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Segmentation of the Home Meal Replacement Product Market by Food-Related Lifestyle of Japanese Consumers (일본소비자의 식생활라이프스타일에 따른 HMR 제품 시장세분화)

  • Park, Si-Eun;Yi, Na-Young;Hong, Wan-Soo
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.492-502
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purposes of this study were to identify the segments of the Home Meal Replacement (HMR) market according to food-related lifestyle of Japanese consumers, and to investigate its demographic characteristics, the HMR purchase status and needs of new HMR product development. Methods: A total of 2,720 domestic consumers living in Japan were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire and 488 responses were returned. Excluding responses with significant missing data, 467 responses were used for data analysis. Results: As a result of cluster analysis, three consumer segments were identified. The diet-highly concerned segment had the highest food-related lifestyle score, followed by the diet-moderately concerned segment, and the diet-unconcerned segment (p<0.001). A significant difference in demographic characteristics among the three segments was found with respect to the type of residence (p<0.05). There were significant differences in the main place (p<0.01) and average expense (p<0.001) for HMR purchases by food-related lifestyle segments. In the case of new HMR products that need further development, 'low-sodium products' had the highest demand scores in all three segments. In the diet-highly concerned segment, the mean scores of demand for new products were significantly higher than those in the other segments (p<0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study can be used to develop new products for the Japanese' HMR market. The segments identified in this study should be updated and revised regularly to reflect changes in the characteristics of each food-related lifestyle segment.

The Production Process and Mock-up Test of Freeform Concrete Segments using LOM type 3D Printer (LOM 방식 3D 프린터를 이용한 비정형 콘크리트 부재 생산 프로세스 및 Mock-up test)

  • Lee, Dong-Youn;Lee, Dong-Min;Cho, Hun-Hee;Kang, Kyung-In
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2018
  • Recently, the importance of the construction technology of the free-formed buildings is becoming more significant, as the interest and demand for the free-formed buildings are increasing. However, it takes much time and cost during the construction of free-formed buildings because the current construction technique of freeform concrete segments is manufactured by a formwork. Therefore, in this study, we suggested a new manufacturing process based on the LOM-type 3D printer for freeform concrete segments that can shorten construction time and reduce cost when constructing freeform concrete segments, and we also verified the feasibility of production process through mock-up test. The result shows that the suggested process shortened 47.8% of production time and saved 56.2% of cost compared to the existing steel formwork method. In conclusion, it is expected that the production method of freeform concrete segments using 3D printer will contribute to the improvement of productivity of freeform concrete segments construction and the activation of new construction method for free-formed building construction.

Mature Market Sub-segmentation and Its Evaluation by the Degree of Homogeneity (동질도 평가를 통한 실버세대 세분군 분류 및 평가)

