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An Experimental Study On The Effect of Herba Segesbeckiae on the Intravascular Coagulation Induced by Endotoxin Rats (희첨이 Endotoxin으로 유발(誘發)된 흰쥐의 혈전(血栓)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Soh Kyung-Sun
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.165-173
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    • 1998
  • In order to investigate the effect of the Herba Segesbeckiae on the thrombosis induced by endotoxin in rats. The rats were treated with solid extract of Herba Siegesbeckiae 41.9mg /200g(Sample) which were administered orally. And the thrombosis was induced by injecting endotoxin in the caudal vein rats. And then the number of platelets, concentration of fibrinogen, prothrombin time and FDP(fibrinogen degradation product) were measured. The results were as follows; 1. Platelet was increased significantly in sample group compared with control group. 2. Prothrombin time was shortened significantly in sample group compared with control group. 3. Fibrinogen was increased significantly in sample group compared with control group. 4. FDP was decreased significantly in sample group compared with control group. According to the above results, Herba Siegesbeckiae had significant effects on number of Platelets, Prothrombin time, Fibrinogen and FDP. therefore, it is considered that Herba Siegesbeckiae can be applied to diseases related to thrombosis.

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Smoothed Local PC0A by BYY data smoothing learning

  • Liu, Zhiyong;Xu, Lei
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.109.3-109
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    • 2001
  • The so-called curse of dimensionality arises when Gaussian mixture is used on high-dimensional small-sample-size data, since the number of free elements that needs to be specied in each covariance matrix of Gaussian mixture increases exponentially with the number of dimension d. In this paper, by constraining the covariance matrix in its decomposed orthonormal form we get a local PCA model so as to reduce the number of free elements needed to be specified. Moreover, to cope with the small sample size problem, we adopt BYY data smoothing learning which is a regularization over maximum likelihood learning obtained from BYY harmony learning to implement this local PCA model.

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Sampling Inspection Plans for Defect

  • Jeong, Jeong-Im;Cho, Gyo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.867-877
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    • 2004
  • The sequential sampling inspection method is an extension of the multiple-sampling methods, and its theory is based on the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) of Wald. In this paper, the characteristics of SPRT for testing the number of defects are approximated by using the estimated excess over the boundaries. The use of the estimated excess shows good performances in estimating the operating characteristic function and the average sample number of SPRT compared to the method by neglecting the excess. It also makes it possible to determine the boundary values which satisfy the desired error probabilities.

