• Title/Summary/Keyword: sanitizer

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Research of Hand Sanitation Level and Recognition for Hand Sanitizer Usage in Working Pl aces(Industries) (산업체에서의 손 위생 관리 현황 및 손 소독기 필요성에 대한 인지도 조사)

  • Kim, Hae-Ja;Na, Young-Sun;Rha, Young-Ah
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.12 no.4 s.31
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    • pp.269-283
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    • 2006
  • To show the recognition of hand-sanitizer, we studied the answers of research questions where we got from the northern part of Seoul and Kyunggi Province. We had categorized two groups both industry-related people who work in restaurants, hygiene service shops, whole sales, government organizations, PC shops, factory-department stores and non industry-related people who work in schools, general offices for this study. 1. Hand sanitation level: Over 60% people washed hands 6 times a day. The group using water and soap was much bigger than the group using water for washing hands. For drying, people preferred wipe tissue, towels, clothes, non drying in that order. 2. Recognition of hand sanitizer and its usage experience: Most people(66.5%) did not know what hand sanitizer is, but they have positive attitude if they use this machine. 3. Place of hand sanitizer: The proper places to install were such public places as hospitals, restrooms, and restaurants. The fifties-group was the most frequently hand washing generation with over 9 times a day. 4. Comparison of recognition for hand-sanitizer by male and female: There were different results in each evaluation item by either male or female. The frequency and method of hand washing showed high in males, while females observed hand sanitization, installation requirements, installation areas, home installation, etc more than anything else.

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Survey on the Use of Hand Sanitizer and Component Analysis (손소독제 사용 실태 조사 및 성분 분석)

  • Yoon, Hye-Kyung;Lee, Eun-Ji;Hur, Ye Lim;Park, Na-Youn;Kho, Younglim
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.702-709
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: Hand sanitizer is made with ethyl alcohol as the main ingredient. Problems related to the use of hand sanitizers and cases of harm caused by the use of hand sanitizers are occurring. This study investigated the usage behavior and recognition level of people using hand sanitizer and identified the chemical components listed in the component label of hand sanitizer. In addition, the methanol and isopropanol contained in hand sanitizer were quantified using HS-GC-MSD. Methods: The investigation of the behavior and recognition of hand sanitizer usage was conducted through a survey of 143 college students and adults. The components marked on 34 types of hand sanitizers were investigated, and methanol and isopropanol concentrations were analyzed using the HS-GC-MSD method. Results: According to the survey, 57% of respondents use hand sanitizers two to three times per day, 92.3% of them do so when in public places and 41.3% of them do so at home. Ethanol, purified water, carbomer, glycerin, and triethanolamine were the ingredients listed in the hand sanitizer. Among the 34 samples, methanol and isopropyl alcohol were detected in 33 samples, the concentration range for methanol was ND-567 ppm, and the concentration range of isopropyl alcohol was ND-2121 ppm. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that hand sanitizers are being used constantly every day, and methanol, which is not included in the marked content, was detected in a significant concentration compared to wet tissue. It has been found that maintenance of hand sanitizer manufacturing standards and training on how to use them are needed.

Inhibitory Effects of Chlorine Dioxide and a Commercial Chlorine Sanitizer Against Foodborne Pathogens on Lettuce (양상추에 오염된 병원성 미생물에 대한 Chlorine Dioxide 및 상업적 Chlorine 살균소독제의 저해효과 평가)

  • Choi, Mi-Ran;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.445-451
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    • 2008
  • This study compared the effects of chlorine dioxide and a commercial chlorine sanitizer for inhibiting foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 : H7, on lettuce leaves. The lettuce samples were inoculated with each cocktail of the three strains, and were then treated with chemical sanitizers [distilled water, 100 ppm commercial chlorine and 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 200 ppm chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$)] for 1 min, 5 min, and 10 min at room temperature($22{\pm}2^{\circ}C$). Following inoculation of the leaves, initial populations of E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium were approximately 5.54, 4.47, and 5.12 log CFU/g, respectively these levels were not significantly reduced by the treatment with water,whereas the 100 ppm commercial chlorine sanitizer treatment and $ClO_2$ (at all tested concentrations) were effective at reducing levels of all three pathogens. The treatment of 200 ppm $ClO_2$ for 10 min was most effective at inhibiting the three pathogens, and reduction levels of E. coli O157 : H7, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium were 2.28, 1.95, 1.76 log, respectively. The inhibitory effect of $ClO_2$ increased with increasing treatment concentration of $ClO_2$, but there was no significant difference by the treatment times. When chemically injured cells of E. coli O157 : H7 and L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium were examined by SPRAB and selective overlay methods, respectively, it was observed that the commercial chlorine sanitizer generated greater numbers of injured L. monocytogenes than the $ClO_2$ treatment. From the overall results, $ClO_2$ was more effective at inhibiting pathogenic bacteria compared to the commercial chlorine sanitizer therefore, it has potential to be utilized as an alternative sanitizer to increase the microbial safety of fresh produce.

