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Analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Radish Germplasm through SSR Markers Derived from Chinese Cabbage (배추 SSR 마커를 이용한 무의 육성 계통 및 수집종의 유전적 다양성 분석)

  • Park, Suhyoung;Choi, Su Ryun;Lee, Jung-Soo;Nguyen, Van Dan;Kim, Sunggil;Lim, Yong Pyo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.457-466
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    • 2013
  • Since the early 1980s, the National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Sciences has been breeding and collecting diverse radish breeds to select those samples with better horticultural characteristics, to ultimately expand and develop as good radish produce. Genetic diversity is a crucial factor in crop improvement and therefore it is very important to obtain various variations through sample collection. The collected samples were compared with one another in order to assess the level of diversity among the collections, and this procedure allowed for increased application of the gathered resources and aided in determining the direction to secure further samples. Towards this end, this experiment was conducted in order to examine whether the SSR markers derived from Chinese cabbage samples could be transferred to the radish samples. Among the radish breeding lines and introduced resources, 44 lines were used as materials to analyze the genotype using 22 SSR markers selected. As a result, the analysis showed that among all the selected markers, 'cnu_m139' and 'cnu_m289' were the most useful markers for diversity evaluation. The genetic relationship of the radish genetic resources showed that the geographic origins affected the diversity. Furthermore, the different types of radish groups were also determined by the year they were bred. This result demonstrated that there are differences between the older radish breeds and the more recently developed radish breeds. Even though a relatively small number of markers were used in the analysis, it was possible to distinguish whether the radish was bred 30 years ago or in the 2000s, and that the similar physical shapes comprised a particular group, showed that the SSR markers can indeed be successfully applied to to study the diversity within radish breeding lines. Through the results of this study, it can be concluded that the SSR marker developed for the Chinese cabbage can be applied to examine the genetic diversity and analyze the relationship (genetic resource determination) of radish.

Comparison of the Plant Characteristics and Nutritional Components between GM and Non-GM Chinese Cabbages Grown in the Central and Northern Parts of Korea (중·북부지역에서 재배된 GM 배추와 Non-GM 배추간의 식물체 특성 및 영양 성분 비교 분석)

  • Cho, Dong-Wook;Oh, Jin-Pyo;Park, Kuen-Woo;Lee, Dong-Jin;Chung, Kyu-Hwan
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.836-844
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to investigate plant characteristics and nutritional components of the genetically modified (GM) Chinese cabbage and its control line grown in the central and northern parts of Korea in order to establish the evaluating protocol and standard assessment. The GM and non-GM Chinese cabbage was planted with normal and concentrated density at two locations in spring and fall of 2008 and 2009. From the statistic analysis on plant characteristics and nutritional components, there were not many significant differences between GM and non-GM Chinese cabbage. Only few differences in the plant characteristics were found between the dense and normal planting. In the dense planting, there was no significant difference between GM and non-GM Chinese cabbages except for three out of 18 plant traits, such as leaf shape, hairiness and midrib length. On the other hand, nine plant traits including leaf length, leaf width, leaf color, leaf shape, fresh weigh of ground part, number of leaf, midrib length, midrib width and root diameter were slightly different between GM and non-GM Chinese cabbage in the normal planting. In case of leaf length, midrib length, midrib width and fresh weigh of ground part, there were significantly differences not only between two lines, but also between two locations. From nutritional component analysis, only five fatty acids were identified in the Chinese cabbage: palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Except linoleic acid, four fatty acids in one gram of dried sample from GM line were little higher than those from non-GM line. However, there were no significant differences in total contents of fatty acids not only between GM and non-GM Chinese cabbage line, but also between northern and central cultivating areas in the normal and dense planting. According to the composition of inorganic elements identified in the samples from both lines, there were six macro-elements, such as N, P, Ca, K, Mg and Na, and four micro-elements, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Based on the result from PCA analysis, specific clusters were not found between GM Chinese cabbage and the control line, but found between two regions.

