• Title, Summary, Keyword: roasting process

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Hazard Analysis, Determination of Critical Control Points, and Establishment of Critical Limits for Seasoned Laver (조미김의 제조공정별 위해요소분석, 중요관리점 결정 및 한계기준 개발)

  • Kang, Min Jeong;Lee, Hak Tae;Kim, Jung Yun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to establish the critical limit of CCP (Critical Control Point) of a HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) system used in the production of seasoned laver products. The hazard analysis examined microbial evaluations and developed a HACCP management plan for the heating process. The results were determined to be capable of reducing the biological element of CCP via the secondary roasting process. This study examined general bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus at temperatures ranging from $170^{\circ}C$ to $230^{\circ}C$ and for 3.0 to 5.5 seconds at a time. Before the secondary roasting process, pathogenic microorganisms were all negative, although the presence of general bacteria was still detected. General bacteria was reduced to $1.0{\times}10CFU/g$ after the temperature was set at $230^{\circ}C$ for a period of 5.5 seconds. In conclusion, it suggested that a HACCP plan was necessary for management standard and systematic approach in the establishment of critical limit, problem resolution, verification method, education, and records management through a secondary roasting process.

Changes in Flavor Compounds of Polygonatum odoratum Root during Roasting (볶음처리에 따른 둥굴레 근경의 향기성분 변화)

  • Park, Nan-Young;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2007
  • In order to evaluate innate flavor during the roasting process, the components responsible for the aroma of unroasted Polygonatum odoratum root and the volatile odor components released during the roasting process were evaluated using the solid phase-microextraction (SPME) headspace method. The raw P. odoratum root contained aldehyde, alcohol, hydrocarbon and acid components, which gave it a grass-like smell. 2-Methylpyrazine was not revealed from the roasted P. odoratum root at $110^{\circ}C$ and $130^{\circ}C$, but was extracted at $150^{\circ}C$. The 2,5-dimethylpyrazine component was the greatest at $130^{\circ}C$. The hexanal component was greater when the root was roasted at $110^{\circ}C$, compared with those at $130^{\circ}C$ and $150^{\circ}C$. The production of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline component was the greatest when it was roasted at $130^{\circ}C$. Quantitative descriptive analysis of P. odoratum after roasting revealed a high concentration of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine at $130^{\circ}C$ and $150^{\circ}C$, but a low concentration at $110^{\circ}C$. Most of the 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, which significantly affected its smell, was revealed at $130^{\circ}C$.

Physicochemical Properties of Taro Flours with Different Drying, Roasting and Steaming Conditions (토란분말의 건조, 볶음 및 증자 조건에 따른 이화학적 특성)

  • Moon, Ji-Hye;Choi, Hee-Don;Choi, In-Wook;Kim, Yoon-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.696-701
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    • 2011
  • To evaluate the processing adaptability of taro flours, the physicochemical properties of taro flour with different drying, roasting and steaming conditions were investigated. The moisture content and total dietary fiber were decreased as temperature increased with hot-air drying. Freeze-dried taro flours showed the highest vitamin C contents. Taro flours made by freeze-drying and hot-air drying showed significantly higher total dietary fiber content than those with roasting and steaming process. Steamed taro flours had the highest water absorption index, while hot-air dried and freeze dried taro flours had the highest water solubility index. No differences were displayed in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermal characteristics among hot-air dried and freeze dried taro flours. Roasted taro displayed decreased onset temperature and peak temperature as roasting temperature increased. Using a rapid visco-analyzer, the peak viscosity, through viscosity, and final viscosity of dried and steamed taro flours were higher than roasted taro flours, whereas the set back value, which is a prediction of retrogradation, decreased with steaming processing. From those results, it could be concluded that hotair dried taro flours, which have high gelatinization viscosity, are beneficial in imparting viscosity to dough products and hot-air drying after steaming taro flours, which retard retrogradation, is good for porridge and flake base products.