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Study on the Anti-cancer, Anti-metastasis and Immune response improvement Effects of Aqua-acupuncture with Rubi Fructus infusion solution (항암(抗癌) 및 면역효과(免疫效果)에 복분자약침(覆盆子藥鍼)이 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Seon-Hee;Lee, Byung-Ryul
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.189-219
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    • 2000
  • To study the effects of anti-cancer, anti-metastasis and immune response improvement effects of aqua-acupuncture with Rubi Fructus infusion solution, we used Rubi Fructus infusion solution(taken by water-alcohol method) put into Chung-wan (CV12) and Chok-Samni(ST36) of BALB/c or C57BL/6 which are corresponding to humanbody. We observed the cytotoxicity, the effect on the expression of MMP-9 gene, the ability to control cancer cell proliferation, change of body weight, surviving number, median surviving time, increase of life span, changes in amount of leukocyte, erythrocyte, platelet, total protein, creatinine, glucose and LDH, weight of spleen, number of pulmonary colony, histological analysis on tissue metastasis of lung and liver, splenic cell proliferation, the expression of cytokine gene, the number of $CD4^+$, $CD8^+$, $CD19^+$ and NK cell, and concluded like this. The results were obtained as follows : 1. Effects of Anti-cancer 1) The cytotoxicity about B16-F10 cell line of $2^0$, $2^{-1}$, $2^{-2}$, $2^{-3}$, $2^{-5}$, $2^{-6}$, $2^{-7}$, $2^{-8}$ diluent groups in Rubi Fructus infusion solution treatment was inhibited significantly, compared with control group. 2) The cytotoxicity about HT1080 cell line of $2^0{\sim}2^{-8}$ diluent groups in Rubi Fructus infusion solution treatment was inhibited significantly, compared with control group. 3) The effect on expression of MMP-9 gene was inhibited significantly in all the sample groups, compared with control group. 4) The effect on the control-ability on the cancer cell proliferation showed cytotoxicity significantly in $2^0$, $2^{-1}$, $2^{-2}$, $2^{-3}$, $2^{-4}$, $2^{-5}$, $2^{-6}$, $2^{-7}$, diluent groups. 2. Effects of Anti-metastasis 1) S-180 cancer cell line transplants in BALB/c mice were inhibited significantly in weight increase in all the sample groups, compared with control group. The surviving number increased in almost sample groups, except one group put into Chok-Samni(ST36) with 20% Rubi Fructus infusion solution treatment group that showed same number of the control group. 2) S-180 cancer cell line transplants in BALB/c mice showed high MST significantly in almost sample groups, compared with control group. But one group put into Chok-Samni(ST36) with 20% Rubi Fructus infusion solution showed low MST than control group. 3) The group injected in vein with B16-F10 cancer cell line in C57BL/6 mice showed increased ILS than control group significantly in anti-metastasis test. 3. Effects of Immune response improvement 1) The group injected in vein with B16-F10 cancer cell line in C57BL/6 mice were increased significantly in the number of leukocyte and glucose, and decreased significantly in the amount of platelet and LDH, compared with control group. However, there's no significant increase or decrease in number of erythrocyte, total protein and creatinine. 2) We couldn't find any significant relation in spleen weight of the sample group. 3) In pulmonary colony, sample group was decreased significantly, compared with control group. 4) Histological analysis of sample group inhivited compared with that of control group in both of lung and liver. 5) In immune system, all the sample groups showed having more relevancy to the effect on splenic cell proliferation than normal group. 6) Cytokine gene increased in almost sample groups, except one group treated with $50{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ Rubi Fructus infusion solution on IL-12. 7) In flow cytometry there's no significant relation in number of $CD8^+$ cell, however, the number of $CD4^+$, $CD19^+$ cell and NK cell in sample group had more relation than in control group. Above the results showed that aqua-acupuncture of Rubi Fructus solution has effects of anti-cancer, and-metastasis and immune response improvement.

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Sample Size Determination for the Estimation of Population Density of Marine Benthos on a Tidal Flat and a Subtidal Area, Korea

  • Koh, Chul-Hwan;Kang, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of the korean society of oceanography
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.113-122
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    • 1998
  • The requisite numbers of sample replicates for the population study of soft-bottom benthos were estimated from survey data on the Songdo tidal flat and subtidal zone in Youngil Bay, Korea. Large numbers of samples were taken; two-hundred-fifty 0.02 m$^2$ box corers and fifty 0.1m$^2$ van Veen grabs were taken on the Songdo tidal flat and in Youngil Bay, respectively. The effect of sampler size on sampling efforts was investigated by pooling the unit samples in pairs, fours, eights, etc. The requisite number of sample replicates (n$_r$) was determined by sample variance (s$^2$) and mean (m) function (n$_r$:s$^2$/P$^2$m$^2$), at P=0.2 level, in which s$^2$ and m were calculated from the counts of individuals collected. For example, seven samples of 0.02 m$^2$ corer for the intertidal and two samples of 0.1 m$^2$ van Veen grab for subtidal fauna were required to estimate the total density of community. The smaller sampler size was more efficient than larger ones when sampling costs were compared on the basis of the total sampling area. The requisite number of sample replicates was also predicted ($\^{n}$n$_r$) by substituting $\^{s}$$^2$ obtained from the regression of s$^2$ against m using the Taylor's power law ($\^{s}$$^2$:am$^b$). The regression line of survey data on s$^2$ and m plotted on log scale was well fitted to the Taylor's power law (r$^2$${\geq}$0.95, p<;0.001) over the whole range of m. The exponent b was, however, varied when it was estimated from m which was categorized into classes by its scale. The fitted exponent b was large when both density class and the sampler size were large. The number of sample replicates, therefore, could be more significantly estimated, if regression coefficients (a and b) would be calculated from sample variance and mean categorized into density classes.

