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A Study on a Korean-Translated Version of the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ) (Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire의 국내적용을 위한 번역연구)

  • Ra, Dae-Yeop;Chang, Ki-Yeon;Kong, Myung-Ja;Lee, Sun-Wook
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.34-49
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    • 2018
  • Objective : This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of Korean version of Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ-K) using classical test theory. Methods : For the translation of Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ), as recommended in the literature, four-stage translation method was used. For the psychometric properties of Korean version of the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ-K), internal consistency reliability, content validity, and construct validity of the test using the known groups method and convergent and divergent methods were examined. For the recruitment of participants, a convenience sampling method is used. Participants of this study were 10 children with neuro-developmental disabilities hospitalized two different rehabilitations center and 10 children with typical development living in Daejeon, South Korea. All 20 participants were in aged from two to five years. Results : In terms of the content validity index, it was over 0.78, confirmed by nine experts of children development. PVQ-K successfully discriminated the scores of children with typical development from those with neurodevelopmental disabilities (p < .05). It is found that there is significant correlations between achievement stage of PVQ-K and the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants & Children (K-DTS)(.652 ~ .799 for subcategory, .706 for total scale). The internal consistency was .944 (Cronbach's ${\alpha}$). In qualitative content analysis, it was examined that how Korean children behave and respond in the environment, and how children's volition was strengthened or weakened by the environment. Conclusion : The results propose that PVQ-K can be a useful occupation-focused measure. This study recommend further study on PVQ-K with larger samples combined with the item-response theory approach.

A Development of Evaluation Indicators for Performance Improvement of Horticultural Therapy Garden (원예치료정원의 성능개선을 위한 평가지표 개발)

  • Ahn, Je-Jun;Park, Yool-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this research is to develop evaluation indicators forperformance improvement of horticultural therapy garden. In order to achieve a therapeutic purpose, the gardening activity held by the trained horticultural therapist. Moreover, horticultural therapy is 'a medical model' for the treatment and basic premise of the research was set, as horticultural therapy garden is characterized area to support activities of patients and horticultural therapist functionally and efficiently. For this study, three times of Delphi and AHP techniques were proceeded to export panels who were recruited by purposive sampling. Through these techniques, it was possible to deduct the evaluation indicator which maximizes the performance of the horticultural therapy garden. The evaluation items were prioritized by typing and stratification of the indicator. The results and discussions were stated as followings. Firstly, a questionnaire of experts was conducted to horticultural therapists and civil servants who were in charge of horticultural therapy. As results(horticultural therapists: 87.8%, civil servants: 75.2%), It is possible to conclude that both positions have the high recognition and agreed on the necessity of horticultural therapy. Secondly, Delphi investigation was conducted three times in order to develop the evaluation indicator for performance evaluation. After Delphi analysis, total 34 of evaluation elements to improve the performance of the horticultural therapy garden by reliability and validity analysis results. Thirdly, AHP analysis of each evaluation indicator was conducted on the relative importance and weighting. Moreover, the results showed 'interaction between nature and human' as the most important element, and in order of 'plan of the program', 'social interaction', 'sustainable environmental', and 'universal design rule', respectively. On the other hand, the exports from the university and research institute evaluated the importance of 'interaction between nature and human', while horticultural therapists chose 'plan of the program' as the most important element. Fourthly, the total weight was used to develop weight applied evaluation indicator for the performance evaluation of the horticultural therapy garden. The weight applying to evaluation index is generally calculated multiply the evaluation scores and the total weight using AHP analysis. Finally, 'the evaluation indicator and evaluation score sheet for performance improvement of the horticultural therapy garden' was finally stated based on the relative order of priority between evaluation indicators and analyzing the weight. If it was deducted the improvement points for the efficiency of already established horticultural therapy garden using the 'weight applied evaluation sheet', it is possible to expand it by judging the importance with the decision of the priority because the item importance decided by experts was reflected. Moreover, in the condition of new garden establishment, it is expected to be helpful in suggesting ways for performance improvement and in setting the guidelines by understanding the major indicators of performance improvement in horticultural therapy activity.

