• Title, Summary, Keyword: rehydration

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Preparation and Evaluation of Vitamine A palmitate Dry Emulsion (비타민 A 팔미틴산 건조 유제의 제조 및 평가)

  • Lee, Jong-Pyo;Han, Kun
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2000
  • Vitamin A palmitate, an oily drug which has low chemical stability and is poorly absorbed in the intestine, was formulated into a novel powdered dosage form. This is designated as a redispersible dry emulsion by freeze-drying technique. Before preparing a dry emulsion, vitamin A palmitate oil in solid in water (O/S/W) emulsion with soybean oil and coconut oil using Aerosil 200 as an emulsion stabilizer and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-blockcopolymer (Pluronic F68) as a surfactant was prepared. The resultants of the stability tests indicated that vitamin A palmitate O/S/W emulsion was improved on increasing the oil content of the formulation. The resultant dry emulsion particles have a good stabilities and free flow properties and readily released the oily droplets to form stable emulsions on rehydration. The drug releasing property from the resultant dry emulsion particles was dependent on factors such as amount of oily carrier(soybean oil) and surfactant(Pluronic F68) formulated. Above 80% of vitamin A palmitate content was released from the dry emulsion for 1 hour. It was deduced that vitamin A palmitate dry emulsion was definitely suitable for oral administration, since small droplets of vitamine A palmitate from the dry emulsion may alter the drug absorption profile resulting in bioavailability enhancement.

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Effects of Carbon Nanotube and Nanosilica Incorporation on the Mechanical Recovery of Portland Cement Paste Exposed to High Temperatures (탄소나노튜브와 나노실리카의 혼입량 변화가 고온에 노출된 시멘트 페이스트의 역학적 성능 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • Suh, Heongwon;Jee, Hyeonseok;Park, Taehoon;Bae, Sungchul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.149-150
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    • 2019
  • When concrete is exposed to fire, the decomposition of Portland cement paste results in critical damage to the concrete structure of a building. However the recovery process of the damaged concrete structure has not yet been fully elucidated. In addition, research on appropriate additives such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and nanosilica has been increasing recently, however, investigation of CNT and nanosilica incorporated cement paste after decomposition of CNT by high temperature is not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical properties of CNT incorporated cement paste under different temperatures ($200^{\circ}C$, $500^{\circ}C$ and $800^{\circ}C$). Also, the effects of different rehydration conditions ($20^{\circ}C$ 60% RH and in water for different curing times) on the recovery of the paste were studied. The changes in tensile strength, surface observation of the specimens were characterized. In addition, the decomposition and formation of hydrates in the paste due to the heating process were studied using X-ray diffraction. The results showed that incorporation of nanosilica enhanced tensile strength after heating to each target temperatures.

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Effects of Carbon nanotube Incorporation on the Mechanical Recovery of Portland Cement Paste Exposed to High Temperatures (탄소나노튜브의 혼입량 변화가 고온에 노출된 시멘트 페이스트의 역학적 성능 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • Suh, Heong-Won;Park, Tae-Hoon;Bae, Sung-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.114-115
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    • 2019
  • When concrete is exposed to fire, the decomposition of Portland cement paste results in critical damage to the concrete structure of a building. Although the behavior of cement pastes after heating provides crucial information with respect to the reuse of the building exposed to fire, the recovery process of the damaged concrete structure has not yet been fully elucidated. In addition, research on appropriate additives such as carbon nanotube (CNT) has been increasing recently, however, investigation of CNT incorporated cement paste after decomposition of CNT by high temperature is not fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical properties of CNT incorporated cement paste under different temperatures (200℃, 500℃ and 800℃). Also, the effects of different rehydration conditions (20℃ 60% RH and in water for different curing times) on the recovery of the paste were studied. The changes in tensile and compressive strength, surface observation of the specimens were characterized. In addition, the decomposition and formation of hydrates in the paste due to the heating process were studied using X-ray diffraction.

