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Purification and Biochemical Analysis of Rice Bran Lipase Enzyme

  • Kim, Young Hee
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2004
  • A simple procedure for the extraction of the lipolytic enzyme from rice bran has been developed. High activity of lipolytic enzyme was obtained by first defatting the rice bran to remove lipid components with various extraction conditions. Then, after rove cycles of aqueous extraction, rice bran lipolytic enzyme was purified using micro- and ultrafiltration apparatus. Lipolytic enzyme activity was estimated by its hydrolytic action of tributyrin. The result indicated that the standard activity curve of butyric acid showed that the potential rice bran enzyme is a hydrolytic lipase enzyme. In addition, it showed higher lipolytic activity and specific enzyme activity with further purification by micro- and ultrafiltration. The size of rice bran lipase enzyme was identified through 15 % SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the rice bran lipase enzyme was 41 kDa.

Rancid Rice Bran Affects Growth Performance and Pork Quality in Finishing Pigs

  • Chae, B.J.;Lee, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding value of rancid rice bran in finishing pigs. In exp. 1, fresh (FRB), rancid (RRB), pelleted and extruded rice bran were used to determine stability and nutrient digestibility. The free fatty acid (FFA) values of FRB and RRB were 8.2 and 15.3%, respectively. Some of the FRB was pelleted ($70^{\circ}C$) or extruded ($110^{\circ}C$). In exp. 2, a total of 48 pigs ($Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc$, $51.12{\times}0.5kg$) were employed for a 56-d feeding trial with 3 treatments: Control (defatted rice bran+animal fat), 20% FRB (8.2% FFA), and 20% RRB (15.6% FFA). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in FFA% between raw and pelleted, and extruded rice bran on d 10 after storage. On d 30 the extruded rice bran showed lower (p<0.05) FFA% than the pelleted one. Dry matter digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in processed rice brans (pelleted or extruded) than raw rice bran (FRB or RRB). Energy and protein digestibilities in extruded rice bran were higher (p<0.05) than those in raw rice brans. The digestibilities of isoleucine, leucine and phenylalanine were lower (p<0.05) in RRB than FRB. Pigs fed diets containing FRB grew faster (p<0.05) and showed better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) than those fed diets containing defatted rice bran or RRB. Carcass characteristics including dressing percentage and backfat thickness were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. With increasing storage time, the raw pork from RRB showed higher (p<0.05) thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and peroxide value (POV) than those from FRB when stored at $1^{\circ}C$ for 3 weeks. Cooked pork showed rapid increase in TBARS and POV as compared to raw pork regardless of rice bran rancidity. As the storage time passed, Lightness (L) was lower (p<0.05) in RRB than FRB. Redness (a) was higher (p<0.05) in control than rice bran groups when stored 2-3 weeks. However, there was no difference (p>0.05) in redness (a) between the two rice bran groups. In conclusion, feeding rancid rice bran gave negative effects on growth performance and pork quality in finishing pigs.

Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanolic Extracts from Milling Fractions of Black Rice (흑미의 도정분획 메탄올 추출물의 항산화 성분 및 항산화 효과)

  • Kong, Suh-Yun;Choi, Young-Min;Lee, Seon-Mi;Lee, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.815-819
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    • 2008
  • The colored rice, particularly black rice, has been well characterized to possess antioxidant properties. Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling process, contains high levels of several phytochemicals which have antioxidant activities as well as health-beneficial properties. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts from milling fractions and whole grain of two black rice cultivars. Whole black rice of the two cultivars were milled into rice bran and endosperm using the gradual milling system. These were evaluated for antioxidative activities by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. To determine the antioxidant compounds in the methanolic extract from the milling fractions, the content of polyphenolics, flavonoids, anthocycanins and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol were measured by spectrophotometric methods and vitamin E analysis was carried out by HPLC. The yield of whole black rice, rice bran, and endosperm were 3.1, 15.3, and 0.9% for Heugjinjubyeo and 2.7, 15.5, and 1.1% for Heugkwangbyeo, respectively. The methanolic extracts from rice bran showed generally higher antioxidant activities than the extracts from whole grain and endosperm. In addition, antioxidant compounds distributed much higher contents in rice bran extract than in the extracts from whole grain and endosperm. A significant correlation was also noted between free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic compounds. The results of this study show that notable antioxidant activity in black rice bran are considered to have significant health benefits.