In vitro Antimutagenic and Genotoxic Effects of Sophora Radix Extracts (고삼추출물의 in vitro 항돌연변이원성과 유전독성 연구)

  • Cho, Hyeon-Jo;Yoon, Hyunjoo;Park, Kyung-Hun;Lee, Je-Bong;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Jin Hyo;Jeong, Mi Hye;Oh, Jin-Ah;Kim, Doo-Ho;Paik, Min-Kyoung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.335-342
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    • 2013
  • Sophorae radix extract (SRE) has been registered as an environment-friendly organic material that is widely used in the cultivation of crops in Korea. Matrine, the active ingredient in SRE, was reported as a toxic substance in the nervous system in mice. However, no information is available on its toxic effects in other organisms. Therefore, antimutagenicity and two kinds of genotoxicity tests (bacterial reverse mutation and chromosome aberration test) of two samples of SRE were investigated in this study. Antimutagenicity test was experimented by using bacterial reverse mutation test. In the reverse mutation test, Salmonella Typhimurim TA98, TA1535 and TA1537 were used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of SRE. Bacterial reverse mutation test was also performed on positive and negative control groups in the presence of the metabolic activation system (with S-9 mix) and metabolic non-activation system (without S-9 mix). In the chromosome aberration test, Chinese hamster lung cells were exposed to SRE for 6 or 24 hours without S-9 mix, or for 6 hours with S-9 mix. Negative and positive control groups were experimented for chromosome aberration test. As a result, the number of mutated colonies induced by 4-NQO were reduced by SRE treatment in all strains, indicating that SRE may have antimutagenic effects. Reverse mutation was not shown at all concentrations of SRE, regardless of application of the metabolic activation system. In the chromosomal aberration test, one of the SRE sample gave a suspicious positive result at 250 ${\mu}g/ml$ in the presence of S-9 mix. For the more adequate evaluation of the genotoxic potential of SRE samples, other in vivo genotoxicity study is needed.

The Current Status and Problems of Tobacco Control Programs of Public Health Centers in Korea (보건소 금연사업의 현황과 문제점 분석을 통한 개선방안)

  • Park, Soon-Woo;Lee, Ju-Yul
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2009
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to suggest the way to improve the tobacco control program of public health centers in Korea. Methods: A survey with a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 246 persons in charge of tobacco control work in public health centers nationwide in December, 2006. Frequency analysis was performed with a final sample of 212 respondents with SPSS 12.0 for Windows. Results: The duration of engagement in tobacco control work was less than 3 years among 86.7% of respondents, and 87.3% of respondents had other duties besides tobacco control. Almost all public health centers conducted a campaign with posters or leaflets, and smoking prevention education among adolescents. The actual priority for programs was based on the community diagnosis in only 33.5% of the cases. Only 1.9% of respondents complained lack of budget, on the other hand, 44.7% of respondents appealed insufficient number of personnel. The route of knowledge and skill was largely dependent on self-learning or information from colleague. Collaboration with other related department was done well in 39.5% of the cases. The majority of respondents was satisfied with the general support from central government. Conclusions: To improve the tobacco control program of public health centers, it is needed the reinforcement of capacity and specialty among personnel, priority setting and performance of programs based on the scientific evidence, induction of community participation, utilization of community human resources, development of education and training course for practical skill, effective networking among departments.

Studies on the Determinations of Dissolved Oxygen in Beverages (음료중 산소분석법에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Tal-Soo;Lee, Young-Ja;Kwon, Yong-Kwan;Park, Jae-Seok;Hwang, Jung-Yun;Lee, Ju-Yeun;Song, Jee-Won;Chung, Bo-Yong;Lee, Chul-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.361-364
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to establish a simple and accurate method for the determination of oxygen that is a processing aid in various beverage. The quantitative determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) contents in 30 cases of samples were performed by traditional titration method and polarography. As a result of the study, the analysis of DO contents in fruit-extract beverages containing oxygen by titration method was time consuming and large sample volumes were needed. Besides, serious interferences with compounds such as hydroxylamine and nitric oxide were observed, leading to false response. Although the polarography is easily affected by $H_2S$, proteins, and various organic compounds, it is a simple and practical method that provides inexpensive and relatively rapid analysis. The polarography is best suited to the routine determination of DO in a large number of samples and it is expected that the polarography can directly be applied to the quality control of the beverages containing added oxygen. The analysis results of DO contents in various fruit-extract beverages with oxygen and without oxygen were as follows: 23.10 ppm to 32.60 ppm for various frutis extract beverages with oxygen, 0.70 pp to 2.54 ppm for mixed beverages without oxygen, 7.63 ppm to 8.28 ppm for drinking water.