Influence of Roasting Conditions on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contents in Ground Coffee Bean (원두커피의 로스팅 조건이 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, He-Jung;Seo, Il-Won;Shin, Han-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.362-368
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    • 2009
  • Roasting may lead to the formation of undesired compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, green coffee beans were roasted under controlled conditions and the formation of PAHs during the roasting process was monitored. Roasting was performed in a hot air roaster, with an inlet air temperature varying from 150 to $250^{\circ}C$ for 5, 10, and 20 min. The PAH content of the roasted coffee was then evaluated by HPLC-FLD. The levels of total PAHs in Arabica (Colombia, Brazil) and Robusta (India) coffee samples were 1.26-215.07, 1.85-178.14, and 0.18-2.61 ${\mu}g$/kg, respectively.

A study on the traditional salt-making of the Joolpo inlet area during the 18th and 19th century (18~19世紀 茁浦灣의 煮鹽 - 鹽場의 分布와 煮鹽法을 중심으로 -)

  • ;Hong, Keum-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.46-64
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    • 1994
  • Among every civilized people salt has been recognized as an essential foodstuff to the human society without which even man's survivor is unthinkable. The cultural-anthropological meaning of salt is estimated highly as well, and in geographical perspective salt itself symbolize regional interrelationship. Playing a decisive role in freeing innermost settlement from isolation, salt aiso made a contribution to expanding human habitats. This study tries to reconstruct historica geography of 18th and 19th century surrounding traditional salt-roasting (chayeom). The Joolpo Inlet area which is located on the mid-western coast in Honem Region is selected for study area. Established on the basis of optimum physical geographical conditions such as topography, climate and vegetation, salt-making of Joolpo Inlet area was run dynamically with the sudden turn of events in the 18-19th century which was chacterized as an age of transition from medieval society to modern one. In this paper the writer attempts to clarify mainly following three points: physical conditions and socio-economic background leading to the initiation and later development of roasting of salt in Joolpo Bay; distribution of saltworks; methods of saltmaking. Main points drawn from these analyses can be summarized as follows: of iron pan and cow-drawn tools rendered labour-saving and output growth. 1, Saltworks of Joolpo Inlet area in the 18-19th century were distributed evenly over Kobu, Puan, Mujang and Heungduck counties among which Kobu's was located in Puanmyon - a sort of exclave. All saltworks belonging to above four counties were clasified as most lucrative ones in Honam Region on government archives. In particular, Gumdang saltwork which belongs to Mujang county is noteworthy in that it was first introduced by one Paekje priest in 6th century and therefore it provides a clue to examine the history of salt-roasting of Joolpo Inlet area. In light of the fact that temple or monastery economy, regardless of East and West, has been closely connected with traditional industry, the case of Gumdang is not unusual. 2. The process of saltmaking follows this order: harrowing of salt field exposed to solar heat; construction of saltern mound with saline earth; acquiring of brine by leaching saline earth; roasting of salt. Salterns (saltworks) are consisted with various salt making facilities such as roasting shed, saltern mound, salt field, salt well) salt pit or brine pit) and seawater reservoir. Among them roasting shed which is constructed chiefly with hundreds of pieces of pine tree as a frame and with straw as roof and wall is customarily considered as an unit of saltwork. And inside it is saltpan made of two kinds of materials, that is iron pan or plaster pan. The area attached to one unit of roasting shed is approximately 1 ha, and that of saltern mound is a tenth of it.

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Recovery of manganese compounds from electric arc furnace dust by Aluminothermy Process (테르밋 반응을 이용한 페로망간 전기로 분진의 재활용에 관한 연구)

  • Ha, Tae-Young;Jo, Young-Min;Park, Young-Koo;Kim, Youn-Che
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2015
  • The properties of dust collected from electric arc furnace of ferro manganese production units was investigated, and also the metallic manganese was recovered from the dust by aluminothermy process. The ferromanganese dust collected from electric arc furnace contained about 15% of manganese oxide ($Mn_3O_4$) and 9% of carbon as the contaminant, and have a 5um of 50% median diameter and irregular particle shape. The carbon contaminant in the dust could be reduced until about 0.1~0.5% level by roasting in the air at a temperature of 600~900C for 60minutes. The recovery of manganese could not be carried out using only ferromanganese dust from electric arc furnace by aluminothermy process, but the ferromanganese which contained manganese of about 92% and iron of about 5% could be obtained from the mixture of ferromanganese dusts from electric arc furnace and converter. The best mixing condition of dust fixed at electric arc furnace dust / converter dust ratio of 1:9 and 2:8, and the mixing rato of 3:7 or more could not separated the metal and slag from the reactant after aluminothermy reaction.

