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A Procedure for Indentifying Outliers in Multivariate Data (다변량 자료에서 다수 이상치 인식의 절차)

  • Yum, Joon-Keun;Park, Jong-Goo;Kim, Jong-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.28-41
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    • 1995
  • We consider the problem of identifying multiple outliers in linear model. The available regression diagnostic methods often do not succeed in detecting multiple outliers because of the masking and swamping effect. Recently, among the various robust estimator of reducing the effect of outliers, LMS(Least Meadian Square) estimator has been to be a suitable method proposed to expose outliers and leverage points. However, as you know it, the data analysis method with LMS estimator is to be taken the median of the squared residuals in the sample which is extracted the sample space. Then this model causes the trouble, for the number of the chosen sample is nCp, i.e. as the size of sample space n is increasing, the number is increasing fastly. And the covariance matrix may be the singular matrix, so that matrix is approching collinearity. Thus we propose a procedure ELMS for the resampling in LMS method and study the size of the effective elementary set in this algorithm.

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A VSR $\bar{X}$ Chart with Multi-state VSS and 2-state VSI Scheme

  • Lee, Jae-Heon;Park, Chang-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.252-264
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    • 2004
  • Variable sampling Interval (VSI) control charts vary the sampling interval according to value of the control statistic while the sample size is fixed. It is known that control charts with 2-state VSI scheme, which uses only two sampling intervals, give good statistical properties. Variable sample size (VSS) control charts vary the sample size according to value of the control statistic while the sampling interval is fixed. In the VSS scheme no optimal results are known for the number of sample sizes. It is also known that the variable sampling rate (VSR) $\bar{X}$ control chart with 2-state VSS and 2-state VSI scheme leads to large improvements In performance over the fixed sampling rate (FSR) $\bar{X}$ chart, but the optimal number of states for sample size Is not known. In this paper, the VSR Χ charts with multi-state VSS and 2-state VSI scheme are designed and compared to 2-state VSS and 2-state VSI scheme. The multi-state VSS scheme is considered to, achieve an additional improvement by switching from the 2-state VSS scheme. On the other hand, the multi-state VSI scheme is not considered because the 2-state scheme is known to be optimal. The 3-state VSS scheme improves substantially the sensitivity of the $\bar{X}$ chart especially for small and moderate mean shifts.

Estimation of the Number of the Unemployed Using Small Area Estimation Methods (소지역 추정방법을 이용한 실업자 수 추정 사례연구)

  • Kwon, Se-Hyug
    • Survey Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.141-154
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    • 2009
  • With the current sampling scheme, the sampling variance is getting larger in producing smaller regional statistics than the designed area, The larger sample size can make the variance reduced but the efficiency of sample survey lower. The desired confidence level of sampling survey can be obtained using the current sample scheme with the same sample size and administrative data. In this paper, the number of the unemployed of 5 regions in Daejon are estimated using small area estimation methods and the CV values in each estimation method is calculated and compared for their estimation efficiency as empirical study. Jackknife method is proposed to estimate the MSE of synthetic estimator and composite estimator more accurately.

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The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of WooBangHaeGiTang on the Allergic Contact dermatitis (우방해기탕(牛蒡解肌湯)의 알러지성 접촉피부염(接觸皮膚炎)에 대한 소염효과(消炎效果))

  • Kim, Nan-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.59-70
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    • 2006
  • Objective : This study was performed to investigate the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of WooBangHaeGiTang on the Allergic Contact dermatitis. Method : Contact hypersensitivity assay, video microscope, WBC count, RBU count, neutrophil ratio, lymphpcyte ratio and GOT & GPT were measurd. Result : 1. At Contact hypersensitivity Aasay, at 24 hours after Control group & Sample group showed appreciably more ear swelling than Normal group, at 48 hours after Control group showed more ear swelling than Normal group & Sample group, at 72 hours after Control group & Sample group showed more ear swelling than Normal group 2. Regarding the number of WBC, at 24 or 48 hours after There are no significant difference among Normal group, Control group. Sample group, at 72 hours after Sample group showed more WBC than Control group. 3. Regarding the number of RBC, at 24 hours after Control group showed more RBC than Normal group, at 48 hours after Control group & Sample group showed more RBC than Normal group. at 72 hours after Control group showed more RBC than Normal group. 4. Regarding the percentage of neutrophil in WBC, at 24 & 48 hours after Control group & Sample group showed higher percentage than Normal group. 5. Regarding the percentage of Lymphocyte in WBC, at 24 hours after Sample group showed lower percentage than Normal group, at 48 hours after Sample group & Control group showed lower percentage than Normal group. 6. Regarding the GOT & GPT in blood, the GOT & GPT are in Normal scale, so there are no Hepatotoxicity in Normal group, Control group, Sample group. Conclusions : According to above experiments, WooBangHaeGiTang have some anti allergy effects on allergic contact dermatitis.