The Awareness of the Dietary Education and Dietary Management Competency of (Preliminary) Teachers in Primary and Secondary Schools (초·중등 예비교사와 교사의 식생활 교육에 대한 인식과 식생활 관리 역량)

  • Kim, Yunhwa
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.215-231
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    • 2018
  • Attitudes to the health and dietary life of teachers affect their students. The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary and education awareness, eating habits and dietary management competency of the preliminary teachers and teachers. Data was collected from 812 pre-service teachers and teachers in South Korea using a 5-Likert self-administrated questionnaire in October to December of 2017. Data was analyzed using factor analysis, reliability, one-way analysis of variance, and correlation. The results of this study are as follows. Dietary and education awareness was classified into dietary concern and dietary management stress. Eating habits composed of healthy eating habit and bad eating habit. Dietary management competency was sub-grouped into dietary knowledge, cooking, dietary sanitation and safety, and environment. The all factors of pre - service teachers and teachers showed a significant difference except for the environmental ability factor (p <0.01). All factors were significantly different according to the age and the number of meal preparation (p <0.05). The eating habits were not significantly differences from sex. The major and health condition showed significant differences except dietary management stress and cooking factors (p <0.01). The obesity index showed significant difference in the dietary concern, bad eating habits, and cooking factors (p <0.01). In conclusion, it was required to education and develop education materials that can help the STEAM education using the dietary area. The dietary education program for the pre - service teachers and the teachers should increase the number of participating in the meal preparation considering the difference according to the general characteristics, so that the dietary management competency and the healthy eating habits should be formed.

Impact Evaluation of Water Footprint on Stages of Drainage Works (배수공 각 작업 단계별 물발자국 영향평가)

  • Chen, Di;Kim, Joon-Soo;Batagalle, Vinuri;Kim, Byung-Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2020
  • Fresh water that can be used by a person of the total amount of water on the planet is increased because it is less than 0.01 % except underground water, ice and snow, etc. water management response need. In order to protect and efficiently utilize water resources, major countries are conducting water footprint studies that can quantitatively estimate the amount of water put into the operating phase of the resource harvesting phase, mainly agriculture. Korea has also recently developed a number of policies in order to cope with water shortages, and in the construction industry, as well as the need for basic research to support it has been emphasized. This study was constructed DB up to the raw material harvesting step, the transport step, the production stage in order to estimate the water consumption of resources to be put into the work process to target the drainage of the road. Water usage estimation method was utilized the method presented in the Water Footprint Manual and the environmental score card certification guide, unit water usage each drainage main method was calculated after estimating the water footprint considering the water character factor, indirect water and the direct water, the water consumption factor of material input to each process. Brown asphalt, rebar, remicon of the drainage material as a result of the water footprint calculation accounted for 97 % of the total. Drainage method is a culvert, a side channel, a culvert wing wall, reinforced concrete open channel accounted for 92.2 % of the total. Drainage total step-by-step calculated water consumption and water footprint was found in order of raw material harvesting step, transport stage, production stage. Water footprint each drainage method or total drainage material calculated in this study can be used as a base data in the agricultural and construction sectors. In order to increase the reliability of the analysis, it is believed that further overseas databases will be needed for continuous review and research.