Microclimatic Change and Growth Status by Soil-covering Material in Organic Garlic Cultivation

  • Kim, C.V.;Kim, J.S.;Seo, Y.J.;Heo, M.S.;Park, J.H.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.234-237
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of soil covering materials such as rice bran, rice hull and saw dust on garlic growth through a field experiment in wintertime. Rice bran was the smallest in term of particle size, but it recorded the highest level of bulk density. The missing plant rate after winter season was relatively high, 59.3%, and that of soil covering materials stood at the low level of 10%. Other growth factors recorded the highest level during application of rice bran. In terms of chemical properties of soil-covering materials, rice bran recorded the highest level of 1.84, 2.34 and 0.16% in the content of N, P, and K, respectively. The subsoil temperature was higher by application of rice bran as compared to that of other materials which stood at the lowest temperature ($-9^{\circ}C$).

Study on the Nutritional Components of Non-Fermented Rice Bran and Fermented Rice Bran (일반쌀겨와 발효쌀겨의 영양성분에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Hyun-Im;Lee, Bok-Kyu;Kim, Soo-Jung
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • In this study, nutritional analysis was done on regular rice bran and fermented rice bran toward increasing their availability and use. Regular and fermented rice bran were extracted 10 times at $98^{\circ}C$ for 4 hours each with water, extracted with 60% ethanol at $60^{\circ}C$ for 4 hours, then concentrated and extracted twice by freeze-drying. When rice bran was fermented, moisture, protein, and ash contents increased, while fats and carbohydrates decreased. Out of fatty acids, the saturated fatty acid content of regular rice ran was found to be 17.7%, and 20.5% when fermented while the unsaturated fatty acid components of rice ran and fermented rice bran were found to be 82.3 and 79.5%, respectively. In both kinds of bran, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid represented over 90% of the fatty acid content. In rice bran the fatty acid composition was 15.1% palmitic acid, 40.6% oleic acid and 39.5% linoleic acid, while that of fermented rice bran was 13.2% palmitic acid, 43.2% oleic acid and 31.3% linoleic acid. Out of free sugars fermented rice bran contained 0% fructose, 0.0099% glucose, 0.0039% maltose and 0.3233% sucrose. These results with which those of regular rice bran were silmilar were according to the normal sugar composition of rice in general. The vitamin C content of rice bran was 53 mg/100 g and that of fermented rice bran 7 mg/100 g. In neither kind of rice bran was vitamin A detected. Out of 18 minerals analyzed, Ca, K, Mg, and Mn were the most abundant minerals in both kinds of rice bran. Fermented rice bran had a higher K content with 3,163 mg/100 g, than normal rice bran, Mg content was 1,178 mg/100g. Fermented rice bran had a higher total mineral content.

Effects of Rice Bran and Wheat Bran on Intestinal Physiology and Small-bowel Morphology in Rats

  • Park, Young-Sun;Jang, Jae-Hee;Bae, Bok-Sun;Seo, Jung-Sook
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2000
  • The present study was aimed at investigating the nutritional and physiological significance of rice bran as a source of dietary fiber as compared to pectin and wheat bran. The parameters for comparison included hypertrophy and morphology of intestines, stool weights and villus marker enzyme activity. For 6 weeks, 10 Sprague Dawley male rats were given one of six experimental diets: 1% cellulose control (CC), 5% pectin (P5), 5% rice bran(RB5), 10% rice bran(RB10), 5% wheat bran (WB5) or 10% wheat bran (WB10) based on the level of dietary fiber. Among experimental groups, food efficiency ratio and body weight gain was comparable. RB10 increased cecal and colonic tissue weights and content weights of cecum and colon as much as P5 did. Stool weight was positiviely correlated with colonic tissue weight (r=0.727, P<0.001), with colonic content weight(r=0.647, P<0.001). Small intestine length increased most in the P5 group, followed by the RB10 group. The scanning electron micrograph of jejunal villi from rice bran groups showed a leaf-shaped, smooth and regular pattern, whereas that of CC group produced a rather long shape. The wheat bran groups showed an irregular leafshaped pattern, and the pectin group typically produced leaf-shaped villi with surface damage. The activities of villus marker enzymes (maltase and sucrase) were higher in the bran-fed rats than in the control or pectin-fed rats. The results indicate than not only dietary fiber amounts but also fiber sources are closely related to the physiology and morphology of the large and small intestines in rats. Rice bran exerted effects on fecal output and trophic effects on the intestines similar to those of pectin.

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Effects of Rice Bran Fiber on Quality of Low-fat Tteokgalbi

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Choi, Ji-Hun;Han, Doo-Jeong;Kim, Hack-Youn;Lee, Mi-Ai;Lee, Eui-Soo;Jeong, Jong-Youn;Paik, Hyun-Dong;Kim, Cheon-Jei
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.959-964
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    • 2008
  • This study evaluated the effects of dietary fiber extracted from rice bran (rice bran fiber) on the quality of low-fat tteokgalbi. The controls were formulated with 20% added fat. Test samples of tteokgalbi were produced with 5 different formulations containing 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% rice bran fiber as a fat replacer, in addition to 10% fat. The control had the highest fat content, energy value, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, CIE $L^*$-value (lighness), and color of sensory properties. The tteokgalbi containing rice bran fiber had higher moisture, protein, ash, and carbohydrate contents than the controls. Tteokgalbi with 3% rice bran fiber had the lowest cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness. Meat products containing 2 and 3% rice bran fiber had a higher overall acceptability similar to the high fat control.

