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Effect of Preparation Methods on Yulmoo Kimchi Fermentation (열무 물김치의 담금방법이 발효숙성에 미치는 영향)

  • 장명숙;피재은
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.990-997
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    • 1995
  • Effect of preparation method on Yulmoo kimchi(watery kimchi prepared with Yulmoo, leaf radish) fermentation was investigated by measuring physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties for 20 days. Yulmoo kimchi was fermented at 4$^{\circ}C$ after keeping at room temperature(27$\pm$0.5$^{\circ}C$) for 8 hours. Four types(A, B, C, D) of Yulmoo kimchi were prepared. Sample A was made without wheat flour paste and red pepper powder and sample B was made with wheat flour paste. Sample C was made with red pepper powder, and sample D was made with wheat flour paste and red pepper powder. pH was slowly lowered and stabled after 10 days in all samples. Total acid content increased in all samples. Reducing sugar content initially increased and decreased thereafter. Especially, reducing sugar content of sample B increased in the early stage of fermentation and maintained initial reducing sugar content after 20 days. Total vitamin C content reduced during fermentation in all samples. Especially initial total vitamin C content of sample D increased more than those of other samples relatiely. Lightness and yellowness showed no difference, but on the other hand redness increased gradually in all samples. The number of lactic acid bactgeria reached maximum value in 10~13 days with the total cell numbers and gradually decreased thereafter in all samples. The number of lactic acid bacteria and total cell number of sample D was much more than those of any other samples. As a result of the sensory evaluation, Yulmoo kimchi showed significant difference in all characteristics. Sample D showed the highest scores in all characteristics before 10 days of fermentation. However, after 10 days sample B showed the highest scores.

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Study on the Anti-cancer, Anti-metastasis and Immune response improvement of Aqua-acupuncture with Cistanches Herba infusion solution (육종용약침의 항암작용(抗癌作用) 및 면역효과(免疫效果)에 대(對)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Eun-Yong;Lee, Byung-Ryul
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.251-286
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    • 2000
  • To study the effects of anti-cancer, anti-metastasis and immune response improvement of aqua-acupuncture with Cistanches Herba infusion solution, we used Cistanches Herba infusion solution(taken by water-alcohol method) put into Chung-wan(CV12) and Chok-Samni(S36) of BALB/c or C57BL/6 which are corresponding to human body. We observed the cytotoxicity, the effect on the expression of MMP-9 gene, the ability to control cancer cell proliferation, change of body weight, surviving number, MST, ILS, changes in amount of WBC, RBC, PLT, total protein, creatinine, glucose and LDH, weight of spleen, number of pulmonary colony, histological analysis on tissue metastasis of lung and liver, splenic cell proliferation, the expression of cytokine gene, the number of $CD4^+$, $CD8^+$, $CD19^+$ and NK cell, and concluded like this. The results were obtained as follows : 1. The cytotoxicity about B16-F10 cell line of $2^0$, $2^{-1}$, $2^{-2}$, $2^{-5}$ diluent groups in Cistanches Herba infusion solution treatment was inhibited significantly, compared with control group. 2. The cytotoxicity about HT1080 cell line of $2^0$, $2^{-1}$, $2^{-2}$, $2^{-3}$, $2^{-5}$, $2^{-8}$ diluent groups in Cistanches Herba infusion solution treatment was inhibited significantly, compared with control group. 3. The effect on expression of MMP-9 gene was decreased in all the sample groups, compared with control group. 4. The effect on the control-ability on the cancer cell proliferation showed cytotooicity significantly in $2^0$, $2^{-1}$, $2^{-2}$, $2^{-3}$, $2^{-4}$, $2^{-5}$ diluent groups. 5. S-180 cancer cell line transplants in BALB/c mice were inhibited significantly in weight increase in all the sample groups, compared with control group. The surviving number increased in almost sample groups, except one group put into Chok-Samni(S36) with 20% Cistanches Herba infusion solution treatment group that showed same number of the control group. 6. S-180 cancer cell line transplants in BALB/c mice showed high MST and ILS significantly in almost sample groups, compared with control group. But one group put into Chok-Samni(S36) with 20% Cistanches Herba infusion solution treatment group showed low MST and ILS than control group. 7. The sample group injected in vein with B16-F10 cancer cell line in C57BL/6 mice showed increased ILS compared with control group significantly in anti-metastasis test. 8. The sample group injected in vein with B16-F10 cancer cell line in C57BL/6 mice were increased significantly in the number of WBC and glucose, and decreased significantly in the amount of LDH, compared with control group. However, there's no significant increase or decrease in number of RBC, PLT, total protein and creatinine. 9. We couldn't find any significant relation in spleen weight of the sample group. 10. In pulmonary colony, sample group was decreased significantly, compared with control group. 11. Histological analysis of sample group inhivited compared with that of control group in both of lung and liver. 12. In immune system, all the sample groups showed having more relevancy to the effect on splenic cell proliferation than normal group. 13. The effect on cytokine gene expression of all the sample groups were increased than control group. 14. In flow cytometry there's no significant relation in number of $CD8^+$, $CD19^+$ cell, however, the number of $CD4^+$ cell and NK cell in sample groups were increased than in control group. Above the results showed that aqua-acupuncture of Cistanches Herba infusion solution has effects of anti-cancer, anti-metastasis and immune response improvement.