Effect of Licorice Root(Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) on Dongchimi Fermentation (감초 첨가가 동치미의 발효숙성에 미치는 영향)

  • 장명숙;문성원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.744-751
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    • 1995
  • Effect of licorice root(Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fischer) on the Dongchimi(watery radish kimchi) fermentation was investigated by measuring physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties during fermentation up to 41 days. Dongchimi with the various levels(0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5%) of licorice root was fermented at two temperatures : Group A was fermented at $10^{\circ}C$ and group B was fermented at $4^{\circ}C$ after keeping at room temperature($16{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$) for 24 hours. During the fermentatiion, pH was slowly lowered in all Dongchimi samples and pH of Dongchimi added licorice root was a little higher than that of Dongchimi without licorice root. Total acidity of group A was slightly larger than that of group B and Dongchimi added licorice root showed small content than that of Dongchimi without licorice root. Reducing sugar content was reached maximum value in 13 days of fermentation in Dongchimi added licorice root of group A and B, group A decreased remarkably in 32 days of fermentation in all samples and group B was maintained in the rest sample except for Dongchimi without licorice root and Dongchimi added 1.5% licorice root. Total vitamin C of Dongchimi added licorice root was slightly higher than that of Dongchimi without licorice root of two groups. Lightness lowered gradually with the fermentation and Dongchimi without licorice root decreased a little than that of Dongchimi added licorice root. The number of lactic acid bacteria in Dongchimi added licorice root was more numerous than that of Dongchimi without licorice root. As a result of the sensory evaluation, group B showed higher scores than group A and Dongchimi added 0.5% licorice root was the most preferable one.

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Enhanced antimicrobial effectiveness of Omija (Schizamdra chinesis Baillon) by ClO2 (chlorine dioxide) treatment (오미자 수확 후 이산화염소수를 이용한 표면 세척에 따른 미생물 저감 효과)

  • Lee, Seul;Moon, Hey-Kyung;Lee, Su-Won;Moon, Jae-Nam;Lee, Sun-Ho;Kim, Jong-Kuk
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.871-876
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial effectiveness of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) treated with $ClO_2$ (chlorine dioxide) concentration (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ppm), washing time (30, 60 and 90 sec) and multiple proportion (x1, x2, x3 and x4). The seven groups were divided into control (Omija without washing water treatment), W-T (Omija treated by tap water ($20{\pm}1^{\circ}C$) for 30 seconds), $ClO_2$-10 (Omija treated by 10 ppm $ClO_2$), $ClO_2$-15 (Omija treated by 15 ppm $ClO_2$), $ClO_2$-20 (Omija treated by 20 ppm $ClO_2$), $ClO_2$-25 (Omija treated by 25 ppm $ClO_2$), $ClO_2$-30 (Omija treated by 30 ppm $ClO_2$), and then they were detected number of total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold. The rate of inactivation was found, for microorganisms of total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, to increase with a increase of $ClO_2$ treatment concentration and multiple proportion. No total aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold in $ClO_2$-30 sample treated for 30 sec, $ClO_2$-15 treated for 60 sec and $ClO_2$-10 treated for 90 sec were detected, and in $ClO_2$-30 Omija with multiple proportion ${\times}1$ (Omija : 30 ppm $ClO_2$ solution ratio was 1:1 (w/w)), $ClO_2$-20 with ${\times}2$ (Omija : 20 ppm $ClO_2$ solution ratio was 1:2 (w/w)) and $ClO_2$-15 with ${\times}4$ (Omija : 15 ppm $ClO_2$ solution ratio was 1:4 (w/w)) respectively.