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Acute infectious Diarrhea in Pediatirc Patients (소아의 급성 감염성 설사)

  • Ma, Sang Hyuk
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.235-250
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    • 2005
  • Acute diarrhea is one of the most common diseases that are seen in pediatric patients. In the management of acute diarrhea, several differential diagnostic criteria should be considered based on clinical and/or laboratory findings. These criteria include : (1) normal variant stool versus diarrhea (2) infectious versus non-infectious condition and (3) bacterial versus non-bacterial etiology. The use of antibiotics should be considered to manage diarrhea caused by bacteria accompanying fever and bloody diarrhea in the following cases : (1) patients with serious clinical course, (2) under three months, (3) immunocompromised patients, (4) patients with nutritional deficiency and (5) patients presenting with moderate-to-severe dehydration. In patients presenting with the symptoms suspected to be bacterial origin, whose clinical course is not serious, antibiotic therapy is not necessary. These patients are easily manageable at OPD level. Moreover, except for some cases in which the use of antibiotics is inevitable, pediatric diarrhea can be managed by providing the suitable foods alone with no necessity of other specific drugs. Accordingly, it is crucial not so much to depend on the drugs as to provide appropriate foods including oral rehydration solution(ORS) with no further episodes of diarrhea. Special attention should be paid to the fact that younger pediatric patients will undergo nutritional deficiency unless acute diarrhea is properly managed.

Comparative Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Pine Needle Powders Prepared by Different Drying Methods

  • Chung, Ha-Sook;Lee, Jun Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 2015
  • Systematic study of how different drying methods, namely hot-air drying, vacuum-drying, and freeze-drying, affect color, browning index, degree of rehydration, water solubility, and vitamin C content is critical for utilizing pine needle powders (PNP) as a novel ingredient in functional foods. Samples prepared by vacuum-drying showed a significantly higher $L^*$-value, whereas higher $a^*$- and $b^*$-values were detected in the hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). The browning index was significantly higher in samples prepared by vacuum-drying compared to samples prepared by freeze-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried PNP exhibited a significantly higher degree of rehydration than hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). Water solubilities of freeze-dried and hot-air dried samples were significantly higher than that of vacuum-dried sample (P<0.05). Vitamin C was less destroyed during freeze-drying compared to hot-air or vacuum-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried samples displayed a clear porous structure and appeared to have a bigger space, whereas hot-air dried samples showed lower porosity than vacuum and freeze-dried samples.

Effects of Gluten and Soybean Polypeptides on Textural, Rheological, and Rehydration Properties of Instant Fried Noodles

  • Ahn, Chang-Won;Nam, Hee-Sop;Shin, Jae-Kil;Kim, Jae-Hoon;Hwan, Eun-Sun;Lee, Hyong-Joo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.698-703
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    • 2006
  • We investigated how the addition of polypeptides to instant fried noodle dough affects the dough properties, starch gelatinization, and textural properties of cup-type instant fried noodles. After comparing farinograph results of 100% wheat flour with 1% wheat flour substituted with gluten, there was a small difference in the mechanical dough properties. However, in the case of 1% wheat flour substituted with gluten peptides, the dough development time increased, dough stability decreased, and weakness increased. On the other hand, when gluten or gluten peptides were added, starch gelatinization did not change significantly. At the steaming stage, substitution with gluten peptides or soybean peptides markedly changed the molecular weight distributions of extractable polypeptides. Especially in the case of wheat flour substituted with 1% gluten peptides, the relative portion of low Mw extractable polypeptides (2.5-50 kDa) decreased more compared to a control. Also, the hardness and chewiness decreased in cooked cup-type instant fried noodles containing gluten peptides. This suggests that the addition of gluten peptides can reduce the rehydration time of cup-type instant fried noodles.

Should Workers Avoid Consumption of Chilled Fluids in a Hot and Humid Climate?

  • Brearley, Matt B.
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.327-328
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    • 2017
  • Despite provision of drinking water as the most common method of occupational heat stress prevention, there remains confusion in hydration messaging to workers. During work site interactions in a hot and humid climate, workers commonly report being informed to consume tepid fluids to accelerate rehydration. When questioned on the evidence supporting such advice, workers typically cite that fluid absorption is delayed by ingestion of chilled beverages. Presumably, delayed absorption would be a product of fluid delivery from the gut to the intestines, otherwise known as gastric emptying. Regulation of gastric emptying is multifactorial, with gastric volume and beverage energy density the primary factors. If gastric emptying is temperature dependent, the impact of cooling is modest in both magnitude and duration (${\leq}5$ minutes) due to the warming of fluids upon ingestion, particularly where workers have elevated core temperature. Given that chilled beverages are most preferred by workers, and result in greater consumption than warm fluids during and following physical activity, the resultant increased consumption of chilled fluids would promote gastric emptying through superior gastric volume. Hence, advising workers to avoid cool/cold fluids during rehydration appears to be a misinterpretation of the research. More appropriate messaging to workers would include the thermal benefits of cool/cold fluid consumption in hot and humid conditions, thereby promoting autonomy to trial chilled beverages and determine personal preference. In doing so, temperature-based palatability would be maximized and increase the likelihood of workers maintaining or restoring hydration status during and after their work shift.