The Effect of Brand Extension of Private Label on Consumer Attitude - a focus on the moderating effect of the perceived fit difference between parent brands and an extended brand - (PL의 브랜드확장이 소비자태도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 : 모브랜드 적합도 인식 차이의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jong-Keun;Kim, Hyang-Mi;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2011
  • Introduction: Sales of private labels(PU have been growing m recent years. Globally, PLs have already achieved 20% share, although between 25 and 50% share in most of the European markets(AC. Nielson, 2005). These products are aimed to have comparable quality and prices as national brand(NB) products and have been continuously eroding manufacturer's national brand market share. Stores have also started introducing premium PLs that are of higher-quality and more reasonably priced compared to NBs. Worldwide, many retailers already have a multiple-tier private label architecture. Consumers as a consequence are now able to have a more diverse brand choice in store than ever before. Since premium PLs are priced higher than regular PLs and even, in some cases, above NBs, stores can expect to generate higher profits. Brand extensions and private label have been extensively studied in the marketing field. However, less attention has been paid to the private label extension. Therefore, this research focuses on private label extension using the Multi-Attribute Attitude Model(Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). Especially there are few studies that consider the hierarchical effect of the PL's two parent brands: store brand and the original PL. We assume that the attitude toward each of the two parent brands affects the attitude towards the extended PL. The influence from each parent brand toward extended PL will vary according to the perceived fit between each parent brand and the extended PL. This research focuses on how these two parent brands act as reference points to one another in the consumers' choice consideration. Specifically we seek to understand how store image and attitude towards original PL affect consumer perceptions of extended premium PL. How consumers perceive extended premium PLs could provide strategic suggestions for retailer managers with specific suggestions on whether it is more effective: to position extended premium PL similarly or dissimilarly to original PL especially on the quality dimension and congruency with store image. There is an extensive body of research on branding and brand extensions (e.g. Aaker and Keller, 1990) and more recently on PLs(e.g. Kumar and Steenkamp, 2007). However there are no studies to date that look at the upgrading and influence of original PLs and attitude towards store on the premium PL extension. This research wishes to make a contribution to this gap using the perceived fit difference between parent brands and extended premium PL as the context. In order to meet the above objectives, we investigate which factors heighten consumers' positive attitude toward premium PL extension. Research Model and Hypotheses: When considering the attitude towards the premium PL extension, we expect four factors to have an influence: attitude towards store; attitude towards original PL; perceived congruity between the store image and the premium PL; perceived similarity between the original PL and the premium PL. We expect that all these factors have an influence on consumer attitude towards premium PL extension. Figure 1 gives the research model and hypotheses. Method: Data were collected by an intercept survey conducted on consumers at discount stores. 403 survey responses were attained (total 59.8% female, across all age ranges). Respondents were asked to respond to a series of Questions measured on 7 point likert-type scales. The survey consisted of Questions that measured: the trust towards store and the original PL; the satisfaction towards store and the original PL; the attitudes towards store, the original PL, and the extended premium PL; the perceived similarity of the original PL and the extended premium PL; the perceived congruity between the store image and the extended premium PL. Product images with specific explanations of the features of premium PL, regular PL and NB we reused as the stimuli for the Question response. We developed scales to measure the research constructs. Cronbach's alphaw as measured each construct with the reliability for all constructs exceeding the .70 standard(Nunnally, 1978). Results: To test the hypotheses, path analysis was conducted using LISREL 8.30. The path analysis for verification of the model produced satisfactory results. The validity index shows acceptable results(${\chi}^2=427.00$(P=0.00), GFI= .90, AGFI= .87, NFI= .91, RMSEA= .062, RMR= .047). With the increasing retailer use of premium PLBs, the intention of this research was to examine how consumers use original PL and store image as reference points as to the attitude towards premium PL extension. Results(see table 1 & 2) show that the attitude of each parent brand (attitudes toward store and original pL) influences the attitude towards extended PL and their perceived fit moderates these influences. Attitude toward the extended PL was influenced by the relative level of perceived fit. Discussion of results and future direction: These results suggest that the future strategy for the PL extension needs to consider that positive parent brand attitude is more strongly associated with the attitude toward PL extensions. Specifically, to improve attitude towards PL extension, building and maintaining positive attitude towards original PL is necessary. Positioning premium PL congruently to store image is also important for positive attitude. In order to improve this research, the following alternatives should also be considered. To improve the research model's predictive power, more diverse products should be included in study. Other attributes of product should also be included such as design, brand name since we only considered trust and satisfaction as factors to build consumer attitudes.