Executable Code Sanitizer to Strengthen Security of uC/OS Operating System for PLC (PLC용 uC/OS 운영체제의 보안성 강화를 위한 실행코드 새니타이저)

  • Choi, Gwang-jun;You, Geun-ha;Cho, Seong-je
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.365-375
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    • 2019
  • A PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a highly-reliable industrial digital computer which supports real-time embedded control applications for safety-critical control systems. Real-time operating systems such as uC/OS have been used for PLCs and must meet real-time constraints. As PLCs have been widely used for industrial control systems and connected to the Internet, they have been becoming a main target of cyberattacks. In this paper, we propose an execution code sanitizer to enhance the security of PLC systems. The proposed sanitizer analyzes PLC programs developed by an IDE before downloading the program to a target PLC, and mitigates security vulnerabilities of the program. Our sanitizer can detect vulnerable function calls and illegal memory accesses in development of PLC programs using a database of vulnerable functions as well as the other database of code patterns related to pointer misuses. Based on these DBs, it detects and removes abnormal use patterns of pointer variables and existence of vulnerable functions shown in the call graph of the target executable code. We have implemented the proposed technique and verified its effectiveness through experiments.

Combined Effects of Sanitizer Mixture and Antimicrobial Ice for Improving Microbial Quality of Salted Chinese Cabbage during Low Temperature Storage (저온 저장 중 절임배추의 미생물학적 품질 향상을 위한 혼합 살균제재와 항균성 얼음 병합처리 효과)

  • Choi, Eun Ji;Chung, Young Bae;Han, Ae Ri;Chun, Ho Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1715-1724
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    • 2015
  • The combined effects of a sanitizer mixture solution and antimicrobial ice on the quality of salted Chinese cabbages were examined. Salted Chinese cabbages were treated with a sanitizer mixture (comprised 50 ppm aqueous $ClO_2$ and 0.5% citric acid), packed in 2% brine and antimicrobial ice, and stored for 12 days at 4 and $10^{\circ}C$. Microbiological data on the salted Chinese cabbages after washing with the sanitizer mixture indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria, and yeast and molds decreased by 2.20 and 1.28 log CFU/g after treatment with the sanitizer mixture. In addition, coliforms population of salted Chinese cabbage after 12 days storage at $4^{\circ}C$ in the combined mixture of the sanitizer and antimicrobial ice was 3.22 log CFU/g, which was a significantly different from that of control (5.46 log CFU/g). The combined treatment of sanitizer mixture, antimicrobial ice, and low temperature at $4^{\circ}C$ suppressed reduction of pH and elevation of titratable acidity, resulting in delaying the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Differences in salinity, hardness, and Hunter's $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$ values among treatments were negligible during storage at $4^{\circ}C$. Therefore, this study suggests that a combination of sanitizer mixture, antimicrobial ice treatment, and low temperature storage could improve the microbial safety and quality of salted Chinese cabbages during storage.

Lettuce leaves에 접종된 Foodborne Pathogen에 대한 Aerosolized Peroxyacetic Acid의 살균 효과

  • O, Se-Uk;Gang, Dong-Hyeon
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2005
  • As an alternative to gaseous sanitizer which having penetrating and diffusing capacities, aerosolsanitizer’s effect on killing pathogens was investigated. To test the efficacy of aerosolized sanitizer, peroxyacetic acid was aerosolized($5.42-11.42\mum$) by nebulizer(Royal-G Enterprise, ShenZhen,China) in a model cabinet against artificially inoculated target microorganisms on lettuce. Lettuceleaves were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains each of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeriamonocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with sanitizer aerosol for 10 min, 30 and60 min in a model aerosol cabinet at room temperature($22\pm2^\circC$). After treatment, surviving cellsincluding injured cells were enumerated on appropriate selective agar or using the over-lay agar method, respectively. Inoculated lettuce leaves exposed to antimicrobial aerosol for 10 min experienceda 0.8 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7, a 0.3 log reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium and a 2.5 logreduction in L. monocytogenes when compared to the control. After 30 min treatment, the threepathogens were reduced in number of CFU by 2.2, 3.3, and 2.7-log and after 60 min, the reductions were 3.4, 4.5, and 3.8-log, respectively. Aerosolization can be new antimicrobial agents deliverysystem in food sanitizing.

