• Title/Summary/Keyword: risk factor

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Development of an Instrument to Measure Risk Factor-related Deviant Behavior for the Elderly in South Korea (노인의 일탈행동과 관련된 위험요인 측정도구 개발 - 노인 범죄 증가와 관련하여 -)

  • Lee, Sook-Kyung;Hong, Chong-Min
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.244-254
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The study was designed to develop an instrument to measure risk factor-related deviant behavior (RFRDB) for the elderly. Methods: The preliminary instrument including 52 items to measure the risk factor-related deviant behavior for the elderly was developed through conceptual framework based literature review. The items were reviewed by experts to reveal the Content Validity Index (CVI). Then, construct validity and reliability were tested using factor analysis, comparative groups, and Cronbach's alpha with data from 233 elderly. Results: Among 52 items, 27 questions in the RFRDB instrument were selected from content validity and 21 questions in the final RFRDB were developed from testing validity and reliability. Results of empirical analysis(retest) of RFRDB were supported by 70% congruity with conceptual framework through literature review. The RFRDB has been completed by validity testing by known-group technique. The final developed RFRDB of the elderly has 21 questions each with a 4-point Likert Scale. Conclusion: The RFRDB may be utilized as a measurement to assess the risk of elderly deviant behavior.

The Analysis of Risk Factor Management Programs for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (관상동맥질환자를 위한 위험요인관리 프로그램 분석)

  • Bang, So-Youn;Park, Mi-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was performed to analyse the trends of risk factor management programs for patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: Using PubMed, 35 intervention studies related to risk factor management programs among randomized controlled trials searched with the key words of coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease. Collected studies were analysed according to the characteristics of studies and participants, method and content of intervention, and outcome indicator and its effects. Results: The mean period of intervention was $28.7{\pm}26.8$ weeks, the mean frequency was $3.0{\pm}2.0$ times per week, and the duration of one session was below 60 minuets in 65.8% of the reviewed studies. The interventions were counselling, exercise, education, and cognitive behavior therapy. Counselling was applied most frequently in previous studies. The outcomes of intervention had been measured with anthropometric, physical, physiological, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects, but the effect of the intervention was inconsistent among the studies. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, systematic and comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program consisted of counselling, exercise, and education should be developed and performed for health management and relapse prevention of patients with coronary artery disease.

Development of the Numerical Guide for Cost-Benefit Analysis of Occupational Radiation Exposure In the Korean Next Generation Reactor

  • Sohn, Ki-Yoon;Kang, Chang-Sun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 1997
  • The specific purpose of this study is to develop the numerical guide for the cost-benefit analysis of ORE ($/person-Sv reduction) to meet the criterion of ALARA in the design stage of the KNGR. In deriving the guide, the risk factor which is defined by the risk to unit collective radiation exposure dose (deaths/person-Sv) and the monetary value of human life ($/death) are required. The risk factor has been estimated from various clinical data accumulated for a number of years and continuously modified. And the monetary value of human life is usually quantified using the human capital approach. In this study, the risk to radiation exposure perceived by a group of people is investigated through an extensive poll survey conducted among university students in order to modify the existing risk factor for radiation exposure. And in evaluating the monetary value of human life, the QOL factor is introduced in order to incorporate the degree of public welfare or quality of life. As a result of study, a value within the range of 151, 000~172, 000 dollars per person-Sv reduction is recommended as the appropriate interim numerical guide for cost-benefit analysis of ORE to meet the criterion of ALARA in the design stage of the KNGR. A poll survey was also conducted in order to see whether the public acceptance cost of nuclear power should be incorporated in developing the guide, and the result of study shooed that such a cost does not need to be considered.