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Effect of Daekumeumja Herb-acupuncture on c-Fos Expression in Hippocampus of Alcohol Intoxicated Rats (대금음자 약침이 알코올 독성 흰쥐의 해마에서 c-Fos 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Tae-Ho;Lee, Eun-Yong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Deakumeumja herb-acupuncture on c-Fos expression in each area of the hippocampus of Alcohol intoxicated rats. Methods : Experimental groups were divided into five groups ; normal group, the alcohol-treated (control) group, the alcohol- 1 mg/kg Daekumeumja treated (sample A) group, the alcohol- 5 mg/kg Daekumeumja treated (sample B) group, the alcohol- 10 mg/kg Daekumeumja treated (sample C) group (n = 6 for each group). Rats of normal group were injected intraperitoneally with saline once a day for 5 consecutive days, while animals of the alcohol-treated (control) group were injected once a day with 2 g/kg of alcohol for the same duration of time. Animals of the alcohol and Daekumeumja-treated (sample A, B, C) groups were acupunctured at Chung-wan$(CV_{12})$ with 2 g/kg of alcohol and the appropriate amount of Daekumeumja extract once a day for 5 days. Each groups was evaluated by the changes of c-fos-positive neurons in each area of the hippocampus by using an image analyzer and microscope. Results: 1. In the CAI region of the hippocampus, the number of Fos-positive cells in the sample B, C groups were significantly increased compared with the control group. 2. In the CA2-3 regions of the hippocampus, the number of Fos-positive cells of the sample B, C groups were significantly increased compared with the control group. 3. In the Dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus, the number of Fos-positive cells of the sample C group was significantly increased compared with the control group. Conclusion : c-fos expression in each area of the hippocampus was reduced in alcohol-intoxicated groups. Treatment of Daekumeumja increased this reduction. In conclusion, it can be suggested that Daedumeumja possesses protective effects of the amnesia and learning disability in alcoholism.

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A Resampling Method for Small Sample Size Problems in Face Recognition using LDA (LDA를 이용한 얼굴인식에서의 Small Sample Size문제 해결을 위한 Resampling 방법)

  • Oh, Jae-Hyun;Kwak, Jo-Jun
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.78-88
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    • 2009
  • In many face recognition problems, the number of available images is limited compared to the dimension of the input space which is usually equal to the number of pixels. This problem is called as the 'small sample size' problem and regularization methods are typically used to solve this problem in feature extraction methods such as LDA. By using regularization methods, the modified within class matrix becomes nonsingu1ar and LDA can be performed in its original form. However, in the process of adding a scaled version of the identity matrix to the original within scatter matrix, the scale factor should be set heuristically and the performance of the recognition system depends on highly the value of the scalar factor. By using the proposed resampling method, we can generate a set of images similar to but slightly different from the original image. With the increased number of images, the small sample size problem is alleviated and the classification performance increases. Unlike regularization method, the resampling method does not suffer from the heuristic setting of the parameter producing better performance.