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Predicting Oxygen Uptake for Men with Moderate to Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD환자에서 6분 보행검사를 이용한 최대산소섭취량 예측)

  • Kim, Changhwan;Park, Yong Bum;Mo, Eun Kyung;Choi, Eun Hee;Nam, Hee Seung;Lee, Sung-Soon;Yoo, Young Won;Yang, Yun Jun;Moon, Joung Wha;Kim, Dong Soon;Lee, Hyang Yi;Jin, Young-Soo;Lee, Hye Young;Chun, Eun Mi
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.64 no.6
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 2008
  • Background: Measurement of the maximum oxygen uptake in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been used to determine the intensity of exercise and to estimate the patient's response to treatment during pulmonary rehabilitation. However, cardiopulmonary exercise testing is not widely available in Korea. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple method of measuring the exercise capacity of a patient. It also provides high reliability data and it reflects the fluctuation in one' s exercise capacity relatively well with using the standardized protocol. The prime objective of the present study is to develop a regression equation for estimating the peak oxygen uptake ($VO_2$) for men with moderate to very severe COPD from the results of a 6MWT. Methods: A total of 33 male patients with moderate to very severe COPD agreed to participate in this study. Pulmonary function testing, cardiopulmonary exercise testing and a 6MWT were performed on their first visits. The index of work ($6M_{work}$, 6-minute walk distance [6MWD]${\times}$body weight) was calculated for each patient. Those variables that were closely related to the peak $VO_2$ were identified through correlation analysis. With including such variables, the equation to predict the peak $VO_2$ was generated by the multiple linear regression method. Results: The peak $VO_2$ averaged $1,015{\pm}392ml/min$, and the mean 6MWD was $516{\pm}195$ meters. The $6M_{work}$ (r=.597) was better correlated to the peak $VO_2$ than the 6MWD (r=.415). The other variables highly correlated with the peak $VO_2$ were the $FEV_1$ (r=.742), DLco (r=.734) and FVC (r=.679). The derived prediction equation was $VO_2$ (ml/min)=($274.306{\times}FEV_1$)+($36.242{\times}DLco$)+($0.007{\times}6M_{work}$)-84.867. Conclusion: Under the circumstances when measurement of the peak $VO_2$ is not possible, we consider the 6MWT to be a simple alternative to measuring the peak $VO_2$. Of course, it is necessary to perform a trial on much larger scale to validate our prediction equation.

Development of Predictive Models for Rights Issues Using Financial Analysis Indices and Decision Tree Technique (경영분석지표와 의사결정나무기법을 이용한 유상증자 예측모형 개발)

