. In the first experiment, twenty-eight cyclic Chal ewes were assigned randomly to an energy restricted, no leptin group (ERNL) (60% of maintenance; n = 14) and an energy normal, no leptin group (ENNL) (100% of maintenance; n = 14) for 71 days (6 estrous cycles). Estrus was synchronized with seven consecutive injections of $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ Biweekly, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) were determined and blood samples were collected to measure plasma leptin concentration. Blood samples were also taken to determine plasma progesterone concentration twice weekly. After each PG injection from the second injection to the end of experiment, four ewes were selected and blood samples were collected at 20 minutes and at hourly intervals for 3 h to detect plasma LH and FSH concentration. In the second experiment, after the ceasing of the estrous cycle caused by energy restriction, six acyclic ewes were selected and randomly allotted to two groups (n = 3) and received the following treatment for four days. Ewes in an energy restricted, leptin group (ERL) were fed with a ration which provided 60% of maintenance energy requirements and intravenously injected with $4{\mu}g$ leptin/kg BW daily. Ewes in an energy excess, no leptin group (EENL) were fed with a ration that provided 180% (120%+60%) of maintenance energy requirements and intravenously injected with 1 ml saline daily. In both groups, blood samples were collected at 20 minutes and at hourly intervals for 3 h before feeding on d 0 and d 5, and for 3 h before and after injections as above on d 2 and d 4 to detect plasma LH and FSH concentration. In the first experiment, BW and BCS from the $2^{nd}$ estrous cycle, and leptin from the $3^{rd}$ estrous cycle to the end of the experiment significantly (p<0.05) decreased. In ERNL ewes, mean plasma concentrations of FSH significantly (p<0.01) decreased from the $4^{th}$ estrous cycle to d 71 and LH pulsatile secretion was suppressed on d 71, so that, mean plasma concentrations of LH (p<0.05), LH pulse frequency (p<0.01) and LH pulse amplitude (p<0.05) significantly decreased. In the second experiment, injection of leptin significantly increased mean circulating concentrations of LH (p<0.05), LH pulse frequency (p<0.01), LH pulse amplitude (p<0.05) and mean circulating concentrations of FSH (p<0.01) and leptin (p<0.01). High energy intake significantly (p<0.05) stimulated pulsatile secretion of LH and leptin secretion (p<0.01), but non-significantly increased plasma FSH concentration. The results of this study indicate that leptin is a metabolic signal for the GnRH-LH/FSH axis in feed-restricted fat-tailed ewes.

Growing Behavior of Nanocrystalline TiN Films by Asymmetric Pulsed DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtering (비대칭 펄스 DC 반응성 마그네트론 스퍼터링으로 증착된 나노결정질 TiN 박막의 성장거동)

  • Han, Man-Geun;Chun, Sung-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2011
  • Nanocrystalline TiN films were deposited on Si(100) substrate using asymmetric pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering. We investigated the growing behavior and the structural properties of TiN films with change of duty cycle and pulsed frequency. Grain size of TiN films were decreased from 87.2 nm to 9.8 nm with decrease of duty cycle. The $2{\theta}$ values for (111) and (200) crystallographic planes of the TiN films were also decreased with decrease of duty cycle. This shift in $2{\theta}$ could be attributed to compressive stress in the TiN coatings. Thus, the change of plasma parameter has a strong influence not only on the microstructure but also on the residual stresses of TiN films.

Frequency Domain Characteristics of the Metamaterial Slab Using 2D-FDTD (2D-FDTD 방법을 이용한 메타물질 Slab의 주파수 영역 특성)

  • Hong, Ic-Pyo
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1165-1172
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, the scattering parameters of the metamaterial slab are obtained using the 2D FDTD(Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method. FDTD method is one of strongest electromagnetic numerical method which is widely used to analyze the metamaterial structure because of its simplicity. But it is very difficult to obtain frequency response of metamaterial itself because frequency dispersive model such as Lorentz, Drude model are used in FDTD. We used the well-known m-n-m cycle sine pulse to obtain the frequency response of the metamaterials. Comparisons between the wideband Gaussian input pulse and band-limited m-n-m cycle sine pulse are performed in this paper also. From the results, we concluded that the scattering parameters in frequency domain can be obtained using specific input pulse in FDTD even if the response has valid only for limited bandwidth.

Performance Evaluation of Various Bus Clamped Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Techniques

  • Nair, Meenu D.;Biswas, Jayanta;Vivek, G.;Barai, Mukti
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1244-1255
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    • 2017
  • The space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique is a popular PWM method for medium voltage drive applications. Conventional SVPWM (CSVPWM) and bus clamped SVPWM (BCSVPWM) are the most common SVPWM techniques. This paper evaluates the performance of various advanced BCSVPWM strategies in terms of their harmonic distortion and switching loss based on a uniform frame work. A uniform frame work, pulse number captures the performance parameter variations of different SVPWM strategies for various number of samples with heterogeneous pulse numbers. This work compares different advanced BCSVPWM techniques based on the modulation index and location of the clamping position (zero vector changing angle ) of a phase in a line cycle. The frame work provides a fixed fundamental frequency of 50Hz. The different BCSVPWM switching strategies are implemented and compared experimentally on a 415V, 2.2kW, 50Hz, 3-phase induction motor drive which is fed from an IGBT based 2 KVA voltage source inverter (VSI) with a DC bus voltage of 400 V. A low cost PIC microcontroller (PIC18F452) is used as the controller platform.

