• Title/Summary/Keyword: pupil size variability

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Pupil Size Variability as an Index of Autonomic Activity - from the Experiments of Posture, Sleepiness and Cognitive Task (자율신경활성도의 지표로서의 동공크기 변이율 -자세변화, 졸음, 인지과제 실험으로부터)

  • Lee, Jeung-Chan;Kim, Ji-Eun;Park, Kyung-Mo
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 2007
  • This paper sought to investigate pupil size variability, pupil size parameters in terms of time domain and frequency domain, the autonomic activity change induced by posture change, degree of sleepiness and cognitive task (math task). With a specially designed pupil image acquisition system in the dark room, these three kinds of experiments were performed to induce a dominant state of sympathetic or parasympathetic activation. Electrocardiogram and pupil size were measured in all the experiments. Based on three experiments, we calculated heart rate variability. In the pupil size analysis, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of pupil size (in time domain), and proposed several frequency bands that exhibit different autonomic activation between different sessions. The results indicate that in terms of heart rate variability, posture change exhibited significant differences but not between sleepiness level, or between cognitive task. Pupil sizes differed only during the postures. And we found some frequency bands that correlated with autonomic activation in each experiment. While heart rate variability reflects posture change that need cardiac control, pupil size variability reflects not only posture induced autonomic activation but sleepiness and cognitive load, which is processed in the brain, in time and frequency domain parameter.

A study on characteristics of the autonomic nervous system in students with Keongke - Using Heart Rate Variability and Pupil Size Variability - (경계(驚悸) 증상을 지닌 학생 집단의 자율 신경 기능 특성에 대한 연구 - 심박변이도와 동공크기 변이도를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Seung-Gi;Lee, Jeong-Chan;Kim, Ji-Eun;Park, Kyung-Mo;Kang, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.133-145
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    • 2006
  • Objective : The purpose of this experimental-controlled study was to investigate the characteristics of the autonomic nervous system in students with Keongke by using HRV(Heart rate variability) and PSV(Pupil size variability). Method : The study group was consisted of 11 students with self recognition as the experimental group, and 25 normal students as the control group. Informations on gender and age were obtained by medical charts and personal interviews. By using heart rate variability and pupil size variability, we measured the value of HRT(Heart rate), SDNN(Standard deviation of NN intervals), LFnorm(Low frequency normalization), HFnorm(High frequency normalization), LF/HF ratio, Pupil area, B.S.(Basic size), C.R.(Max Constriction Rate) and 1s.d.(1sec Dilation Rate). I compared the degrees of the sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Result : 1. In the result of heart rate variability between experimental and control group, none of the parameters of experimental group were significantly different from control group. And even though there were no statistical significance, there were some numerical differences in SDNN, LF norm, HF norm. 2. In pupil size variability, C.R. and 1s.d. of the experimental group were increased compared to control group. Conclusion : The study results suggest that the group with Keongke has differences of autonomic nervous system as compared to those in normal state. Measurement value of PSV is a new technical approach to estimate the autonomic nervous system.

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Posture Change Affects Indices of Pupil Size - Korean Males in Their Twenties

  • Lee, Jeung-Chan;Kim, Ji-Eun;Park, Kyung-Mo
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2007
  • To determine the effect of posture change on autonomic activity and to investigate valid parameters to reflex the autonomic activity from time-series pupil size data, a posture-related experiment was performed with 15 subjects, which involved measuring their electrocardiograms and pupil sizes. The experimental procedure consisted of three-sequence postures-supine, sitting and upright-for 5 minutes each, with rest sessions between postures. The subjects were notified of the entire experimental procedure. The parameters of the subjects' heart rate variability showed significant differences between the postures (heart rate: 63-70-80 beat, normalized low frequency power: 28-50-75, normalized high frequency power: 72-49-25 and ratio: 0.5-1.2-4.4 in supine-sitting-upright position respectively) as did the parameters of their mean pupil sizes (41300-53900-53700 pixels respectively) and the major frequencies (the third trend: 0.23-0.2-0.18 Hz respectively) of their pupil size variability according to changes in their autonomic activities induced by posture change. The experiment thus proved that posture change affects autonomic activity and that such activity can be estimated by the parameters of pupil size as similar as heart rate variability.