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Foodborne Pathogen Reduction을 위한 항균제의 새로운 Delivery System인 Aerosolization

  • O, Se-Uk;Gang, Dong-Hyeon
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2005
  • Aims: As a preliminary experiment on new sanitizer delivery tools, the efficacy of aerosolizedsanitizer on foodborne pathogens was investigated in larger model chamber system.Methods: Peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide were aerosolized in a model system againstartificially inoculated target microorganisms on laboratory media. Cultures of 4 different foodborne pathogens were inoculated and affixed onto 3 different heights (bottom, wall, and ceiling), and 3different orientations (face-down, vertical, and face-down) inside a commercial semi-trailer cabinet(14.6 x 2.6 x 2.8 m). Sanitizer was aerosolized into 2 m droplet size fog and treated for 1 h atambient temperature.Results: Populations of Bacillus cereus, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonellatyphimurium were reduced by an average of 3.09, 7.69, 6.93 and 8.18 log units per plate, respectively.Interestingly, L. innocua, Staph. aureus, and Salm. typhimurium showed statistically not different (P$\leq$ 0.05) reduction patterns relative to height and orientation that were never expected in a sprayingsystemConclusion and significance: Aerosolized sanitizers diffuse like gaseous sanitizers, so it has greatpotential for use in commercial applications.

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Study of a Hand Sanitizer Composed of Active Ingredients Geranial, Cineol, Menthol, and Chamaecyparis obtusa (Geranial, Cineol, Menthol과 편백의 유효성분을 조성물로 하는 손소독제 연구)

  • Kim, Kee Hyun;Choi, Seokchan;Yoo, Youn Gang;Lee, Su Jin;Park, Un-Kyu;Hwang, Seok-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.173-183
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    • 2016
  • Fungi are a major cause of cultural and biological degradation in museum storages and archives libraries. In addition, fungi produce toxins and can cause skin allergies. In particular, fungi coming into contact with the skin through the hands of administrators dealing with cultural properties, archives, and books can lead to secondary infections. To prevent this, applying hand sanitizer, which is readily available in the market, is recommended. However, such hand sanitizer can effectively disinfect against bacteria but not fungi. As such, researching for an alternative is required. In this study, we developed a hand sanitizer composed of active ingredients - geranial, cineol, menthol, and Chamaecyparis obtusa - and performed a disinfection test, which targets 10 kinds of species (Alternaria citrimacularis, Alternaria consortialis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Coniothyrium aleurites, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium corylophilum, Penicillium paneum, and Penicillium polonicum), of fungi investigated in museums and libraries. It was then confirmed to exhibit excellent disinfecting effects. Thus, this hand sanitizer is expected to prevent skin diseases and secondary infections in administrators dealing with cultural properties, archives, and books.

Effect of Chlorine Dioxide and Commercial Chlorine Sanitizer on Inhibiting Foodborne Pathogens and on Preventing the Formation of Chemically Injured Cells on Radish Sprouts

  • Choi, Mi-Ran;Kang, Dong-Hyun;Heu, Sung-Gi;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Food Quality and Culture
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2009
  • This study assessed the efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$) and commercial chlorine sanitizer in terms of its ability to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Radish sprouts were inoculated with a cocktail containing one each of three strains of three different foodborne pathogens, then treated with distilled water (control) or chemical sanitizers (100 ppm commercial chlorine, and 50, 100, 200 ppm $C1O_2$) for 1, 5, and 10 min at room temperature ($22{\pm}2^{\circ}C$). Populations of S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were counted at 4.64, 6.05, and 4.29 log CFU/g, respectively, after inoculation. Treatment with water did not significantly reduce the levels of any of the three foodborne pathogens. The levels of all three pathogens were reduced by treatment with chemical sanitizers; however, the observed levels of reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were not significant as compared with the controls. The levels of the three pathogens were reduced most profoundly when treated for 10 min with 200 ppm of $C1O_2$, and the reduction levels of S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes were 1.17, 1.63, and 0.96 log CFU/g, respectively. When chemically injured cells were investigated using SPRAB for E. coli O157 :H7 and by selective overlay methods for S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes, respectively, it was noted that commercial chlorine sanitizer generated more numbers of injured pathogens than did $C1O_2$. These data indicate that $C1O_2$ treatment may prove useful in reducing the numbers of pathogenic bacteria in radish sprouts.

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Comparison of Bacterial Counts on the Hand Surface Based on Various Hand Washing Methods

  • Yu, Kyoung-Hwan;Kim, Mija;Kim, Hak Kyun
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.143-146
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different methods of hand washing by counting the number of bacteria on the hand surface. Eighteen clinicians were chosen and divided into three groups, consisting of six clinicians each. Culturing of the right raw palms of all individuals was performed. Individuals in the control group washed hands for 5 seconds with antimicrobial soap. Group 1 washed their hands for 10 seconds with antimicrobial soap. Group 2 washed with an instant alcohol-based hand sanitizer. After the respective washes, re-culturing of the right raw palm was done for each member of all groups. The colony-forming units (CFU) were calculated at each time point, and the reduction rate of CFU among the three groups were statistically evaluated using student t-test. All groups showed a significant decrease in CFU, according to the time applied (P<0.01). In addition, the reduction rate of CFU between the groups were statistically evaluated with ANOVA (P<0.01). It showed statistically difference between the control group and group 1, control group and group 2. The present study confirmed that the hand washing method with antimicrobial soap for 10 seconds and hand sanitizer, including alcohol, were excellent for decreasing the number of bacteria on the hand surface.