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The Effects of Sahyangsohapwon on the Affective Reactivity and the Acquisition of Two-way avoidance in AD Model Rats (사향소합원(麝香蘇合元)이 정서반응성(情緖反應性)과 Alzheimer's disease 모델 백서(白鼠)의 학습(學習)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Hong Dae-Sung;Kim Jong-Woo;Whang Wei-Wan
    • Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.17-38
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    • 1999
  • The effects of Sahyangsohapwon on the affective reactivity of rats were studied with open-field behavior. Sample group was treated with the medicine for 8 weeks, whereas control group was treated with the vehicle. The effects of Sahyangsohapwon on the enhancement of learning and memory of AD model rats were studied with two-way avoidance task. Sample group electrically lesioned on nbM(nucleus basalis of Meynert) was treated with the medicine for 8 weeks, whereas control group with nbM lesion and sham group with the sham operation were treated with the vehicle. 1. In the open-field behavior task, the start latency from start box was measured $27.08{\pm}7.51sec$ in control group, $23.15{\pm}5.98sec$ in sample group. Rats in sample group showed a tendency of shortened latency going out to a strange place compared with those in control group, but with no statistical significance(p>0.05). 2. In the open-field behavior task, the number of locomotion crossing the grid lines was measured $84.54{\pm}3.55$ in control group, $116.93{\pm}6.41$ in sample group. There was an increased locomotion in sample group compared with control group with statistical significance(p<0.01). This can be interpreted as rats in sample group showed lowerd anxiety under a strange environment. 3. In the open-field behavior task, the rearing number was measured $7.46{\pm}0.57$ in control group, $10.13{\pm}0.95$ in sample group. There was an increased rearing in sample group compared with control group with statistical significance(p<0.05). This can also be interpreted as rats in sample group showed lowerd anxiety under a strange environment. 4. In the open-field behavior task, the number of crossing behavior was measured $5.54{\pm}1.50$ in control group, $9.20{\pm}1.67$ in sample group. There was a increasing tendency of crossing behavior in sample group compared with control group, but with no statistical significance(p<0.05). 5. In the open-field behavior task, the total activity was measured $97.54{\pm}4.70$ in control group, $136.27{\pm}792$ in sample group. There was an increased total activity in sample group compared with control group with statistical significance(p<0.01). This can also be interpreted as rats in sample group showed lowerd anxiety under a strange environment. 6. In the analysis of effects on the learning and memory in AD model rats with two-way avoidance task, the response latency was measured $6717{\pm}134msec$ in the 1st session, $5416{\pm}160msec$ in the 2nd session, $5252{\pm}148msec$ in the 3rd session in control group. It was measured $6724{\pm}155msec$ in the 1st session, $4642{\pm}139msec$ in the 2nd session, $4914{\pm}148msec$ in the 3rd session in sample group and $4357{\pm}144msec$ in the 1st session, $3125{\pm}115msec$ in the 2nd session, $3091{\pm}98msec$ in the 3rd session in sham group. There were differences between sham group and nbM lesioned groups with statistical significance in post hoc analysis(p<0.000). And in the 2nd session, there was a reduction of latency in sample group compared with control group with statistical significance (p<0.000). This showed that sample group had better learning capacity than control group. 7. In the analysis of effects on the learning and memory in AD model rats with two-way avoidance task, the number of avoidance response was measured $5.85{\pm}1.41$ in the 1st session, $14.23{\pm}2.89$ in the 2nd session, $15.69{\pm}2.56$ in the 3rd session in control group. It was measured $7.92{\pm}1.94$ in the 1st session, $16.83{\pm}2.29$ in the 2nd session, $15.42{\pm}2.81$ in the 3rd session in sample group and $14.38{\pm}1.62$ in the 1st session, $22.88{\pm}0.89$ in the 2nd session, $23.88{\pm}1.64$ in the 3rd session in sham group. There were differences between sham group and nbM lesioned groups with statistical significance in post hoc analysis(p<0.001). But between control and sample group, there was no significant difference. With the experimental results above, Sahyangsohapwon can be supposed to have the enhancing effects on the affect reactivity and learning with memory of AD model rats induced by electrolyte injury of nbM.