  • Kim, Myeong-Kyun;Cho, Yoonho
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.59-77
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    • 2012
  • This study focuses on predicting which firms will increase capital by issuing new stocks in the near future. Many stakeholders, including banks, credit rating agencies and investors, performs a variety of analyses for firms' growth, profitability, stability, activity, productivity, etc., and regularly report the firms' financial analysis indices. In the paper, we develop predictive models for rights issues using these financial analysis indices and data mining techniques. This study approaches to building the predictive models from the perspective of two different analyses. The first is the analysis period. We divide the analysis period into before and after the IMF financial crisis, and examine whether there is the difference between the two periods. The second is the prediction time. In order to predict when firms increase capital by issuing new stocks, the prediction time is categorized as one year, two years and three years later. Therefore Total six prediction models are developed and analyzed. In this paper, we employ the decision tree technique to build the prediction models for rights issues. The decision tree is the most widely used prediction method which builds decision trees to label or categorize cases into a set of known classes. In contrast to neural networks, logistic regression and SVM, decision tree techniques are well suited for high-dimensional applications and have strong explanation capabilities. There are well-known decision tree induction algorithms such as CHAID, CART, QUEST, C5.0, etc. Among them, we use C5.0 algorithm which is the most recently developed algorithm and yields performance better than other algorithms. We obtained data for the rights issue and financial analysis from TS2000 of Korea Listed Companies Association. A record of financial analysis data is consisted of 89 variables which include 9 growth indices, 30 profitability indices, 23 stability indices, 6 activity indices and 8 productivity indices. For the model building and test, we used 10,925 financial analysis data of total 658 listed firms. PASW Modeler 13 was used to build C5.0 decision trees for the six prediction models. Total 84 variables among financial analysis data are selected as the input variables of each model, and the rights issue status (issued or not issued) is defined as the output variable. To develop prediction models using C5.0 node (Node Options: Output type = Rule set, Use boosting = false, Cross-validate = false, Mode = Simple, Favor = Generality), we used 60% of data for model building and 40% of data for model test. The results of experimental analysis show that the prediction accuracies of data after the IMF financial crisis (59.04% to 60.43%) are about 10 percent higher than ones before IMF financial crisis (68.78% to 71.41%). These results indicate that since the IMF financial crisis, the reliability of financial analysis indices has increased and the firm intention of rights issue has been more obvious. The experiment results also show that the stability-related indices have a major impact on conducting rights issue in the case of short-term prediction. On the other hand, the long-term prediction of conducting rights issue is affected by financial analysis indices on profitability, stability, activity and productivity. All the prediction models include the industry code as one of significant variables. This means that companies in different types of industries show their different types of patterns for rights issue. We conclude that it is desirable for stakeholders to take into account stability-related indices and more various financial analysis indices for short-term prediction and long-term prediction, respectively. The current study has several limitations. First, we need to compare the differences in accuracy by using different data mining techniques such as neural networks, logistic regression and SVM. Second, we are required to develop and to evaluate new prediction models including variables which research in the theory of capital structure has mentioned about the relevance to rights issue.

A Structural Relationship among Job Requirements, Job Resources and Job Burnout, and Organizational Effectiveness of Private Security Guards (민간경비원의 직무요구 직무자원과 소진, 조직유효성의 구조적 관계)

  • Kim, Sung-Cheol;Kim, Young-Hyun
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.48
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    • pp.9-33
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of the present study was to find out cause-and-effect relationship between job requirements and job resources, with job burnout as a mediator variable, and the effects of these variables on organizational effectiveness. The population in the present study was private security guards employed by 13 private security companies in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do areas, and a survey was conducted on 500 security guards selected using purposive sampling technique. Out of 460 questionnaires distributed, 429 responses, excluding 31 outliers or insincere responses, were used for data analysis. For analysis, data were coded and entered into SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0, which were used to analyze the data. Descriptive analyses were performed to find out sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to test the validity of the measurement tool, and the Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were calculated to test the reliability. To find out the significance of relationships among variables, Pearson's correlation analysis was performed. Covariance Structure Analysis (CSA) was performed to test the relationship among latent factors of a model for job requirements, job resources, job burnout, and organizational effectiveness of the private security guards, and the fitness of the model analyzed with CSA was determined by the goodness-of-fit index ($x^2$, df, p, RMR, GFI, CFI, TLI, RMSEA). The level of significance was set at .05, and the following results were obtained. First, even though the effect of job requirements on job burnout was not statistically significant, it had a positive influence overall, and this result can be considered such that the higher the perception of job requirements by the member of the organization, the higher the perception of job burnout. Second, the influence of job resources on job burnout was negative, which can be considered that the higher the perception of job resources, the lower the perception of job burnout. Third, even though the influence of job requirements on organizational effectiveness was statistically nonsignificant, it had a negative influence overall, and this result can be considered that the higher the perception of job requirements, the lower the perception of organizational effectiveness. Fourth, job resources had a positive influence on organizational effectiveness, and it can be considered that the higher the perception of job resources, the higher the perception of organizational effectiveness. Fifth, the results of the analysis between job burnout and organizational effectiveness revealed that, even though the influence of job burnout on organizational effectiveness was statistically nonsignificant, it had partial negative influences on sublevels of organizational effectiveness, and this may suggest that the higher the perception of job burnout by the organization members, the lower the organizational effectiveness. Sixth, the analysis of mediating role in the relationship between job requirements and organizational effectiveness, job burnout was taking partial mediating role between job requirements and organizational effectiveness. These results suggest that reducing job burnout by managing job requirements, organizational effectiveness that leads to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention can be maximized. Seventh, the analysis of mediating role in the relationship among job requirements, job resources, and organizational effectiveness, job burnout was assuming a partial mediating role in the relationships among job requirements, job resources, and organizational effectiveness. These results suggest that organizational effectiveness can be maximized by either lowering job requirements or burnout management through reorganizing job resources.

