• Title, Summary, Keyword: roasting process

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Analyses of Organic Acids and Phenolic Compounds in Columbia Coffee Bean in Roasting Process

  • Park, Jongsun;Kim, Yongsung;Yeon, Jihun;Woo, Jongwook;Seo, Youmi;Mun, Jeong-Yun;Choi, Ji-Soo;Park, Min-Jeong;Im, Jong-Yun;Jang, Tae-Won;Park, Jae-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.88-88
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    • 2018
  • Coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world. Roasting process of coffee bean is one of major steps to make coffee, however, there are few studies which analyzed chemical compounds in intermediate state of roasting coffee beans due to technical limitations to get coffee beans with the same roasting condition. We utilized Stronghold S7 pro roasting machine which guarantees the saming roasting conditions repletively with the aid of precise computer to control heat sources to get 20 steps (every 30 seconds) of roasted coffee beans during roasting process (10 min in total). Along with roasting process, phenolic compounds were decreased, which can be explained that roasting process cause phenolic compounds degradation. Caffeine is almost constant during roasting, reflecting that caffeine is not affected in roasting process. These samples presents that organic acids significantly increase along with the roasting process by HPLC analysis. With additional analysis of coffee beans, such as moisture contents, pH, as well as coffee tastes, our analysis will show detailed process of chemical compounds of coffee beans during roasting process.

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An Experimental Study on the Automation of Semi-Hot-Air Coffee Roasting Process (반열풍식 커피 로스터기의 로스팅 과정 자동화 구현을 위한 실험적 연구)

  • Choi, Ho-Man;Namkung, Hwang;Kim, Dong-Won;Park, Chang Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.687-695
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    • 2015
  • An experimental study on the automation of the coffee roasting process was conducted. For this study, a temperature sensor, controllers, and motors were added to a manually operated coffee roaster. The temperature, time, and exhausting damper control were selected as the control parameters. The thermocouple measurements were severely influenced by the thermocouple size and location of the roaster. As a result, the standard thermocouple size and location of the roaster were experimentally set to show a similar trend of temperature change by using a previously installed thermometer. A standard roasting process was chosen through repeated roasting experiments and the advice of a roasting expert. The automation of the roasting process was successfully executed using temperature criteria, such as the bean input and first and second crack occurrence, and by controlling the exhausting damper opening time. The control parameters and roaster skills can be used for similar types of roasters for process automation.

A Review on the Hazards of Flavoring Chemicals in Coffee Roasting Proces (커피 로스팅 공정에서 발생되는 향기물질의 유해성 고찰 및 노동자 건강보호 방안)

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.119-140
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study was based on the occurrence of a coffee roasting process-related disorder(bronchiolitis obliterans; published by NIOSH in the US) among workers exposed to chemicals called diacetyl in a coffee processing facility. Flavorings added to coffee contain diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, all of which are subject to exposure in a number of food manufacturing processes, including coffee roasting, grinding, and packaging. Therefore, this study aims to review the toxicity to workers related to food processing and food additive manufacturing to prevent occupational diseases. Methods: We surveyed the related literature, domestic and international references, and the status of relevant domestic and foreign professional organizations. The present situation of workers was investigated by reviewing literature on the safety and health of workers in the coffee roasting process using domestic and foreign literature and presentations. Expert advisory opinions were reflected, and experts were consulted by participating in domestic and overseas academic conferences. Results: Most of the fragrance materials for coffee were harmful and hazardous substances according to the GHS classification, and research was carried out through a second external consultation. A literature review on the measurement of air pollutant emissions from coffee roasters and the estimation of air pollutant emissions during coffee roasting examined the characteristics of pollutants emitted during coffee roasting. Conclusions: Two chemicals identified as causing bronchiolitis obliterans in the coffee roasting process are believed to explain why the disease is difficult to treat. This information can be used effectively in the future prevention of this disease. Future studies should clearly identify the potential for toxicity of alpha-diketones and the bases of OELs in relation to the occurrence of obstructive bronchiolitis, including measurement of various organic compounds and alpha-diketones from ground coffee, as well as various coffee grinds and coffee bean varieties. In particular, it is necessary to clarify the current understanding of the dose-response relationship between alpha-diketone and lung disease in workers involved in coffee roasting.