Survey of Caffeine levels in the Favorite Diets of Children (어린이 기호식품 중 카페인 함량에 대한 조사)

  • Lee, E-Na;Kim, Hee-Jin;Im, Ji-Young;Kim, Jeoung-A;Park, Hye-Young;Ryu, Ju-Young;Ko, Kwang-Rack;Kim, Hyung-Sik
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2007
  • Children may respond differently to the caffeine from adults because they have different physiologic makeup and are functionally immature in terms of hepatic and renal function; this leads to the slower clearance of caffeine in early life. Therefore, children are often assumed to be more susceptible to caffeine effects. Alarge number of food supplements may interfere with these processes, and therefore caffeine exposure may have more serious consequences for children than for adults, irrespective of sensitivity. However, there has never been a national dietary survey on caffeine intakes in children. The purpose of our study was to identify caffeine intakes and beverage sources of caffeine in a representative sample of children in Busan, Korea. Caffeine intakes were based only on beverages included in the Continuing Surveys of Food Intakes by individuals. The caffeine content of the beverages ranged from 2.8 to 65.2mg/100ml for cola, soft drinks, and teas. Caffeine was not completely absent from caffeine-free colas, juice, and milk. In this study, cola-type beverages were an important dietary source of caffeine in the children. Daily caffeine intake for children was estimated to range from 12.5 to 250 mg/day. In general, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of caffeine should cover the entire population including children. Therefore, special considerations should be needed regarding the consumption of soft drinks containing caffeine to children below the 12 years of age.

Imputation Accuracy from 770K SNP Chips to Next Generation Sequencing Data in a Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Population using Minimac3 and Beagle (Minimac3와 Beagle 프로그램을 이용한 한우 770K chip 데이터에서 차세대 염기서열분석 데이터로의 결측치 대치의 정확도 분석)

  • An, Na-Rae;Son, Ju-Hwan;Park, Jong-Eun;Chai, Han-Ha;Jang, Gul-Won;Lim, Dajeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1255-1261
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    • 2018
  • Whole genome analysis have been made possible with the development of DNA sequencing technologies and discovery of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Large number of SNP can be analyzed with SNP chips, since SNPs of human as well as livestock genomes are available. Among the various missing nucleotide imputation programs, Minimac3 software is suggested to be highly accurate, with a simplified workflow and relatively fast. In the present study, we used Minimac3 program to perform genomic missing value substitution 1,226 animals 770K SNP chip and imputing missing SNPs with next generation sequencing data from 311 animals. The accuracy on each chromosome was about 94~96%, and individual sample accuracy was about 92~98%. After imputation of the genotypes, SNPs with R Square ($R^2$) values for three conditions were 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 and the percentage of SNPs were 91%, 84%, and 70% respectively. The differences in the Minor Allele Frequency gave $R^2$ values corresponding to seven intervals (0, 0.025), (0.025, 0.05), (0.05, 0.1), (0.1, 0.2), (0.2, 0.3). (0.3, 0.4) and (0.4, 0.5) of 64~88%. The total analysis time was about 12 hr. In future SNP chip studies, as the size and complexity of the genomic datasets increase, we expect that genomic imputation using Minimac3 can improve the reliability of chip data for Hanwoo discrimination.

An Exploratory Study on Determinants Affecting R Programming Acceptance (R 프로그래밍 수용 결정 요인에 대한 탐색 연구)

  • Rubianogroot, Jennifer;Namn, Su Hyeon
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.139-154
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    • 2018
  • R programming is free and open source system associated with a rich and ever-growing set of libraries of functions developed and submitted by independent end-users. It is recognized as a popular tool for handling big data sets and analyzing them. Reflecting these characteristics, R has been gaining popularity from data analysts. However, the antecedents of R technology acceptance has not been studied yet. In this study we identify and investigates cognitive factors contributing to build user acceptance toward R in education environment. We extend the existing technology acceptance model by incorporating social norms and software capability. It was found that the factors of subjective norm, perceived usefulness, ease of use affect positively on the intention of acceptance R programming. In addition, perceived usefulness is related to subjective norms, perceived ease of use, and software capability. The main difference of this research from the previous ones is that the target system is not a stand-alone. In addition, the system is not static in the sense that the system is not a final version. Instead, R system is evolving and open source system. We applied the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to the target system which is a platform where diverse applications such as statistical, big data analyses, and visual rendering can be performed. The model presented in this work can be useful for both colleges that plan to invest in new statistical software and for companies that need to pursue future installations of new technologies. In addition, we identified a modified version of the TAM model which is extended by the constructs such as subjective norm and software capability to the original TAM model. However one of the weak aspects that might inhibit the reliability and validity of the model is that small number of sample size.