• Title, Summary, Keyword: salmon by-products

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A Study of Salmon Oil Type Analysis by FT-IR and Carbon Isotopes Ratio (FT-IR과 탄소동위원소 분석을 통한 연어유의 구분에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Eun-Ah;Cha, Yun-Hwan;Lee, Young-Sang
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.968-973
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    • 2012
  • This study analyzes the structure types of salmon oil to evaluate the purity of salmon oil products based on the 38 different types of imported salmon oil products distributed in the Republic of Korea. The major types of omega-3 foods in the salmon oil are ethyl ester (EE) and triglyceride (TG). If the salmon oil contained potential contaminants and was processed in order to remove it, EE type omega-3 fatty acids are found in concentration. This provides a good guide in assessing if products were made with EE type ingredients or re-esterified contaminated materials. The results of the FT-IR analysis showed significant difference in the C=O, C-O band positions in TG and EE. There were 19 TG type products and 19 EE type products. The analysis of carbon isotope ratio was performed on the types of TG and EE. There were different properties in the 19 TG type products. In one product, the carbon isotope ratio was -25.15 and the other 18 products showed -22.15~-23.96. The carbon isotope ratio of all 19 EE type products showed -21.91~-23.74. The results of the TLC analysis showed similar results with FR-IR. The re-esterified TG form was not detected in the TG type products, confirming that the TG type products contained natural salmon oil. This study aimed to provide the basic material in classifying the types of natural salmon oil and re-esterified salmon oil, by analyzing the pattern and proportion of FT-IR spectrum, carbon isotope ratio, and TLC.

Food Component Characterization of Muscle From Salmon Frame (연어 Frame 육의 식품성분 특성)

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Yoon, Min-Seok;Park, Do-Yeong;Park, Kwon-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.1452-1456
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    • 2008
  • For the effective use of salmon processing by-products, the food components of salmon frame muscle were investigated and compared with those of fillet muscle. The proximate composition of salmon frame muscle was 73.2 g/100 g muscle for the moisture, 76.9 g/100 g dry material for the protein, 15.7 g/100 g dry material for the lipid and 4.1 g/100 g dry material for the ash. pH and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content of salmon frame muscle were 6.63 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively. The proximate composition, pH and VBN of salmon frame muscles were similar to those of salmon fillet muscle. The Hunter values of salmon frame muscle were 55.34 for L value, 16.60 for a value, 19.99 for b value and 48.83 for ${\Delta}E$ value, which were different compared to the salmon fillet muscle. The trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble-N content of salmon frame muscle was 542 mg/100 g, which was lower than that of salmon fillet muscle. No difference was found in fatty acid composition, total amino acid, calcium, phosphorus contents and sensory evaluation between salmon frame muscle and salmon fillet muscle. These results suggested that muscle from salmon frame could be used as resources for seafood processing.

Improvement in the Fish Odor of Extracts Obtained from Salmon Frame using the Maillard Reaction Treated at High Temperature and Pressure (Maillard 반응에 의한 고온가압처리 연어 frame 추출물의 비린내 개선)

  • JI, Seong-Gil;Koo, Jae-Geun;Kwon, Jae-Seok;Han, Byung-Wook;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.316-321
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to improve the fish odor of extracts obtained from salmon frame. Salmon frame extracts were prepared using four kinds of pretreated salmon frame (salmon frame soaked in soybean milk and fried salmon frame) or containing additives (cystine and xylose-added salmon frame, and methionine and xylose-added salmon frame). Among the extracts prepared in this study, extracts containing cystine and xylose had the highest volatile component intensity and odor sensory score. These suggested that the fish odor of salmon frame extracts can be reduced by adding cystine and xylose before extraction.