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Impact of Sleep Disorder as a Risk Factor for Dementia in Men and Women

  • Jee, Hye Jin;Shin, Wonseok;Jung, Ho Joong;Kim, Baekgyu;Lee, Bo Kyung;Jung, Yi-Sook
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.58-73
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    • 2020
  • Sleep is an essential physiological process, especially for proper brain function through the formation of new pathways and processing information and cognition. Therefore, when sleep is insufficient, this can result in pathophysiologic conditions. Sleep deficiency is a risk factor for various conditions, including dementia, diabetes, and obesity. Recent studies have shown that there are differences in the prevalence of sleep disorders between genders. Insomnia, the most common type of sleep disorder, has been reported to have a higher incidence in females than in males. However, sex/gender differences in other sleep disorder subtypes are not thoroughly understood. Currently, increasing evidence suggests that gender issues should be considered important when prescribing medicine. Therefore, an investigation of the gender-dependent differences in sleep disorders is required. In this review, we first describe sex/gender differences not only in the prevalence of sleep disorders by category but in the efficacy of sleep medications. In addition, we summarize sex/gender differences in the impact of sleep disorders on incident dementia. This may help understand gender-dependent pathogenesis of sleep disorders and develop therapeutic strategies in men and women.

The Pricing of Accruals Quality with Expected Returns: Vector Autoregression Return Decomposition Approach

  • YIM, Sang-Giun
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.7-17
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study reexamines the test on the pricing of accruals quality. Theory suggests that information risk is a priced risk factor. Using accruals quality as the proxy for information risk, researchers have tested the pricing of information risk. The results are inconsistent potentially because of the information shock in the realized returns that are used as the proxy for expected returns. Based on this argument, this study revisits this issue excluding information-shock-free measure of expected returns. Research design, data and methodology: This study estimates expected returns using the vector autoregression model. This method extracts information shocks more thoroughly than the methods in prior studies; therefore, the concern regarding information shock is minimized. As risk premiums are larger in recession periods than in expansion periods, recession and expansion subsamples were used to confirm the robustness of the main findings. For the pricing test, this study uses two-stage cross-sectional regression. Results: Empirical results find evidence that accruals quality is a priced risk factor. Furthermore, this study finds that the pricing of accruals quality is observed only in recession periods. Conclusions: This study supports the argument that accruals quality, as well as the pricing of information risk, is a priced risk factor.

The Clinical Study of Atopic Dermatitis (아토피 피부염(皮膚炎) 환자(患者) 67명(名)에 대(對)한 임상적(臨床的) 고찰(考察))

  • Lee Jin-Yong;Kim Deok-Gon
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.171-186
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    • 1999
  • Atopic dermatitis is a chronic or chronically relapsing, pruritic dermatitis. It commonly occurs in patients with a personal or family history of atopy. We studied 67 children suffering from atopic dermatitis Oriental Medicine Hospital in Kyunghee University, and analyzed sex, age, feeding, clinical manifestation, risk factor. The results were as follows : 1.Most age distribution of children was from 2 to 6, male to female ratio was 1:1.03 2.Breast-feeding to milk-feeding ratio was 2.93:1 3.Frequency of aggravating symptom by specific food was 31.3%, among this, meat(especially chicken) was revealed high risk factor 4.Frequency of family history suffering from other allergic disease was 61.2%, among this father to mother ratio was 1.27:1 5.Sites of atopic dermatitis were as follows : The inner space of elbow and knee joint was 77.65, back, face, neck was 56.7%, back of ear was 52.2%, wrist was 46.3%, abdomen was 38.8%, ankle was 34.3%,head was 29.9%.

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Effects of Ojuck-san on Hyperlipidemia in Rats (오적산(五積散)이 흰쥐의 고지혈증에 미치는 영향(影響)에 대한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim Jae-Hyung;Soh Kyeong-Sun;Jeong Chan-Gil;Kim Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.185-202
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    • 2004
  • In order to study the effects of Ojuck-san on hyperlipidemia, we divided the rats into three groups(normal group, control group & sample group) and performed the experimental research. Hyperlipidemia rats were induced by oral for 14days. The sample group was administerd the extract of Ojuck-san for 14 days and control group was administerd equal dose of oral. And then we measured the amount of serum Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, Phospholipid, Cholinesterase and Cardiac risk factor. The results were as follows : 1. Ojuck-san showed decreasing effects on Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL -cholesterol, and Phospholipid level in serum significantly(p<0.001). 2. Ojuck-san showed increasing effects on HDL-cholesterol level and Cholinesterase in serum significantly(p<0.05). 3. Ojuck-san showed decreasing effects on Cardiac risk factor in serum significantly.(p<0.001). According to the above results, Ojuck-san showed significant decreasing effects on hyperlipidemia, and it is considered that it is appropriate to apply for hyperlipidemia.