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A Study on Market Size Estimation Method by Product Group Using Word2Vec Algorithm (Word2Vec을 활용한 제품군별 시장규모 추정 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Ye Lim;Kim, Ji Hui;Yoo, Hyoung Sun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-21
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    • 2020
  • With the rapid development of artificial intelligence technology, various techniques have been developed to extract meaningful information from unstructured text data which constitutes a large portion of big data. Over the past decades, text mining technologies have been utilized in various industries for practical applications. In the field of business intelligence, it has been employed to discover new market and/or technology opportunities and support rational decision making of business participants. The market information such as market size, market growth rate, and market share is essential for setting companies' business strategies. There has been a continuous demand in various fields for specific product level-market information. However, the information has been generally provided at industry level or broad categories based on classification standards, making it difficult to obtain specific and proper information. In this regard, we propose a new methodology that can estimate the market sizes of product groups at more detailed levels than that of previously offered. We applied Word2Vec algorithm, a neural network based semantic word embedding model, to enable automatic market size estimation from individual companies' product information in a bottom-up manner. The overall process is as follows: First, the data related to product information is collected, refined, and restructured into suitable form for applying Word2Vec model. Next, the preprocessed data is embedded into vector space by Word2Vec and then the product groups are derived by extracting similar products names based on cosine similarity calculation. Finally, the sales data on the extracted products is summated to estimate the market size of the product groups. As an experimental data, text data of product names from Statistics Korea's microdata (345,103 cases) were mapped in multidimensional vector space by Word2Vec training. We performed parameters optimization for training and then applied vector dimension of 300 and window size of 15 as optimized parameters for further experiments. We employed index words of Korean Standard Industry Classification (KSIC) as a product name dataset to more efficiently cluster product groups. The product names which are similar to KSIC indexes were extracted based on cosine similarity. The market size of extracted products as one product category was calculated from individual companies' sales data. The market sizes of 11,654 specific product lines were automatically estimated by the proposed model. For the performance verification, the results were compared with actual market size of some items. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.513. Our approach has several advantages differing from the previous studies. First, text mining and machine learning techniques were applied for the first time on market size estimation, overcoming the limitations of traditional sampling based- or multiple assumption required-methods. In addition, the level of market category can be easily and efficiently adjusted according to the purpose of information use by changing cosine similarity threshold. Furthermore, it has a high potential of practical applications since it can resolve unmet needs for detailed market size information in public and private sectors. Specifically, it can be utilized in technology evaluation and technology commercialization support program conducted by governmental institutions, as well as business strategies consulting and market analysis report publishing by private firms. The limitation of our study is that the presented model needs to be improved in terms of accuracy and reliability. The semantic-based word embedding module can be advanced by giving a proper order in the preprocessed dataset or by combining another algorithm such as Jaccard similarity with Word2Vec. Also, the methods of product group clustering can be changed to other types of unsupervised machine learning algorithm. Our group is currently working on subsequent studies and we expect that it can further improve the performance of the conceptually proposed basic model in this study.