Effects of a Gelatin Coating on the Shelf Life of Salmon

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Park, Chan-Ho;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Lee, Dong-Ho;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of using a coating of gelatin extracted from refiner discharge to extend the shelf life of salmon during cold storage ($5^{\circ}C$). Relative percentage of moisture loss in gelatin-coated salmon during cold storage was less than that of uncoated salmon. The treatment of salmon with gelatin reduced volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) formation throughout the entire storage period. Measurements of the peroxide value (POV), fatty acid composition, and (20:5n-3+22:6n-3)/16:0 ratio during cold storage indicated that the coating of salmon with gelatin from refiner discharge effectively suppressed lipid oxidation over the entire storage period. The extent of sensory color change during cold storage was less in the gelatin-coated than in the uncoated salmon. From the results of chemical measurements, such as relative moisture content, VBN, POV, fatty acid composition, (20:5n-3+22:6n-3)/16:0 ratio, and sensory color change, the conclusion was made that the coating treatment of salmon with refiner discharge gelatin effectively suppressed moisture loss, lipid oxidation, and color deterioration over the entire storage period.

Preparation Conditions of Extracts from Salmon Frame using an Autoclave (고온가압에 의한 연어 frame 추출물의 제조조건)

  • JI, Seong-Gil;Koo, Jae-Geun;Kwon, Jae-Seok;Han, Byung-Wook;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.307-315
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate optimal conditions for preparation of extracts from salmon frame using an autoclave. According to the results of various extraction conditions (extraction method, extraction time, volume and pH of extraction solution, and necessity of re-extracting), higher quality extracts could be prepared by adding salmon frame into 3 times (vol/wt) of water to raw material, and then autoclaving for 4 hrs before filtering extracts with cheese cloth. For efficient use as basic materials of liquid or powder Gomtang, however, fish odor of the extracts prepared under optimal condition should be improved.

Isolation and Characterization of Chondroitin Sulfates from the Byproducts of Marine Organisms

  • Im, A-Rang;Sim, Joon-Soo;Park, You-Mie;Hahn, Bum-Soo;Toida, Toshihiko;Kim, Yeong-Shik
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.872-877
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    • 2009
  • By-products of marine organisms including salmon, skate, flatfish, and yellow goosefish were investigated to search for new source of chondroitin sulfate (CS). Agarose gel electrophoresis with chondroitinase depolymerization showed that purified chondroitin sulfate did not contain any other glycosaminoglycans. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired to confirm the structure and purity. The average molecular weight ranging from 22 to 64 kDa was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. Disaccharide compositions and purities were determined by strong anion exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) after chondroitinase ABC depolymerization. SAX-HPLC data exhibited that the purity was from $81.7{\pm}1.3$ to $114.2{\pm}2.5%$ and the yield was from 1.3 to 12.5%. All analytical results indicate that salmon cartilage, skate cartilage, and yellow goosefish bone could be promising sources of CS to substitute shark cartilage CS in commercial neutraceuticals.

Improvement on Yield and Functional Properties of Autoclave-Treated Salmon Frame Extracts using Commercial Enzymes (효소 처리에 의한 고온가압 연어 frame 추출물의 수율 및 건강 기능성 개선)

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Ji, Seong-Gil;Koo, Jae-Geun;Kwon, Jae-Seok;Han, Byung-Wook;Kim, Jeong-Gyun;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.537-544
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to improve yield and functional properties of autoclave-treated salmon frame extracts (SFETA) using commercial enzymes (Alcalase 2.4 L FG, Flavourzyme 500 MG, Neutrase 0.8 L and Protamex 1.5 MG). Yield and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of all enzymatic hydrolysates improved compared to those of control (undigested extracts), which were the highest in hydrolysates incubated with Protamex 1.5 MG for 4 hrs (P4-treated hydrolysates) and 2 hrs (P2-treated hydrolysates), respectively. However, antioxidant activities of all enzymatic hydrolysates showed less than 29%. According to the trichloroacetic acid soluble-N, volatile component intensity and sensory evaluation, when compared to control, taste of P4-treated hydrolysates improved, while its fish odor strongly smelt. Therefore, for efficient use of P4-hydrolysates, the fish odor should be improved by Maillard reaction of extracts or pre-treatment of salmon frame.

