• Title, Summary, Keyword: real-time PCR

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Effect of Melatonin on the Maturation of Mouse Germinal Vesicle(GV)-Stage Oocytes and Apoptosis of Cumulus Cells In Vitro (멜라토닌이 생쥐 미성숙 난자의 체외성숙과 난구세포의 세포자연사에 미치는 영향)

  • Na, Kyoung-Ah;Kim, Eun-Sun;Eum, Jin-Hee;Kim, Jung-Ho;Yoon, Seong-Il;Lee, Dong-Ryul
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2008
  • Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a major hormone of pineal gland in vertebrates, is known to be associated with regulation of the dynamic physiological functions in general and has some functions on reproduction in the ovarian follicles in particular. And its antioxidant properties as a scavenger are also reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on the in vitro maturation of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Oocyte maturation, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of melatonin receptor were analyzed in the cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEOs) cultured with melatonin for 18 h. The CEOs were obtained from 3 wk-old ICR female mice cultured in media with 0, 0.1 nM, 10 nM, or 1,000 nM melatonin for 18 h. And then the extrusion of the first polar body was assessed to evaluate the maturation rate. The apoptosis and mRNA expression of melatonin receptor (Mtnr1-a and Mtnr1-b) in cumulus cells of each group were measured by TUNEL assay, ELISA, and real time RT-PCR after in vitro maturation(IVM). The addition of melatonin in the IVM medium significantly improved nuclear maturation of the mouse GV oocytes and the highest maturation rate were obtained from the group treated with 1,000 nM melatonin. Apoptosis was not detected in IVM oocytes, but detected in cumulus cells. And cumulus cells treated with 1,000 nM melatonin exhibited significantly lower apoptosis. In the group treated with 1,000 nM melatonin, the expression of melatonin receptor mRNA was decreased in CEOs. In conclusion, melatonin has a potentially important role for regulating oocyte maturation and reduces the apoptosis of cumulus cells in vitro.

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The Effect of Estrogen on the Transcription of the Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Gene in the Uterus (자궁 내 insulin-like growth factor-I 유전자 발현에 미치는 에스트로겐의 영향)

  • Kwak, In-Seok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.593-597
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    • 2009
  • The uterus plays a critical role in pregnancy and steroid hormones, and both estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) especially play important roles in the cross-talk between embryos and uterus to support the pregnancy. E2 stimulates uterine growth during early pregnancy to prepare for implantation of embryos. This cross-talk during the implantation period involves hormones (E2 and P4) and growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In the uterus of a pregnant pig, the action of E2 is mediated by estrogen receptor-${\beta}$ (ER-${\beta}$). The expression of ER-a was much higher in early pregnancy than in mid- and late- pregnancy, suggesting E2 secretion from embryos enhances transcription of ER-a during early pregnancy. In order to prove whether IGF-I is an E2 target gene, quantitative real-time PCR was performed on ovariectomized murine uterus with E2 and/or P4 treatment(s). Increased IGF-I mRNA expression was observed with E2 treatment, however, it was not significantly induced by P4 treatment, which clearly demonstrates that, in mice, E2 depends on the activation of uterine IGF-I gene expression. The expression of IGF-I in the uterus of pigs was much higher in early pregnancy than in mid- and late- pregnancy and these data exhibited the same expression pattern with the ER-${\beta}$ gene expression in the uterus. It suggests that a positive co-relationship between IGF-I and ER-${\beta}$ expression exists in the uterus, and that both gene expressions of IGF-I and ER-${\beta}$ are regulated by E2. It further suggests that uterine the IGF-I gene expression might be initiated by E2 secreted from embryos to increase ER-${\beta}$ gene expression, and that this increased ER-${\beta}$ further stimulates the expression of IGF-I in the uterus during early pregnancy.

Taurine exerts neuroprotective effects via anti-apoptosis in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats (신생 흰쥐의 저산소성 허혈성 뇌손상에서 항세포사멸사를 통한 taurine의 신경보호 효과)