Korean Green Tea by Ku Jeung Ku Po′s I. Analysis of General Compositions and Chemical Compositions (구증구포(九蒸九)에 의한 녹차 제조 I. 일반성분 분석 및 화학적 조성)

  • 전정례;박금순
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to prepare green teas by traditional roasting manufacturing process, Ku Geung Ku Po and to determine the quality charateristics of the green teas by examining the change of their main components induced during this roasting process. The content of total sugars in unroasted tea leaves was 7.82%. Its content of roasted teas was decreased by increasing the number of roasting and there was significantly differences between samples. The content of total sugars in 9th roasted green tea was 3.98%. The total nitrogen contents of green teas produced by this process were 4.96∼6.38%. The more the number of roasting and the less content of tannin in green teas. And the ratio of total nitrogen and tannin in tea leaves 21.97 but its ratio in 9th roasted tea was increased to 45.54. The ascorbic acid in tea leaves consisted in 1,820.3 mg/100g but its content was decreased by increasing the number of roasting process. Whereas the content of caffeine in green teas was not reduced significantly by this traditional method. Of all amino acids, green tea produced by Ku Jeung Ku Po was rich glutamic acid, lysine and aspartic acid. And especially, phenylalanine, which was rarely found in other green teas, was abundant in these green teas. The compositions of glutamic acid and methionine were increased as increasing the number of roasting process but those of aspartic acid and arginine decreased by these processing. The main fatty acids of Ku Jeung Ku Po green tea were linolenic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid and the contents of unsaturated fatty acid in green teas were composed over 70% of total fatty acid. And the fatty acid contents in green teas were not affected during Ku Jeung Ku Po's process. The contents of minerals in these teas was rich in the oder of potassuim. magnessuim and calciumim, and these contents were not observed the prominant change during the process.

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Benzo(a)pyrene Reduction in Sesame Oil Using Microwaving Method (Microwaving을 이용한 참기름의 Benzo(a)pyrene 저감화)

  • Oh, Sung-Cheon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2012
  • Sesame oil has superior oxidation stability and unique roasting flavor. Accordingly, this has been used for edible oil as well as a seasoning material for a long time in Korea. But sesame oil is a simple pressed oil, unrefined. During manufacturing process of roasting-expression, benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P] formed as a strong carcinogenic substance causes a social problem. Detection of B(a)P in sesame oil was due to residual content in raw-sesame seeds and formation in roasting-expressing process. Especially, maximal forming process was roasting. Accordingly, in this study applied the traditional roasting method by roaster and microwaving method as a new type. Best roasting time by microwaving was for 5~10 min, B(a)P content in sesame oil was 0.53~0.79 ${\mu}g/kg$. These B(a)P contents showed 1/2 level than direct roasting method by roaster. As a result, B(a)P contents in sesame oil appeared the difference of more than 2 times according to roasting condition of sesame seed. For minimizing of B(a)P content in sesame oil is demanded roasting of sesame by microwaving than direct roasting by roaster.

The Changes of Benzo(a)pyrene in Sesame Oil Affected by Processing Conditions (가공조건에 따른 참기름의 benzo(a)pyrene 변화)

  • Jang, Gi-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.464-471
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    • 2011
  • Sesame oil is a simple pressed oil as unrefined oil. During manufacturing process of roasting-expression, benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P] formed as a strong carcinogenic substance is cause a social problem. In manufacturing process of sesame oil, it had following the forming pathway of benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P] as well as minimizing plan of B(a)P formation. Suitable roasting condition by roaster was during 15~20min at $220^{\circ}C$, B(a)P content in sesame oil was $1.35{\sim}1.57{\mu}g/kg$. Between roasting temperature and/or roastingtime and forming amount of B(a)P was showed a linear correlation. As a point of view the turbidity and yield of final product, roasting process of the more regular level was required.