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Double Sampling with Zero Acceptance Number for the First Sample

  • Bai, Do-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 1977
  • A double sampling procedure with zero acceptance number for the first sample whose operating characteristic closely matches that of a given single sampling plan and whose combined sample size does not exceed that of the given single sampling plan is proposed. The proposed double sampling plans corresponding to the MIL-STD-105D plans are tabulated and it is found that their ASN's are considerably smaller than those of corresponding MIL-STD-105D single or double sampling plans.

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Influence of Sample Number on the Estimation of Blasting Coefficients and Limit Scaled Distance (측정수가 발파계수와 허용환산거리의 산정에 미치는 영향)

  • 양형식;전양수;정지문
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.814-820
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    • 1998
  • Vibration data from two blasting sites were analyzed to determine the sufficient sample number for blasting vibration estimation. Most important result is that much more than 30 sample data and succeeding measurement are necessary to estimate confident blasting vibration level and to determine limit scaled distance.

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Multi-Level Skip-Lot Sampling Plan

  • Cho, Gyo-Young;Ahn, Young-Sun
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.383-394
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    • 2001
  • This paper is a generalization of single and two-level skip-lot sampling plans to n-level. On every skipping inspection of the n-level skip-lot sampling plan, not only the number of consecutive lots to be accepted but also the fraction of lots to be inspected can be freely choosed. The general formulas of the operating characteristic function, average fraction inspected, average sample number and average outgoing quality in n-level skip-lot sampling plan are derived. The operating characteristic curves, average sample number and average outgoing quality of a reference plan, two-level and five-level skip-lot sampling plans are compared.

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Effects of Yijin-tang (Erchen-tang) and GamiYijin-tang (Jiaweierchen-tang) on the Gastrointestinal Functions of Rats (이진탕 및 가미이진탕이 흰쥐의 위장관기능에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • 옥명정;변준석;박순달;이학인
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.11-25
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    • 2002
  • Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Yijin-tang and GamiYijin-tang on the gastrointestinal functions of rats Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, and were administered Yijin-tang (Sample I group, 47.5 mg/ml) and GamiYijin-tang(Sample II group, 38.37 mg/ml, Sample ill group, 85.3 mg/ml) water extract once a day. Changes of gastric juice volume and intestinal mobility index were measured. The effects on colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in the rats were also observed. Results: 1. Gastric juice volume was decreased significantly in the sample I group (P<0.05) compared to the control group; there was not significant effect in the sample II and sample III groups. 2. The moving distance of carbon bolus was increased significantly in the sample n (p<0.05) and sample II (p<0.05) groups compared to the control group; there was not significant effect in the sample I group. 3. The intestinal mobility index was increased significantly only in the sample II group (P<0.05) compared to the control group. 4. The feces consistency was increased significantly on the 3rd and 5th day of the sample I group (P<0.05), on 3rd, 4th, and 5th day of the sample II (p<0.05) and the sample III (p<0.05) groups compared to the control group. 5. The feces property index was increased significantly only on the 5th day of the sample III group (p<0.05) compared to the control group. 6. The number of WBC and RBC, levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were not changed in all sample groups compared to the control group. 7. The number of the type B Goblet cells were increased significantly in the sample II (p<0.05) and the sample III (P<0.05) groups, but the number of the type C Goblet cells were decreased significantly only in the sample ill group (P<0.05) compared to the control group. Conclusions: According to the above results, GamiYijin-tang compared to the Yijin-tang were decreased hight significantly in gastrointestinal mucose and histological antidiarrheal function with protection of the goblet cell more excellently were observed.