A Study on Characteristics of Rice Bran Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Diesel Engine(II) (디젤기관의 대체연료로서 미장유의 특성 연구(II))

  • 최승훈;오영택
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.8-17
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    • 2002
  • In this study, it was tried to analyze not only total hydrocarbon but individual hydrocarbon components from C$_1$to C$\sub$6/ in exhaust gas using gas chromatography to seek the reason fur remarkable differences of smoke emission of diesel fuel, esterfied rice bran oil and blended fuel(esterfied rice bran oil 20vo1-% + diesel fuel 80vo1-%). Individual hydrocarbons(C$_1$ ∼C$\sub$6/) as well as total hydrocarbon of esterfied rice bran oil is reduced remarkably compared with diesel fuel. Although smoke emission of esterfied rice bran oil reduced remarkably compared with commercial diesel fuel, NOx emission of esterfied rice bran oil and blended fuel was increased slightly at high loads and speeds. And, it was tried to reduced NOx emission of them by exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) method. Simultaneous reduction of smoke and NOx emission was achieved with the combination of esterfied rice bran oil and EGR method in consequence.

Comparative Studies on the Composition of Polar Lipids in Japonica and Indica Rice Bran Oils (일반계 및 다수계 미강유의 극성지방질 조성)

  • 권경순;최광수;김현구
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.735-740
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to determine the composition of glycolipids and phospholipids in Japonica and Indica rice bran oils. The ratio of glycolipids and phospholipids was 4.1 : 6.5% in Japonica rice bran oils and 2.6 : 3.7% in Indica rice bran oils. Polar lipid content was significantly higher in Japonica rice bran oils. The main components of glycolipids were esterified steryl glycoside, monogalactosyl diglyceride steryl glycoside, cerebroside and digalactosyl diglyceride. The content of esterified steryl glycoside was the highest, resulting in 48.8~52.1% of total glycolipids. Phospholipids in rice bran oils consisted of diphosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamines, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl serines, phosphatidyl choline and lysophosphotidyl choline. Major fatty acids of the glycolipids and phospholipids fractions were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids in Japonica and Indica rice bran oils.

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Effects of Feeding Rancid Rice Bran on Growth Performance and Chicken Meat Quality in Broiler Chicks

  • Chae, B.J.;Lee, K.H.;Lee, S.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.266-273
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    • 2002
  • A total of 225 day-old broiler chicks (43.08 g initial body weight) were allotted to three dietary treatments for a 6-week feeding trial. The treatments were 1) Control (defatted rice bran; DFRB), 2) fresh rice bran (FRB) and 3) rancid rice bran (RRB). Rice brans were intentionally spoiled by two degrees of rancidity by the values of free fatty acids (FFA): 7.6% (FRB) and 16.3% (RRB). Diets were prepared on an isonutrient basis, and defatted or rancid rice brans were included 5 and 10% for starter (0-3 week) and finisher (3-6 week), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, six chicks per treatment were sacrificed, and thigh meats were ground and stored at $1^{\circ}C$ for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (POV) analyses. For a digestibility, 48 growing chicks (4 weeks old) were employed in cages (3 replicates/treatment, 2 birds/cage) according to the experimental design: FRB, RRB, pelleted and extruded rice bran. Some of the FRB were pelleted ($70^{\circ}C$) or extruded ($110^{\circ}C$). There was no significant difference in growth performance during the starter period, but chicks fed a diet containing DFRB grew faster (p<0.05) with increased feed intake (p<0.05) than those fed diets containing rice brans, FRB or RRB, during the finisher period. Feed conversion ratio in the RRB was inferior (p<0.05) to the DFRB. Between rice bran groups, weight gain was higher (pco.os) in FRB than in RRB during finisher period. There was a similar trend in growth performance of chicks for the overall period (0-6 week) as the finisher period. Dry matter and energy digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) in extruded than in RRB group. Protein digestibility was improved (p<0.05) when rice bran was extruded, but not pelleted. The chicken meats from RRB showed higher (p<0.05) TBARS than those from FRB during storage for 4 weeks at $1^{\circ}C$. In conclusion, it would appear that feeding rancid rice bran gave negative effects on growth performance and lipid stability of meat in broiler chicks.