Effect of hot-air drying temperature on nutritional components and rehydration rate of sweetpotato leaves (열풍건조 온도에 따른 고구마 잎의 영양성분 및 수화복원성 변화)

  • Jeong, Da-Woon;Park, Yang-Kyun;Nam, Sang-Sik;Han, Seon-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.498-504
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of the present study is to provide preliminary data for turning sweetpotato leaves into dehydrated vegetables. To achieve this goal, we have gone through the process of hot-air drying the leaves of sweetpotato that are usually thrown away and examined the drying speed and rehydration resilience, then made a comparative analysis of the general ingredients, lutein, $\beta$-carotene and chromaticity. The drying speed reached the peak at a temperature of $70^{\circ}C$. As for other general ingredients, there was no significant difference according to temperature. The content of lutein, which is a functional ingredient, was large in Shinmi with $171.59{\mu}g/g$ at a temperature of $40^{\circ}C$; small in Hayanmi with $73.75{\mu}g/g$ at a temperature of $70^{\circ}C$. The content of $\beta$-carotene was large in Shinmi with $379.59{\mu}g/g$ at a temperature of $40^{\circ}C$; small in Hayanmi with $170.78{\mu}g/g$ at a temperature of $70^{\circ}C$. The content of functional materials was the largest at a temperature of $40^{\circ}C$, and decreased in the order of temperatures at $50^{\circ}C$, $60^{\circ}C$, and $70^{\circ}C$. As for rehydration stability, rehydration rate in both Shinmi and Hayanmi was the highest at a temperature of $40^{\circ}C$ with 233.93% and 223.47% respectively. To summarize, the quality of dried sweet potato leaf was more affected by temperature than by drying time, and low temperature drying resulted in better product value.

Drying Characteristics of Osmotically Pre-treated Carrots (삼투처리한 당근의 건조 특성)

  • Youn, Kwang-Sup;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1126-1134
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    • 1996
  • The physical characteristics changes of carrots during drying were studied to minimize the quality degradation by applying improved drying process and pretreatment method. Physico-chemical properties of the product were analyzed, and then, drying mechanisms were explained by diffusion coefficients and drying models. In hot air drying process, the drying and rehydration efficiencies were high at low relative humidity and high temperature. Browning degree and specific volume also showed similar trend to drying efficiency. Diffusion coefficient, which describes moisture transfer, was also high at low relative humidity and at high temperature. It was verified using. Arrhenius equation that drying process was influenced by temperature. It was also observed during experiment that temperature changes were more effective in drying than relative humidity changes. Quadratic model was the most fittable in explaining the process. As a result of analyzing the experimental data with respect to the drying time, the contents of carotene and moisture could be modeled as a polynomial. As the air velocity increased, drying performance and rehydration efficiency increased.

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Delivery of Ti Plasmid into Nicotiana sanderae Protoplasts via Liposomes (Liposome을 이용한 Ti Plasmid의 꽃담배 원형질체내 도입)

  • Lim, Myung-Ho;Jeong, Jae-Dong;Kim, In-Soo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 1994
  • Ti plasmid of A. tumefaciens was labeled with $^3H-thymidine$, purified and encapsulated into phosphatidylserine (PS) and PS-cholesterol (Chol; 1 : 1 molar ratio) liposomes by lyophilization-rehydration method. PS was supplemented with 1 mole percent octadecyl rhodamine B for fluorometric measurement of PS. Liposomes entrapping $^3H-Ti plasmid$ were fused with Nicotiana sanderae protoplasts by treating with 5 mM $CaCl_2$ and 10% PEG. The fusion was evidenced by fluorescence microscopic technique. The amounts of Ti plasmid and PS associated with protoplasts were assayed by the radioactivity of $^3H-Ti plasmid$ and by the fluorescence of rhodamine B. About 7.9% of the PS liposome and 7.2% of PS-Chol liposome were fused with protoplasts. During the fusion process, about 30% of the liposomal contents of PS-Chol liposome was leaked, in contrast to about 60% leakage of its contents in PS liposome. Accounting the number of liposomes fused with protoplasts together with the encapsulation efficiency and the leakage of liposomal contents, it was calculated that ca. 1,700 Ti plasmid was transfered into one protoplast by the present method. This result may indicates that the present method transfers enough Ti plasmid into plant protoplast to elicit genetic transformation of plants.

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