Pulse-Sequence Analysis of Discharges in Air, Liquid and Solid Insulating Materials

  • Suwayno, Suwayno;Mizutani, Teruyoshi
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.528-533
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    • 2006
  • Electrical discharges may occur in gas, liquid as well as solid insulating materials. This paper describes the investigation results on the discharges in air, silicone oil and low density polyethylene (LDPE) using needle plane electrode system under AC voltage of 50 Hz. The experimental results showed that for discharge in air (corona), discharge pulses were concentrated around the peak of applied voltage at negative half cycle. For silicone oil positive as well as negative discharges were observed which concentrated around the peak of applied voltage. The positive pulse number was smaller but the magnitude was higher than that of negative discharge. Discharges in void took place at wider range of phase of applied voltage. The unbalance in pulse number and magnitude similar to that of oil discharges were observed. For electrical treeing in LDPE, the discharges were spread before the zero cross of the applied voltage up to the peak at both positive and negative half cycles. The discharge pulse sequence analysis indicated that the PD occurrence in air, oil and void were strongly affected by the magnitude of applied voltage. However, for electrical treeing it was observed that the discharge occurrence was strongly affected by the time derivative of the applied voltage (dv/dt).

Effect of Pulse and Pulse-Reverse Current on Surface Morphology and Resistivity of Electrodeposited Copper (정펄스 및 역펄스 방법을 이용하여 구리 전해도금 시 전착층의 표면 형상과 고유저항에 미치는 효과)

  • Woo, Tae-Gyu;Park, Il-Song;Seol, Kyeong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.56-59
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    • 2007
  • Recently, requirement for the ultra thin copper foil increases with smaller and miniaturized electronic components. In this study, we evaluated the surface morphology, crystal phase ana surface roughness of the copper film electrodeposited by pulse method without using additives. Homogeneous and dense copper crystals were formed on the titanium substrate, and the optimum condition was 25% duty cycle. Moreover, the surface roughness(Ra), $0.295{\mu}m$, is the smallest value in this condition. It is thought that this copper foil is good for electromigration inhibition due to the preferential crystal growth of Cu (111)

Effect of bath conditions and pulse parameters on tin surface finish for microelectronic packaging applications

  • Sharma, Ashutosh;Jung, Do-hyun;Jung, Jae-pil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.232-233
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    • 2015
  • The effects of various bath conditions such as surfactant concentration, bath pH, bath temperature, agitation of bath; as well as pulse parameters such as cathodic current density, pulse duty cycle and frequency, on the grain size, surface finish, and appearance of the tin plated coatings have been investigated. The plating bath under investigation is an aqueous acidic solution composed of a mixture of $SnSO_4$, $H_2SO_4$, and a surfactant. The bath conductivity and pH are measured by a glass pH electrode. The microstructure of the coatings produced is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface profilometry. XRD analysis shows that the deposits consist of tetragonal ${\beta}$-Sn crystal structure irrespective of plating conditions. The mechanism involved in the morphology evolution in response to various parameters and conditions has also been discussed.

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Modified Digital Pulse Width Modulator for Power Converters with a Reduced Modulation Delay

  • Qahouq, Jaber Abu;Arikatla, Varaprasad;Arunachalam, Thanukamalam
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.98-103
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    • 2012
  • This paper presents a digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) with a reduced digital modulation delay (a transport delay of the modulator) during the transient response of power converters. During the transient response operation of a power converter, as a result of dynamic variations such as load step-up or step-down, the closed loop controller will continuously adjust the duty cycle in order to regulate the output voltage. The larger the modulation delays, the larger the undesired output voltage deviation from the reference point. The three conventional DPWM techniques exhibit significant leading-edge and/or trailing-edge modulation delays. The DPWM technique proposed in this paper, which results in modulation delay reductions, is discussed, experimentally tested and compared with conventional modulation techniques.

Dynamic Analysis of Metal Transfer in Pulsed-GMAW (Pulsed-GMAW의 금속 이행 현상에 관한 동적 해석)

  • 최상균;유중돈;박상규
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 1997
  • The metal transfer phenomenon of the pulsed-GMAW is simulated by formulating the electromagnetic force incorporated with the Volume of Fluid algorithm. The free surface profiles, pressure and velocity distributions within the drop are computed numerically. Axial velocity and acceleration generated during peak current period are found to have a significant effect on drop detachment. Therefore, the accelerated inertia force becomes one of important factors affecting metal transfer in the pulsed-GMAW. When the pulse current parameters are selected properly, the molten drop is detached just after current pulse, and the operating range of the pulsing frequency increases with higher peak current and duty cycle. Calculated operating ranges show reasonably good agreements with the available experimental data.

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