  • Jeong, Ji Eun;Kim, Tae Yeol;Park, Hye Jin;Lee, Kye Hyang;Lee, Kyung Hoon;Choi, Eun Jin;Kim, Jin Kyung;Chung, Hai Lee;Seo, Eok Su;Kim, Woo Taek
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.12
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    • pp.1337-1347
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a simple sulfur-containing amino acid. It is abundantly present in tissues such as brain, retina, heart, and skeletal muscles. Current studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of taurine, but limited data are available for such effects during neonatal period. The aim of this study was to determine whether taurine could reduce hypoxic-ischemic (HI) cerebral injury via anti-apoptosis mechanism. Methods:Embryonic cortical neurons isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at 18 days gestation were cultured in vitro. The cells were divided into hypoxia group, taurine-treated group before hypoxic insult, and taurine-treated group after HI insult. In the in vivo model, left carotid artery ligation was performed in 7-day-old SD rat pups. The pups were exposed to hypoxia, administered an injection of 30 mg/kg of taurine, and killed at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after the hypoxic insult. We compared the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 among the 3 groups by using real- time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. Results:The cells in the taurine-treated group before hypoxic insult, although similar in appearance to those in the normoxia group, were lesser in number. In the taurine-treated group, Bcl-2 expression increased, whereas Bax and caspase-3 expressions reduced. Conclusion:Taurine exerts neuroprotective effects onperinatal HI brain injury due to its anti-apoptotic effect. The neuroprotective effect was maximal at 1-2 weeks after the hypoxic injury.

Toll-like receptor 9 expression and interferon-α secretion upon CpG-ODN stimulation in allergic subjects (알레르기 환자에서 TLR9 ligand인 CpG-ODN 자극에 의한 IFN-α 분비와 TLR9 발현)

  • Han, Man Yong;Jee, Hye Mi;Kim, Hyeong Yoon;Lee, Cho Ae;Cho, Hyo-Jin;Hwang, Seong-Gyu;Kim, Kyu-Earn
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.1015-1020
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:The aim of this study is to explore the effect of the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) that respond to antigen to Th2 immune deviation in allergic patients. Methods:Subjects consisted of 19 allergic patients and 17 healthy volunteers. Skin prick tests and nasal provocation tests were performed for the two groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from subjects and analyzed for the Lineage Cocktail (CD3, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD20, CD56) (-), HLA-DR (+), and CD123 (+) using flow cytometry. In addition, we analyzed TLR9 mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The level of $interferon-{\alpha}$ ($IFN-{\alpha}$) of the PBMCs following stimulation with the TLR9 ligand CpG-ODN 2216 was also evaluated. Results:Analyses of CD123 (+) revealed a nearly similar distribution for the classical pDC markers in the allergic group ($0.1%{\pm}0.04%$) and in the controls ($0.25%{\pm}0.23%$). The mRNA levels of TLR9 on PBMCs were not different between the allergic group and the controls ($1.29{\pm}0.41$ vs. $1.25{\pm}0.23$, respectively). Additionally, the level of $IFN-{\alpha}$ in PBMCs exposed to stimuli of the TLR9 ligand CpG-ODN 2216 was not significantly different between the two groups ($911{\pm}829$ vs. $1,095{\pm}888pg/mL$, respectively). Conclusion:We found no evidence that TLR9-dependent immune responses in human pDCs are associated with allergic status.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) in Korea: Current Status, Limitation, and Challenges (국내 중증 급성 호흡기 증후군 코로나 바이러스의 검사실 내 진단: 현재, 한계점 그리고 직면한 과제)

  • Song, Gi Seon;Lee, You-Rim;Kim, Sungmin;Kim, Wontae;Choi, Jungwon;Yoo, Dahyeon;Yoo, Jungyoung;Jang, Kyung-Tae;Lee, Jaewang;Jun, Jin Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.284-295
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    • 2020
  • In December 2019, the first coronavirus disease- 2019 (COVID-19) patient was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Since then, the number of patients who suffered severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV) has increased dramatically in Korea. This new variant virus induces pulmonary diseases, including cough, sore throat, rhinorrhea, dyspnea, and pneumonia. Because SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus, real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR has been used widely to diagnose COVID-19. As the Korea Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (KCDC) and Ministry of Food & Drug Safety (MFDS) approved emergency use authorization, clinical specimens collected from COVID-19 patients and even healthy people have been clinically diagnosed by laboratory medicine. Based on a literature search, this paper reviews the epidemiology, symptoms, molecular diagnostics approved by KCDC, a current diagnosis of COVID-19 in the laboratories, the difference between molecular and serological diagnosis, and guidelines for clinical specimens. In addition, the Korean guidelines of biosafety for clinical laboratory scientists are evaluated to prevent healthcare-associated infection. The author's experience and lessons as clinical laboratory scientists will provide valuable insights to protect the domestic and international health community in this COVID-19 pandemic around the world.