Characteristics of Hot-Water Extracts from Salmon Frame as Basic Ingredients for Gomtang-like Products (열수추출 연어 Frame 엑스분의 곰탕 유사 제품 베이스로서의 특성)

  • Han, Byung-Wook;Kim, Hye-Suk;Jee, Seung-Joon;Lee, Jae-Hyoung;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Park, Shin-Ho;Ji, Seong-Gil;Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.1326-1333
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    • 2007
  • For preparing the basic ingredients of Gomtang-like products from the extracts of salmon frame, the extraction conditions of salmon frame were examined, and the characteristics of the extracts were compared with commercial Gomtang. Based on the crude protein, Ex-N and sensory attributes, the extractions were optimized by extracting pretreated-salmon frame in 12 times (v/w) of water for 12 hrs, before filtering with cheese cloth to yield 3 times the volume of the raw material. The concentrations of heavy metals in extracts from salmon frame were below the safety limits suggested by KFDA. The mai or amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid as the free amino acids, and glycine, proline, and glutamic acid as the total amino acids. The calcium and phosphorus contents were 18.0 mg/100 mL and 33.1 mg/100 mL, respectively, and they accounted for 20% and 18% of the recommended daily allowance for mineral intake. The angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was improved by incubation with Flavourzyme for 4 hrs and its $IC_{50}$ was 2 mg/mL. The results above suggested that the enzymatic hydrolysates from extracts of salmon frame could be used as a basic ingredient for preparing Gomtang-like products.

Preparation and Characterization of Canned Salmon Frame (연어 frame 통조림의 제조 및 특성)

  • Park, Kwon-Hyun;Yoon, Min-Seok;Kim, Jeong-Gyun;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Shin, Joon-Ho;Lee, Ji-Sun;No, Yoon-I;Heu, Min-Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to prepare canned salmon frame and to characterize its food components. In the preparation of high-quality canned foods, the boiling water generated in the pre-heating process should be removed, and then the pre-treated canned salmon frame should be sterilized for an $F_0$ value of 12 min. The proximate composition of the canned salmon frame prepared under optimal conditions (CSFP) was 58.4% moisture, 15.7% protein, 21.4% lipid, and 3.5% ash. Based on the results of volatile basic nitrogen and microbiological tests, the CSFP was acceptable. The sensory score for the color of CSFP was 4.1 points, which was higher than that of commercial canned salmon frame (CCSF). However, there were no significant differences in the sensory scores for flavor and taste between CSFP and CCSF. The total amino acid content of CSFP was 14.58 g/100 g, which was 4.9% lower than that of CCSF. The major amino acids in CSFP were aspartic acid (11.0%), glutamic acid (14.8%), and lysine (10.6%), which accounted for 36.4% of the total amino acid content. The CSFP was high in calcium and phosphorus, while it was low in magnesium and zinc. The major fatty acids in CSFP were 16:0 (15.2%), 18:1n-9 (17.0%), 18:2n-6 (16.7%), 20:5n-3 (9.3%), and 22:6n-3 (8.8%). Based on the results, CSFP is a high-quality canned food in terms of hygiene and nutrition.

Improvement on the Functional Properties of Gomtang-like Product from Salmon Frame Using Commercial Enzymes (상업적 효소를 이용한 연어 Frame 유래 곰탕 유사 제품의 기능성 개선)

  • Heu, Min-Soo;Park, Shin-Ho;Kim, Hye-Suk;Jee, Seung-Joon;Lee, Jae-Hyoung;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Han, Byung-Wook;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.1596-1603
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to improve functional properties of salmon frame extracts using various commercial enzymes (Alkalase 2.4 L FG, Flavourzyme 500 MG, Neutrase 0.8 L and Protamex 1.5 MG). The ACE (angiotensin I converting enzyme) inhibitory activity was the highest ($IC_{50}=0.67mg/mL$) in the product incubated with Neutrase for 4 hrs (N4-treated hydrolysates) among the various extracts incubated with commercial enzymes for different times. However, antioxidant activities of all salmon frame extracts were less than 15%. There were no significant differences in the proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the fish odor and taste. However, N4-treated hydrolysate was improved in the extractive-nitrogen content and transmission compared to the other enzymatic hydrolysates. When compared to commercial Gomtang products, N4-treated hydrolysate was also high in protein, extractive-nitrogen, total amino acid, and calcium contents, while low in taste sensory score. There were no differences in transmission and sensory score on the fish odor between N4-treated hydrolysates and commercial Gomtang.