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An Improved Sample Design for Estimating the Usage of Copyrighted Music Works (노래연습장, 유흥·단란주점의 음악저작물이용 실태조사 개선안 연구)

  • Lee, Kay-O;Chung, Yeon-Soo
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.315-331
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    • 2012
  • In this research, we estimated the number of hits per song and its sampling error from 11 (areas including Gangnam) based on log data compiling the number of hits collected from offline karaoke players in March 2011. Then, we calculated the monetary equivalent of the sampling error under the current system that distribute royalties from the karaoke players to copyright holders(song writers and arrangers) according to the estimated hits. Because of the small sample size, the estimated number of hits had a very large sampling error. This research proposes a more reasonable sample design to estimate the usage of copyrighted music works for a fair distribution of royalties by reducing sampling error.

A Variables Repetitive Group Sampling Plan for Minimizing Average Sample Number (평균 샘플 수 최소화를 통한 계량형 반복 샘플링 검사의 설계)

  • Park, Heekon;Moon, Young-gun;Jun, Chi-Hyuck;Balamurali, S.;Lee, Jaewook
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2004
  • This paper proposes the variables repetitive group sampling plan where the quality characteristic following normal distribution has upper or lower specification limit. The problem is formulated as a non-linear programming problem where the objective function to minimize is the average sample number and the constraints are related to lot acceptance probabilities at acceptable quality level (AQL) and limiting quality level (LQL) under the operating characteristic curve. Sampling plan tables are constructed for the selection of parameters indexed by AQL and LQL in the cases of known standard deviation and unknown standard deviation. It is shown that the proposed sampling plan significantly reduces the average sample number as compared with the single or the double sampling plan.

Study of Sample Design for Improving the Method of Distribution of Singing Rooms Royalty (노래연습장 저작권사용료 분배방법 개선을 위한 표본설계연구)

  • Lee, Kay-O;Choi, Jung-Bai
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.763-779
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    • 2009
  • Sample design is studied to estimate the number of records from singing rooms. The definition of survey population, stratification, sample size and allocation of sample are discussed with using the collected real data. The validity of sample design is testified by the log data collected from online singing room which is sampled with suggested design. Estimation of the number of hitting of off-line singing room is proposed and calculated from the log data collected from sampled off-line singing rooms. The difference of online and off-line singing rooms is analyzed and the method of distribution of singing room royalty is suggested.

Design of a Curtailed-SPRT Control Chart (단축-축차관리도의 설계)

  • Chang, Young-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2009
  • This paper proposes a curtailed-sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) control chart. For using the conventional SPRT control chart, the number of items inspected in a sampling point should have no restriction since items in a sampling point are inspected one by one until an SPRT Is terminated. The number of observations taken in a sampling point, however, has an upper bound since sampling and testing of an item is time-consuming or expensive. When the sample size reaches the upper bound without evidence of an in-control or out-of-control state of a process, the proposed chart makes a decision using the sample mean of all observations taken in a sampling point. The properties of the Proposed chart are obtained by a Markov chain approach and the performance of the chart is compared with fixed sample size (FSS) and variable sample size (VSS) control charts. A comparative study shows that the proposed chart performs better than VSS control charts as well as conventional FSS control charts.