Analysis of Pupil Size Variability for Effectiveness Verification of Activation Level of Autonomic Nerve System by Electromagnetic Acupuncture System (자화침 시스템의 자율신경계 활성화 효과 검증을 위한 동공크기변이 분석)

  • Liu, Wenxue;Lee, Na-Ra;Choi, Woo-Hyuk;Kim, Soo-Byeong;Lee, Young-Heum;Shin, Tae-Min
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.554-562
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : The purpose of this research is to verify the effects of the Electromagnetic acupuncture(EMA) on BL15 by Pupil size variability(PSV) which is directly related to the activation of the Autonomic Nervous System. Methods : Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were divided into three groups(non-stimulated, manual acupuncture and EMA group). The size of pupil was measured in the cube place of $60{\times}60{\times}60$ cm in order to avoid the effect of the surrounding circumstances. All subjects were measured the size of left pupil about 200sec in the constant illumination. Results : We observed the decrease in PSV of manual acupuncture group compared to non-stimulation group, but it was not significant statistically(p>0.05). The decrease in PSV of EMA group was observed in comparison to two groups, and we confirmed the result of significant difference statistically(p<0.05). Conclusions : We concluded that EMA treatment method is enough to activate in the parasympathetic nerve system by inducing the biotransformation.

The Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation and Progressive Relaxation Therapy on Examination Stress of Students -Using Heart Rate Variability and Pupil Size Variability - (침자극과 이완요법이 시험 스트레스에 미치는 영향 - 심박변이도와 동공크기변이도를 사용하여 -)

  • Kwak, Sun;Lee, Seung-Gi;Park, Kyung-Mo;Choi, Woo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.161-176
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture stimulation and relaxation therapy on autonomic nervous system for students with examination stress by HRV, PSV and to find out relationship with anti-stress effect. Methods : The study group consists of 42 students were classified into three groups randomly : acupuncture stimulation group(male n=8, female n=6), relaxation therapy group(male n=8, female n=6) and rest group(male n=8, female n=6). Using heart rate variability and pupil size variability, we measured the value of HRT, SDNN, SDSD, LF norm, HF norm, LF/HF ratio, Pupil area, and compared the changes the sympathetic- parasympathetic activity. Measurement value were compared before and after, during midterm examination and normal times. Results : 1. HRT, LF/HF ratio, LF norm of acupuncture group was significantly decreased and HF norm were significantly increased in HRV after acupuncture stimulation at a term of examination. While variables of the other group were no significantly different. 2. SDNN of acupuncture group were significantly increased in HRV after acupuncture stimulation at normal times. 3. Pupil area, LF norm, HF norm of three group were no significantly different in PSV at a term of examination. 4. Pupil area of relaxation group were significantly decreased in PSV at normal times. While variables of the other group were no significantly different. 5. HRT of rest group were significantly decreased in HRV between three groups at a term of examination and normal times. 6. Pupil area of relaxation group were significantly decreased in PSV between three groups at a term of examination and normal times. Conclusion : The results suggest that acupuncture stimulation is associated with changed activity in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Measurement values of HRV and PSV are suitable to estimate the activity of automatic nervous system.