  • Bae, Jae-ho
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2010
  • As the population, buying power, and intensity of self-expression of the elderly generation increase, its importance as a market segment is also growing. Therefore, the mass marketing strategy for the elderly generation must be changed to a micro-marketing strategy based on the results of sub-segmentation that suitably captures the characteristics of this generation. Furthermore, as a customer access strategy is decided by sub-segmentation, proper segmentation is one of the key success factors for micro-marketing. Segments or sub-segments are different from sectors, because segmentation or sub-segmentation for micro-marketing is based on the homogeneity of customer needs. Theoretically, complete segmentation would reveal a single voice. However, it is impossible to achieve complete segmentation because of economic factors, factors that affect effectiveness, etc. To obtain a single voice from a segment, we sometimes need to divide it into many individual cases. In such a case, there would be a many segments to deal with. On the other hand, to maximize market access performance, fewer segments are preferred. In this paper, we use the term "sub-segmentation" instead of "segmentation," because we divide a specific segment into more detailed segments. To sub-segment the elderly generation, this paper takes their lifestyles and life stages into consideration. In order to reflect these aspects, various surveys and several rounds of expert interviews and focused group interviews (FGIs) were performed. Using the results of these qualitative surveys, we can define six sub-segments of the elderly generation. This paper uses five rules to divide the elderly generation. The five rules are (1) mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive (MECE) sub-segmentation, (2) important life stages, (3) notable lifestyles, (4) minimum number of and easy classifiable sub-segments, and (5) significant difference in voices among the sub-segments. The most critical point for dividing the elderly market is whether children are married. The other points are source of income, gender, and occupation. In this paper, the elderly market is divided into six sub-segments. As mentioned, the number of sub-segments is a very key point for a successful marketing approach. Too many sub-segments would lead to narrow substantiality or lack of actionability. On the other hand, too few sub-segments would have no effects. Therefore, the creation of the optimum number of sub-segments is a critical problem faced by marketers. This paper presents a method of evaluating the fitness of sub-segments that was deduced from the preceding surveys. The presented method uses the degree of homogeneity (DoH) to measure the adequacy of sub-segments. This measure uses quantitative survey questions to calculate adequacy. The ratio of significantly homogeneous questions to the total numbers of survey questions indicates the DoH. A significantly homogeneous question is defined as a question in which one case is selected significantly more often than others. To show whether a case is selected significantly more often than others, we use a hypothesis test. In this case, the null hypothesis (H0) would be that there is no significant difference between the selection of one case and that of the others. Thus, the total number of significantly homogeneous questions is the total number of cases in which the null hypothesis is rejected. To calculate the DoH, we conducted a quantitative survey (total sample size was 400, 60 questions, 4~5 cases for each question). The sample size of the first sub-segment-has no unmarried offspring and earns a living independently-is 113. The sample size of the second sub-segment-has no unmarried offspring and is economically supported by its offspring-is 57. The sample size of the third sub-segment-has unmarried offspring and is employed and male-is 70. The sample size of the fourth sub-segment-has unmarried offspring and is not employed and male-is 45. The sample size of the fifth sub-segment-has unmarried offspring and is female and employed (either the female herself or her husband)-is 63. The sample size of the last sub-segment-has unmarried offspring and is female and not employed (not even the husband)-is 52. Statistically, the sample size of each sub-segment is sufficiently large. Therefore, we use the z-test for testing hypotheses. When the significance level is 0.05, the DoHs of the six sub-segments are 1.00, 0.95, 0.95, 0.87, 0.93, and 1.00, respectively. When the significance level is 0.01, the DoHs of the six sub-segments are 0.95, 0.87, 0.85, 0.80, 0.88, and 0.87, respectively. These results show that the first sub-segment is the most homogeneous category, while the fourth has more variety in terms of its needs. If the sample size is sufficiently large, more segmentation would be better in a given sub-segment. However, as the fourth sub-segment is smaller than the others, more detailed segmentation is not proceeded. A very critical point for a successful micro-marketing strategy is measuring the fit of a sub-segment. However, until now, there have been no robust rules for measuring fit. This paper presents a method of evaluating the fit of sub-segments. This method will be very helpful for deciding the adequacy of sub-segmentation. However, it has some limitations that prevent it from being robust. These limitations include the following: (1) the method is restricted to only quantitative questions; (2) the type of questions that must be involved in calculation pose difficulties; (3) DoH values depend on content formation. Despite these limitations, this paper has presented a useful method for conducting adequate sub-segmentation. We believe that the present method can be applied widely in many areas. Furthermore, the results of the sub-segmentation of the elderly generation can serve as a reference for mature marketing.

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Viability Assessment with T1-201 Rest-24 hour Delay Redistribution SPECT before Coronary Artery Bypass Graft in Coronary Artery Diseases (관상동맥 질환에서 우회로 수술 전 T1-201 휴식-24시간 지연 심근 관류 SPECT를 이용한 심근생존능의 평가)

  • Yoon, Seok-Nam;Kim, Ki-Bong;Lee, Won-Woo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul;Seo, Jung-Don;Koh, Chang-Soon;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.493-501
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    • 1996
  • To assess contribution of T1-201 rest-24 hour delay redistribution in detection of viable myocardium, we studied the predictive value of this redistribution in 17 patients who peformed rest-24 hour delay perfusion SPECT before bypass surgery. Regional wall motion was compared with gated SPECT in 10 patients and echocardiography in 7 patients before and after bypass surgery. Rest and 24 hour delayed uptakes were scored from 0 (normal perfusion) to 3 (defect). In rest SPECT, 56 segments showed perfusion decrease. Thirty four segments(61%) improved after surgery and were defined as viable Nineteen(34%) segments had more uptake of T1-201 at 24 hour delay, and the other 37 segments did not. In 81%(25/31) of segments with mildly decreased perfusion, wall motion after bypass surgery improved, 57% (8/14) of segments with severely decreased perfusion improved, and 9%(1/11) of segments with defects improved. In 14 among 19 segments which had more T1-201 uptakes at 24 hour delay, wall motion was improved(positive predictive value of redistribution: 74%). 20 among 37 segments which had persistent decreases in rest-24 hour redistribution improved and 17 did not(negative predictive value: 46%). Segments having severe perfusion decrease or defects showed improved wall motion after surgery in 64%(7/11), if it had redistribution at delay. Segments with either mildly decreased uptake in resting or rest-delayed redistribution showed improved wall motion in 76%(32/42). Among the 14 segments which showed improvement in wall motion, 10 had partial reversibility in stress-rest images and the other 4 had persistent perfusion defects in stress-rest images. These 4 segments were found viable only with rest-24 hour delayed perfusion SPECT. We concluded that rest T1-201 uptake or redistribution at 24 hour delay should be referred as an evidence to warrant postoperative improvement of abnormal wall motion and we could predict myocardial viability with preoperative rest-24 hour delay perfusion SPECT in the segments with rest perfusion decreases.