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The Review on the Subdivision of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (피하지방 및 피하지방의 분획과 관련된 임상적 의의에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Yoon-Jae;Hwang, Deok-Sang;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Kyung-Sub
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2007
  • Objectives In clinical studies, the visceral fat obesity has been emphasized because of its correlation with the metabolic syndrome. But the subcutaneous adipose tissue also would correlate with the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Especially deep tissue, which is a subdivision of the subcutaneous adipose tissue would be more related. This study is to investigate the relationship between subcutaneous adipose tissue and various diseases. Methods We searched for papers which had subcutaneous adipose tissue, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue and obesity for subjects in the Pubmed site. Results : 24 papers were found. Subcutaneous adipose tissue, deep subcutaneous adipose tissue especially, was related with the insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, sex hormones and other diseases. Conclusions Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a risk factor of insulin resistance but not lipoprotein. But deep subcutaneous adipose tissue was related with lipoprotein. So deep tissue, which is a subdivision of the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a more important risk factor of the metabolic syndrome.

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Anemia as a Risk Factor of Mortality and Rehospitalization in Patients with Heart Failure : An Integrative Review (심부전 환자의 빈혈과 사망률 및 재입원 간의 관계에 대한 통합적 고찰)

  • Son, Youn-Jung;Kim, Bo-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.94-108
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    • 2019
  • Purpose : Heart failure (HF) is considered an important medical burden with rehospitalization and mortality. Anemia is a major risk factor associated with the severity of HF. To improve the understanding of the impact of anemia in the population with HF, we explored the prevalence of anemia, its guidelines, relationship between anemia and mortality or rehospitalization, and limitation of reviewed papers of various populations with HF. Method: We used Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review methodology (2005), and thirty research papers were analyzed. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, PsychInfo, Embase, Web of Science were searched for papers published between January 1960-June 2018. Results: Anemia in individuals with HF was primarily defined using the World Health Organization guideline. The prevalence of anemia in patients with HF varied from 9% to 56.7%. Moreover, such a condition significantly increases the prevalence of mortality or rehospitalization in patients with HF. The analyzed majority were non-prospective cohort study including secondary data analysis. Conclusion: Anemia in individuals with HF is a significant risk factor of mortality and rehospitalization. Prospective cohort studies should be designed to identify the optimal value for screening anemia and the impact of anemia on rehospitalization and mortality among HF patients.

Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Novel Targets for Anti-atherosclerotic Therapy

  • Reiner, Zeljko
    • Korean Circulation Journal
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    • v.48 no.12
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    • pp.1097-1119
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    • 2018
  • Although elevated serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) is without any doubts accepted as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of elevated triglycerides (TGs)-rich lipoproteins as an independent risk factor has until recently been quite controversial. Recent data strongly suggest that elevated TG-rich lipoproteins are an independent risk factor for CVD and that therapeutic targeting of them could possibly provide further benefit in reducing CVD morbidity, events and mortality, apart from LDL-C lowering. Today elevated TGs are treated with lifestyle interventions, and with fibrates which could be combined with omega-3 fatty acids. There are also some new drugs. Volanesorsen, is an antisense oligonucleotid that inhibits the production of the Apo C-III which is crucial in regulating TGs metabolism because it inhibits lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase activity but also hepatic uptake of TGs-rich particles. Evinacumab is a monoclonal antibody against angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and it seems that it can substantially lower elevated TGs levels because ANGPTL3 also regulates TGs metabolism. Pemafibrate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulator which also decreases TGs, and improves other lipid parameters. It seems that it also has some other possible antiatherogenic effects. Alipogene tiparvovec is a nonreplicating adeno-associated viral vector that delivers copies of the LPL gene to muscle tissue which accelerates the clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins thus decreasing extremely high TGs levels. Pradigastat is a novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 inhibitor which substantially reduces extremely high TGs levels and appears to be promising in treatment of the rare familial chylomicronemia syndrome.