Effects of Partial Cervus elaphus Linne' Extract on Antitumoral Immune Response in Melanoma-induced Mice (부위별(部位別) 녹용(鹿茸)이 흑색종(黑色腫) 유발(誘發) 생쥐의 종양억제(腫瘍抑制)와 면역기능(免疫機能)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Oh Ha-Souk;Kim Jang-Hyun
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.39-78
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    • 2000
  • Introduction: In order to investigate the effects of partial Cervus elaphus Linne' extract on antitumoral immunological, a group of mice are melanoma-induced and observed reponses in terms of the number of lymphocyte, CD4+ count, CD8+ count, CD4+/CD8+ ratio in blood and spleen, change in body weight, melanoma weight, spleen index, NK cell activity and productivity of IL-2 in each mouse Methodology: Male C57BL/6 mice were chosen as an experimental object and were divided into 5 groups randomly selection. The normal group did not receive any induction. The control group was treated with normal saline in melanoma-induced' mice. Sample I group induced the upper part of Cervus elaphus Linne' extract in melanoma-induced mice. Sample II group was induced the middle part of Cervus elaphus Linne' extract in melanoma-induced mice. Sample III group was induced the lower part of Cervus elaphus Linne' extract in melanoma-induced mice. The dosage of medication was 0.2cc daily for 14days. Results: 1. There was a significant difference in the number of lymphocyte in spleen in the sample I (upper part of Cervus elaphus Linne' extract induced) and the sample II (middle part of Cervus elaphus Linne' extract induced) compared to the control group and the sample III (lower part of Cervus elaphus Linne' extract induced). On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in the number of lymphocyte in blood in the control group and all sample groups. 2. In the CD4+ T cell ratio in blood, all three sample groups showed differences compared to the control group, though there was no significant difference between sample groups. In the CD4+ T cell ratio in spleen, there was a difference between the sample I and the control group, while the sample II and the sample III had significant difference to the control group. And also, it has been observed there were differences between the sample I and the other samples. 3. In the CD8+ T cell ratio in spleen, all three sample groups showed significant differences compared to the control group, while there was no difference between groups in the ratio in blood. 4. In the CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in blood, the sample I showed a significant difference compared to the control group, while the sample 1I and sample III showed differences compared to the control group. In the CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in spleen, all three samples showed a significant difference compared to the control group, when the sample I had a difference to the other sample groups. 5. The spleen index of the sample I and the sample II showed a significant difference compared to the sample III and the control group. In comparison between the sample groups, the sample I and the sample II showed a significant difference to the sample III. 6. In terms of the change in body weight and melanoma weight, all three sample groups showed a significant difference compared to the control group, while the comparison between the sample groups showed the sample and the sample II had a significant difference to the sample Ⅲ. 7. In comparison of NK cell activity, the sample I had a difference compared to the other groups when the effector to target cell ratio was 2.5:1. With the ratio of 5:1, the sample I and sample II showed significant differences compared to the control group, while the sample Ⅲ showed a difference. When the effector to target cell ratio was 10:1, there was no difference between groups. 8. In the productivity of IL-2, all three sample groups showed significant differences compared to the control group. In comparison between sample groups, there were significant differences between each sample groups in order of the sample I , the sample II and the sample Ⅲ. Conclusion: As one can witness from the above results, administration of partial Cervus elaphus Linne extract played important role in antitumoral immune response in melanoma-induced mice, and it could be suggested that sample I and sample II groups have prominent antitumoral immune effect.

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Unbiased Balanced Half-Sample Variance Estimation in Stratified Two-stage Sampling

  • Kim, Kyu-Seong
    • Journal of the Korean Statistical Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.459-469
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    • 1998
  • Balanced half sample method is a simple variance estimation method for complex sampling designs. Since it is simple and flexible, it has been widely used in large scale sample surveys. However, the usual BHS method overestimate the true variance in without replacement sampling and two-stage cluster sampling. Focusing on this point , we proposed an unbiased BHS variance estimator in a stratified two-stage cluster sampling and then described an implementation method of the proposed estimator. Finally, partially BHS design is explained as a tool of reducing the number of replications of the proposed estimator.

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Study for Whuallak-tang to Influence the Inflammation and Liver of the Rat with Arthritis (활락탕이 관절염 백서의 염증과 간에 미치는 영향)

  • Yim Kwang Soon;Kim Youn Sub
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.819-824
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of Whuallak-tang on the inflammation and Liver of the Rat with Arthritis, and to demonstrate its efficiency as well as its safety, Have the each group eat a saline solution, 72mg of Whuallak-tang and 144mg of Whuallak-tang respectively at the same time once a day during a week. After a week, check if there is edema and count the number of leukocyte. Measure total protein and bilirubin, GOT and GPT after extracting serum through centrifugal separation. Right plantat edema occurred much less in sample A and sample B compared to control group. The number of leukocyte of sample A and sample B decreased remarkably compared to control group. The amount of total protein in serum decreased only in sample B group compared to control group. The amount of total bilirubin in serum has no change in both sample A group and sample B group compared to control group. The amount of GOT in serum decreased in both sample A and sample B group compared to control group, but it has no meaning. The amount of GPT in serum decreased remarkably in both sample A and sample B group compared to control group. As a result it was proved that Whualk-tang is good as antiphlogistic of infalmmation of Rat with Arthritis and doesn't bad effect on the liver. Therefore it can be used fot healing Arthritis.