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Micropropagation of Plants and Mass Production of Adventitious Roots from Culture of Seedling Explants of Polygonatum odoratum

  • Yoon, Eui-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.11
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 1998
  • When the leaves, roots and stem segments of seedling of Polygonatum odoratum were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium with 2.0mg/l BAP, stem segments were the most efficient explants for adventitious shoot inductino. To observe the efficient combination of growth regulators on the adventitious shoot formation , stem segments were cultured on MS medium with various kinds of cytokinins (BAP, kinetin, zeatin). From this experiment, cytokinin treatement was prerequisite for theadventitious shoot formatino,especially BAP was the most effective. Auxin (NAA or IBA) in combination with cyotokinin highly enhanced the adventitious shoot formation. Twenty five percents of explants produced the adventitious shoots on medium with 2.0mg/l BAP solely, while 83% of explants produced the adventitious shoots on medium with 2.0mg/l BAP and 0.1mg/l IBA. Root formationform adventitious shoot was promoted after transfer to 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.1mg/l IBA and 0.5mg/l zeatin, thereafter the plantlets with shoots and roots were cultured on 1/2MS medium lacking growth regulators. When the stem segments were cultured to MS medium with 1.0mg/l 2,4 NAA and IBA , yellow and nodulous cali were formed from the stem segments which were developed into adventitious roots. These roots were actively grew after transferred to MS liquid medium lacking growth regulators.

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A New Record of the Genus Pista (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Korea: The Validity and Redescription of Pista shizugawaensis

  • Choi, Hyun Ki;Jung, Tae Won;Yoon, Seong Myeong
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2015
  • A terebellid polychaete identified as Pista shizugawaensis Nishi and Tanaka, 2006, whose species validity has been doubted, is newly reported from the southwest coast of Korea. Korean materials of the present study have several characteristics that agree well with the original description of P. shizugawaensis as follows: two pairs of branchiae on the 2nd and 3rd segments have tufts composed of many dichotomously branched filaments; the nephridial papillae are present on the 6th and 7th segments; the uncini on the anterior and middle thoracic segments possess only long-handled shafts while those on the posterior ones have additional short-handled shafts or lacking shafts; the notosetae are broadly or narrowly winged capillary. The authors examined the taxonomic value of the presence of lateral lobes on the 5th and 6th segments, which has been known as a key characteristic feature of P. shizugawaensis in the classification of Pista species. In the present study, several characteristics such as the shape of notosetae, uncinial shafts in the thoracic segments, and the presence of thin narrow lateral lobes on the 4th segment are suggested as the specific characteristics that help to distinguish P. shizugawaensis from its congeners. A key to Pista species from Korean waters is also provided.

Micropropagation and Mass Production of Adventitious Roots of Polygonatum odoratum via the Culture of Seedling Explnnts