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Study on the Anti-cancer, Anti-metastasis and Effects of Immune-response of Aqua-acupuncture with Cuscutae Semen Infusion Solution (토사자약침(兎絲子藥鍼)의 항암작용(抗癌作用) 및 면역효과(免疫效果)에 대(對)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Jae-Bok;Lee, Byung-Ryul
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.94-104
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    • 2001
  • Objective : The objective of tihs study is to study the effects of anti-cancer, anti-metastasis and effects of immune-response of aqua-acupuncture with Cuscutae Semen infusion solution. Methods : We observed, in-vitro, the cytotoxicity and the effect on the expression of MMP-9 gene, and in-vivo, change of body weight, surviving number, MST, ILS, changes in amount of WBC, RBC, PLT, GOT, GPT, creatinine, glucose and LDH, number of Pulmonary colony. Results : 1. The effect on expression of MMP-9 gene was decreased in all the sample groups in B16-F10 cell line, and was decreased in Lane 1, 2, 3 in HT1080 cell, compared with control group. 2. BALB/c mice which was transpianted S-180 cancer cell line were inhibited significantly in weight increase, in all the sample groups, compared with control group. 3. The sample groups injected in vein with B16-F10 cancer cell line in C57BL/6 mice did'nt show significant change in the number of WBC, RBC, PLT. 4. In immune experiment, all the sample groups showed having more relevancy to the effect on splenic cell proliferation than normal groups. 5. $IFN-{\gamma}$ and $TNF-{\alpha}$ in cytokine-gene were increased in all the sample groups than control group. 6. In flow cytometry of spienic cell, the numbers of CD4+ cell, CD8+ cell and CD19+ cell in sample groups were increased than in control group. Conclusion : Above the results showed that aqua-acupuncture of Cuscutae Semen infusion solution has effects of anti-cancer, anti-metastasis and immune response improvement.

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Determination of sample size to serological surveillance plan for pullorum disease and fowl typhoid (추백리-가금티푸스의 혈청학적 모니터링 계획수립을 위한 표본크기)

  • Pak, Son-Il;Park, Choi-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.457-462
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to determine appropriate sample size that simulated different assumptions for diagnostic test characteristics and true prevalences when designing serological surveillance plan for pullorum disease and fowl typhoid in domestic poultry production. The number of flocks and total number of chickens to be sampled was obtained to provide 95% confidence of detecting at least one infected flock, taking imperfect diagnostic tests into account. Due to lack of reliable data, within infected flock prevalence (WFP) was assumed to follow minimum 1%, most likely 5% and maximum 9% and true flock prevalence of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% in order. Sensitivity were modeled using the Pert distribution: minimum 75%, most likely 80% and maximum 90% for plate agglutination test and 80%, 85%, and 90% for ELISA test. Similarly, the specificity was modeled 85%, 90%, 95% for plate agglutination test and 90%, 95%, 99% for ELISA test. In accordance with the current regulation, flock-level test characteristics calculated assuming that 30 samples are taken from per flock. The model showed that the current 112,000 annual number of testing plan which is based on random selection of flocks is far beyond the sample size estimated in this study. The sample size was further reduced with increased sensitivity and specificity of the test and decreased WFP. The effect of increasing samples per flock on total sample size to be sampled and optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity of the test for the purpose of the surveillance is discussed regarding cost.

Effects of Freeze-Drying Time on Quality of Freeze-Dried Kimchi (동결건조 시간이 동결건조김치의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Young-Tae;Kang, Jung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.91-95
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    • 2002
  • Effects of freeze-drying time on the microbiological, sensory, and other characteristics of freeze-dried kimchi were investigated to optimize freeze-drying time for kimchi. Quality attributes of freeze-dried kimchi, including number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), pH, sensory properties, brittleness, rehydration property, moisture content, and microstructure of Chinese cabbage were observed for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Number of LAB and pH of the kimchi freeze-dried for 24 h were significantly changed in comparison with those of the kimchi not freeze-dried. However, further freeze-drying did not change markedly number of LAB and pH. Overall acceptability of the sample freeze-dried for 48 of 72 h was better than that of the sample freeze-dried for 24 h. As freeze-drying time increased, brittleness of the dried sample increased, and rehydration property was improved while dried weight and moisture content of the sample decreased. In conclusion, the sample freeze-dried for 48 h was better than the sample freeze-dried for 24 or 72 h, based on sensory properties and other characteristics.