Antioxidative Effect of Brown Materials Extracted from Roasted Coffee Beans (볶은 원두커피 갈색추출물의 항산화 효과)

  • Rhi, Ju-Won;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.220-224
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    • 1993
  • Antioxidative activities of brown materials extracted from the three kinds of roasted coffee beans by water were examined. Antioxidative activity was assessed by the AOM at $120^{\circ}C$ and the oven test at $60^{\circ}C$ on lard. The brown materials of them showed the considerable antioxiant activity. The brown materials of Colombian coffee beans were more effective than those of Robusta or Brazil beans. The antioxidative activities of brown materials from Colombian coffee beans roasted at $210^{\circ}C$ increased in proportion to the browning intensity up to 16 minutes of roasting time, but the antioxidant activities of the brown materials upon further roasting time decreased gradually. In changes of extraction temperature from $30^{\circ}C\;to\;180^{\circ}C$ on the coffee beans roasted at $210^{\circ}C$ for 16 minutes, the antioxidative activities of brown materials did not change as the extraction temperature increased to $180^{\circ}C$. The antioxidative activities of the coffee extracts were thought to be caused by browning reaction materials produced during the roasting process only.

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Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin

  • Min, Joong-Seok;Khan, Muhammad I.;Lee, Sang-Ok;Yim, Dong Gyun;Seol, Kuk Hwan;Lee, Mooha;Jo, Cheorun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2016
  • This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating.

A Study on the Selective Leaching of the Copper Component by Sulfation Process (황산화 배소법에 의한 구리성분의 선택적 침출연구)

  • Kim, Woo Jin;Kim, Joon Soo;Kim, Myong Jun;Tran, Tam;Lee, Jin-Young;Shin, Shun-Myung
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2016
  • This study were carried out sulfation roasting and selective leaching test for the effective recovery of copper component in concentrate obtained by froth floatation of Autrallian low grade copper ore. The optimum conditions of sulfation roasting were temp. $450^{\circ}C$, $Na_2SO_4$ 2 mole ratio and time 1.5 h, and then selective leaching were room temperature and $H_2O$ or 1M $H_2SO_4$ solutions. Leaching efficiency of optimum sulfation product were 90 wt.% of copper, 20 wt.% of iron and 15wt.% of nickel elements. In this results, it was possible to selective decomposition leaching of the copper component under optimum conditions in this research.

Separation of Neodymium from NdEeB Permanent Magnetic Scrap (NdFeB계 영구자석 스크랩으로부터 네오디뮴의 분리회수)

  • Yoon Ho-Sung;Kim Chul-Joo;Lee Jin-Yeung;Kim Sung-Don;Kim Joon-Soo;Lee Jae-Chun
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the separation of neodymium was investigated from NdFeB permanent magnet scrap. Decomposition and leach-ing process of NdFeB permanent magnet scrap by oxidation roasting and sulfuric arid leaching were examined. Neodymium could be separated from iron by double salt precipitation using sodium sulfate. The optimum conditions established for decom-position and leaching are as follows: oxidation roasting temperature is $500^{\circ}C$ for sintered scrap and $700^{\circ}C$ for bonded scrap, concentration of sulfuric acid in leaching solution is 2.0 M, leaching temperature and time is $50^{\circ}C$ and 2 hrs, and pulp density is 15%. The leaching yield of neodymium and iron was 99.4% and 95.7% respectively. The optimum condition for separation of neodymium by double-salt precipitation was 2 equivalents of sodium sulfate and $50^{\circ}C$ The yield of neodymium was above 99.9%.