Changes in Physicochemical Components of Ginseng Marc by Roasting Process (볶음처리에 의한 인삼박의 이화학적 성분변화)

  • 박명한;김교창
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.144-152
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out in order to utilize ginseng marc (GM), a byproduct produced during the preparation of ginseng extract. For the utilization of GM as coffee-replacing beverage, GM was roasted at 140-23$0^{\circ}C$, for 10-30 min to generate coffee-like flavor and taste. The physicochemical changes in GM induced by roasting process was measured. Weight and moisture contents of GM abruptly decreased while roasting at various temperature and period of time, and the amount of water-extracted solid substances decorated beyond 23$0^{\circ}C$. Among the proximate components, total and free sugar decreased remarkably, while crude fat content increased. Crude protein content did not change by the roasting process. pH derides to pH 4.9 after 30 min at 20$0^{\circ}C$, but increased at higher temperatures. Hunter color L value of the GM powder decreased, whereas a and b values, increased up to 10 times as compared to that of the control. The brown color(O, D 490 nm) in 50% ethanol extract of the roasted GM was 46 times higher than that of the control.

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Extraction and Mixing Effects of Grape (Campbell) Seed Oil

  • Kang, Han-Chul;Min, Young-Kyoo;Hwang, Jong-Taek;Kim, Si-Dong;Kim, Tae-Su
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.175-179
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    • 1999
  • Grape seed oil was extracted using different preparatory treatments as follows: (1) grinding, (2) grinding and roasting, (3) grinding and wet- roasting, (4) grinding, roasting, and wet-roasting, and (5) grinding, wet-roasting, and wet-roasting. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained from the sample with the method (2). Initial states of oxidation were similar except method (1) that showed more oxidized state, being P.O.V.8. Acid values were observed in the range from 1.42 to 1.89. The lowest acid value was found as 1.42 in method (1) and those of others were somewhat higher, indicating that heating process of roasting produced some free fatty acids. From the results of sensory evaluation, the best odor and taste were obtained from the methods (2) and (3). Repetitive procedure of wet-roasting, like method 5, caused some loss of flavor components and decrease in the sensory evaluation score. Addition of grape seed oil (method 2) to soybean and perilla oil at the level of 20% retained considerable antioxidant activities as much as 4.3 and 5 times, respectively, than 100% soybean or perilla oil stored for 12 weeks. When soybean or perilla oil was mixed with 20% grape seed oils, P.O.V. decreased to half of that of unmixed oils.

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Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activities of White Radish Tea by Different Preparation Methods (가공 방법을 달리한 무차의 이화학적 품질 특성과 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Park, Jong-Dae;Sung, Jung-Min
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to investigate their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of white radish teas such as pH, color value, total polyphenol contents, total flavonoids, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and sensory evaluation. They were processed by drying(AD), drying and roasting(ADR), steaming and drying(SAD), and steaming, drying, and roasting(SADR). As a result, the pH of ADR, and SADR tended to be significantly lowered and SADR was the lowest at $5.48{\pm}0.14$(p<0.001). Additionally, ADR and SADR were significantly different in color and browning value, compared to AD and SAD. There was no significant difference in reducing sugar content depending on processing methods. The total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content of the teas were significantly increase after roasting. DPPH radical scavenging activity was significantly higher in ADR and SDAR than in AD or SAD by 1.1~1.5 times(p<0.05). Compared with ADR and SADR after roasting, the sensory characteristics of AD and SAD were significantly lower than those of roasted ADAD and SAD, respectively. From the above results, it was concluded that the roasting process is a major process that affects the physicochemical quality characteristics and antioxidant activities.

Changes in oxidative stability of the oil extracted from perilla seed roasted at different roasting conditions (들깨의 볶음 조건에 따른 들기름의 산화 안정성 변화)

  • Kim, In-Hwan;Lee, Young-Chul;Jung, Sook-Young;Jo, Jae-Sun;Kim, Young-Eon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.374-378
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    • 1996
  • The oxidative stabilities of perilla oil increased as roasting temperature and time increased. Induction period of the perilla oil from unroasted perilla seed was 3.9 days, but that of the oil from perilla seed roasted at $210^{\circ}C$ for 30 min was 55 days. The electron donating ability(EDA) on DPPH by perilla oils increased as the roasting temperature and time increased. EDA of the unroasted perilla oil was 24% but that of the perilla oil roasted at $210^{\circ}C$ for 30 min was 64%. These results indicated that the reducing compounds were formed during the roasting process. The fluorescence intensity in perilla oil increased as the roasting temperature and time were increased. This result indicated that Maillard reaction has occurred during the roasting process and the reaction products seemed to provide stability to perilla oil.

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