  • Yoon, Eui-Soo;Park, Yong-Eui
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2002
  • Micropropagation and adventitious root production via the culture of Polygonatum odoratum were performed. Stem segments of seedlings of Polygonatum odoratum were the most efficient explants for adventitious shoot formation compared to leaf and root segments. Exogenous cytokinin treatment was required for adventitious shoot formation. Among the cytokinin (BA, Kinetin and Zeatin) tested, BA was most effective for shoot formation from stem segments. Auxin (NAA or IBA) in combination with cytokinin significantly enhanced adventitious shoot formation. Twenty five percent of explants produced adventitious shoots on medium with 2.0 mg/L BAP alone, while 83% of explants produced adventitious shoots on medium with the combination of 2.0 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L IBA. Rooting of adventitious shoots was achieved after transferring to 112 MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L IBA and 0.5 mg/L zeatin. When stem segments were cultured on MS medium with various kinds of auxin (IBA, NAA and 2,4-D), adventitious roots were formed from callus. frequency of adventitious root formation was highest in 2,4-D than NAA and IBA. When roots were in clusters together with parental stem segments, growth of roots actively occurred in hormone-free MS liquid medium. The above results represent that possible application for the mass production of roots and plantlets through in vitro culture system of Polygonatum odoratum.

A Study on Market Segmentation of Sales Promotion in the Family Restaurant - Focused on Sales Promotion of Strategic Alliances Benefits - (패밀리 레스토랑에서의 판매촉진에 의거한 세분시장에 관한 연구 - 전략적 제휴 혜택의 판매촉진을 중심으로 -)

  • Ha, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Si-Hyun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.531-544
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    • 2009
  • Strategic alliance is increasingly becoming a popular strategy in the family restaurant industry. In general, strategic alliance can be defined as several brands collaborating in technology development, marketing, or production while keeping their independence as separate business entities. This study identified segments on the basis of sales promotion resulting from strategic alliances between family restaurants and card companies. This study further investigated how brand image, brand value, price fairness, customer loyalty and demographics are different among the segments. From the statistical analysis, three segments were found; 'short-period benefits oriented' segment, 'intangible and discount benefits oriented' segment and 'free benefits oriented' segment. Among the three segments, the 'free benefits oriented' and 'intangible and discount benefits oriented' segments had greater perceived brand image, brand value and customer loyalty than the 'short-period benefits oriented' segment.

Improvement of Regeneration Efficiency from Mature Embryo and Leaf Base Segment in Korean Oat Genotypes

  • Kim Kyung-Hee;Moon Jung-Hun;Lee Sang-Kyu;Lee Byung-Moo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.349-353
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    • 2004
  • Mature embryo and leaf base segment of Korean oat were used as materials in an experiment to check plant regeneration efficiency. MS media supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, and picloram were used for callus induction from mature embryos and leaf base segments. Three mg/l of 2,4­D and 3 mg/l of picloram in callus induction medium showed high frequency for plant regeneration from mature embryos. Leaf base segments were transferred to callus induction medium and incubated at $25^{\circ}C$ in 16/8 hr light/dark cycle for 3 weeks. Callus induction from leaf base segments of Malgwiri showed high efficiency in medium containing 3 mg/l of 2,4-D and 1 mg/l of kinetin $(91.8\%)$. In case of Samhangwiri, the combinations of phytohormones did not show significant difference. Regeneration from leaf base segments showed high frequency in shoot medium containing 1 mg/l of antiauxin, tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 1 mg/l of 6-benzyladenine (BA). Calli induced from leaf base segments of Samhangwiri and Malgwiri in media containing 3 mg/l of 2,4-D and 3 mg/l of picloram showed high regeneration frequency. It appears that the callus initiation medium may be an important factor for subsequent plant regeneration.

Countermovement of the Segments During the Tae-kwon-do Roundhouse Kicking (태권도 돌려차기 시 분절들의 반동동작)

  • Hwang, In-Seong;Lee, Sung-Cheol;Lim, Jung
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.139-152
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    • 2004
  • Two subjects, an expert and a novice, were carefully selected based upon their foot speed. Three dimensional videography was used in the assessment of roundhouse kicking of the Tae-kwon-Do. The local reference frames were imbedded at the trunk, pelvis, thigh and shank. Anatomical angular displacement at the joints were measured by projecting the upper segment's local axes to the lower segment's local reference planes. The local axes again projected to the global reference frames and absolved each segment's movement. The peaks of the anatomical angular displacement curve assessed as the countermovements and the angular movements of the segments in the global space absolved in light of the occurrence of the countermovements. The expert showed larger and more countermovements than the novice at the all segments. The counterrnovement occured more clearly at the trunk than the hip and knee joint and during the preparative movement phase. These countermovements occurrence were due to either by turning upper or lower segments and controlled by the turning direction and sequence of the two nearby segments. It was revealed that the countermovements of the trunk during the preparative movement phase was the important factor of the power kicking.