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A Study on the Relationship with Acupuncture Stimulation and Stress -Using Pupil Size Variability(PSV)- (동공크기변이도를 통한 침자극과 스트레스의 상관관계 연구)

  • Choi, Woo-Jin;Hu, Yong-Suk;Park, Kyung-Mo;Kim, Ji-Eun;Lee, Seung-Gi
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.113-124
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of this case-control research was to investigate the effects of acupuncture stimulation on autonomic nervous system for patients with PSV and to find out relationship with anti-stress effects. Methods : The study group consists of 24 patients with self-recognition of stress as the case group, and 20 normal person as the control group by similar age. We measured PSV of case and control groups before acupuncture stimulation, prick acupuncture in Hegu(LI4), Taichong(Liv3), Shenme(H7), Neiguan(P6), Zusanli(S36). After treating for 20 minutes, measurement values of PSV were compared for pre-acupuncture and post-acupuncture Results : 1. Pupil size of the case group were decreased significantly after acupuncture stimulation in the 1st 2nd experiments. Pupil size of the control group was decreased significantly after acupuncture stimulation in the 1st experiment. 2. Pupil size of the case group were decreased significantly between the 1st and 2nd experiments before acupuncture stimulation. Conclusion : The results suggest that acupuncture stimulation is associated with changed activity in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Measurement values of PSV is suitable to estimate the activity of automatic nervous system.

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The Differential Effects of Acupuncture on Postures of Healthy Subjects (정상인의 자세에 따른 자침 효과의 차이)

  • Kim, Ji-Eun;Park, Kyung-Mo
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.46-54
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    • 2007
  • Objective: The first aim of this study is to determine the effects of acupuncture on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) via Heart Rate (HR) and Pupil Size (PS), and to compare the effects of acupuncture on the subjects' ANS when they are in a sitting position with the effects when they are in a supine position. Methods: Ten healthy male subjects were randomized to receive either verum acupuncture stimulation in a sitting position (SitV), verum acupuncture stimulation in a supine position (SupV), sham acupuncture stimulation in a sitting position (SitS), and sham acupuncture stimulation in a supine position (SupS). Acupuncture stimulation was applied to Neguan point (PC6) on the forearm. The subject's electrocardiogram (ECG) and pupil size were recorded continuously from 5 min before stimulation to 12 min after stimulation. Results: Verum and sham acupuncture stimulation were found to have reduced heart rate (p<0.01) and to have increased pupil size (p<0.01) in all the subjects. But when the reduction in HR and the increment in PS after verum acupuncture stimulation (both sitting and supine position) were compared with those after sham acupuncture stimulation, it was found that the reduction in HR (74.48 and 73.47 bpm, p<0.063) and the increment of PS (7.32 and, 6.10 mm, p<0.001) after verum acupuncture stimulation were greater than those after sham acupuncture stimulation, and that the corresponding values were statistically significant. In addition, at the baseline, it was found that the subjects had a larger PS and a faster HR in a sitting position than when they did so in a supine position. And then the reduction and increment ratio in the subject's HR and PS when they underwent acupuncture stimulation in a sitting position was significantly different from the reduction and increment in their HR and PS when they underwent the procedure in a supine position-i.e., the reduction ratio in HR was greater when they underwent the procedure in a sitting position, and such reduction ratio was statistically significant (p<0.05). As for the increment in PS, it was greater when the subjects underwent the procedure in a supine position, and such increment was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Manual acupuncture stimulation on Neguan point (PC6) has more significant influence on the autonomic nervous system rather than sham acupuncture (tactile stimulation). And the position-induced different states of ANS have different influence on the acupuncture effect.

EFFECT OF MONO-SPECTRAM RADIANT ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUSSYSTEM

  • Shibayama, Y.;Watanuki, S.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.62-66
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    • 2000
  • This study investigated the effects of certain specific wavelengths of lighting on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) using the heart rate variability (HRV) as an index. Six subjects with normal color vision participated n this study between 15:00 and 17:00 hr to neutralize any visual differences arising from circadian rhythm. The environmental conditions of the laboratory were maintained in complete darkness and the temperature was equilibrated at 24$\Box$ with a relative humidity of 60%. Subjects were only subjected to light stimulation when the pupil of dyes attained a minimum size of 2 mm by projecting illumination equalized with the same spectral radiance of 500-700 nm with 50-nm internal radiance. HRV was calculated from electrocardiogram (ECG) with systematic respiratory control at 0.35 Hz. The results suggest that illumination with certain wavelengths may induce ANS activation.

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