Effect of Daekumeumja Herb-acupuncture on Alcohol-induced Suppressed Cell Proliferation and Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Hippocampus of Rats (대금음자(對金飮子) 약침이 알코올 독성 흰쥐의 해마에서 신경세포생성과 NOS 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Joong;Kim, Ee-Hwa;Lee, Eun-Yong
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.187-198
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of Daekumeumja herb-acupuncture on neural cell proliferation and nitric oxide synthase(NOS) expression in hippocampus of ethanol-intoxicated Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats. Methods : SD rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups ; the normal group, the alcohol-treated(control) group, the alcohol- and 1 mg/kg Daekumeumja- treated(sample A) group, the alcohol- and 5mg/kg Daekumeumja-treated (sample B) group, the alcohol- and 10 mg/kg Daekumeumja-treated (sample C) group(n = 6 in each group). Normal group were received with Saline, while control group were injected intraperitoneally with alcohol(2 g/kg) once per day for 5 days. Sample groups were treated Daekumeumja herb-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12) for 5 consecutive days. Bromo-deoxyuridine(BrdU) was injected into all animals once per day for 5 days. For the detection of BrdU-positive cells and NADPH-d- positive cells in hippocampus, immunohistochemistry was performed. Results : 1. In the dentate gyrus area, the number of BrdU-positive cells in the sample $B(278.08{\pm}6.46)$, $C(331.33{\pm}16.68)$ groups was significantly(p<0.05) increased compared with the control group. 2. In the dentate gyrus area, the number of NADPH-d-positive cells in the sample $C(86.50{\pm}10.02)$ groups was significantly(p<0.05) increased compared with the control group. 3. In the CAI area, the number of NADPH-d-positive cells in the sample $A(63.90{\pm}2.69)$, $B(75.70{\pm}3.01)$, $C(97.70{\pm}4.06)$ groups was significantly(p<0.05) increased compared with the control group. 4. In the CA 2-3 area, the number of NADPH-d-positive cells in the sample $B(30.20{\pm}1.89)$, $C(62.70{\pm}2.08)$ groups was significantly(p<0.05) increased compared with the control group. Conclusion : These results indicate that, neural cell proliferation and NOS expression in hippocampus was reduced in ethanol-intoxicated group. Treatment of Daekumeumja herb-acupuncture increased this diminution. Daekumeumja could be able to effect on the prevention of the amnesia and learning disability in alcoholism.

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Major Microbial Composition and Its Correlation to the Taste of Sunchang Traditional Kochujang (순창 전통 고추장의 주요 미생물 조성 및 맛과의 상관성)

  • Jin, Hyo-Sang;Kim, Jong-Bum;Lee, Kyung-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.363-368
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    • 2007
  • Traditional kochujang samples were collected from the folk village in Sunchang to find the major microbial composition and correlation between the taste and the microbial properties. Among the 29 samples, 17 samples showed Bacillus licheniformis as dominant strain with 11 samples Bacillus subtilis and 1 sample Staphylococcus pasteuri. Subdominant strain of 17 samples was Bacillus licheniformis with 12 samples Bacillus subtilis. Dominant strain numbers varied in rage of $6.60{\sim}8.38$ logCFU/g with subdominant strain number $5.90{\sim}7.86$ logCFU/g and total microbial number $6.64{\sim}8.56$ logCFU/g respectively. Bacterial type number varied in range of $6{\sim}18$ with the average 10.5 types. Fungi were found only in 2 samples and identified all to be Aspergillus oryzae. Yeasts were found in 25 samples. The dominant yeast strain of 23 samples was identified to be Zygosaccharomyces pseudorouxii and that of 2 samples Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Yeast type variety showed that only single type was found in 15 samples, 2 types in 8 samples, 3 types in 1 sample and 4 types in 1 sample. Fungal number was 3.90 and 4.08 logCFU/g and yeast numbers varied in range of $3.90{\sim}6.43$ logCFU/g. The sensory scores of kochujang showed positive correlation with type numbers, but no significant correlation with the other microbial properties like total bacterial number, dominant bacterial number, subdominant bacterial number and dominant yeast number.