• Title, Summary, Keyword: serum fatty acids composition

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Fatty Acid Intake, Serum Fatty acid Composition and Serum Se Concentration of Elementary School Children in Korea (우리나라 일부 초등학생의 지방산 섭취양상과 혈청 지방산 및 Selenium 수준에 관한 연구)

  • 이양자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.802-811
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    • 1999
  • The purposes of this study were to 1) examine the dietary patterns of fatty acids and the fatty acid composition in serum, 2) determine selenium (Se) concentrations, and 3) investigate how serum fatty acid compositon affects serum levels of Se in Korean elementary school children. The subjects consisted of 168 school children(82 boys & 86 girls) belonging to 1st through 6th grades, and their dietary assessment was evaluated. The serum fatty acid composition was analyzed by GLC, and the ICP/MS method was employed to measure serum Se concentration. Total average intake of PUFA, MUFA and SFA were 10.5g, 12.7g, 11.2g respectively. Total average dietary P/M/S ratio was 1.10/1.18/1.0. The average intake of $\omega$3 fatty acids and $\omega$6 fatty acids were 1.33g, 9.19g, respectively. The $\omega$6/$\omega$3ratio was 14.2 which is higher than the recommended range. In serum fatty acid composition, PUFA, MUFA, SFA were 40.6%, 28.1% and 31.6% respectively. The average $\omega$3 fatty acid composition was 3.80%, and the mean value of $\omega$6 series was 36.8%. The M/S ratio of girls was significantly higher than boy's in fatty acids intake and in serum composition. Mean Se concentration of total subjects was 416.7ug/l and it was significantly higher in the lower grades(1st-3rd)than in the upper grades(4th~6th, p<0.05). Although the mean serum Se concentration was negatively correlated with PUFA composition in total boys and girls, it was not significant. Serum Se concentration was negatively correlated with P/S ratio and C24:1 concentration(p<0.05). In addition, serum composition of $\omega$6 PUFA and C24:1 showed negative correlations with serum Se in only lower grades girl(1st~3rd), and further studies are needed to clarify in these phenomena. In conclusion, the mean serum Se concentration was significantly lower in upper grades (4th~6th)than in lower grades(1st~3rd) of elementary school children and was negatively correlated with P/S ratio of serum fatty acids. More detailed studies on relationship between Se and fatty acids are required.

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Correlation of Dietary and Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Serum Lipid Levels in Postmenopausal Women (폐경기 여성의 식이 지방산 및 혈청 인지질의 지방산 조성과 혈청 지질 농도의 관계)

  • Jung, Kyung-Ah;Kim, Sang-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.44 no.7
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of dietary and serum phospholipid fatty acids composition and serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women. Data about anthropometry, dietary intake, physical activities, serum lipid profile and serum phospholipid fatty acid composition were collected from eighty-five postmenopausal women. The subjects were classified as normocholesterolemia (NC), moderate hypercholesterolemia(MC) and phyperchollesterolemia(HC) according to their serum total cholesterol (TC) levels based on The Guideline for Korean Hyperlipidemia set/published by The Committee for Hyperlipidemia in Korea. The results were as follows. Total energy intake and the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure were positively related, while dietary fiber intake was negatively related, with serum TC level. Dietary fat intake was positively related with serum LDL-C level. Dietary cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake and the ratio of ingested saturated fat and cholesterol to calories (RISCC) were positively related, while the P/S ratio of dietary fat was negatively related, with serum TC and LDL-C levels. Serum phospholipid fatty acids composition was not significantly different among the three groups. SFA of serum phospholipid fatty acids was positively related, while P/S and M/S ratios of serum phospholipid fatiy acids were negatively correlated, with serum TC and LDL-C levels. We recommend that the dietary P/S ratio of postmenopausal women is increased by reducing their dietary SFA intake. With these changes in the diet, serum phospholipid fatty acid composition could be also changed, and serum lipids levels could be improved.

Influence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Serum Lipid Levels and Fatty Acids Composition in Middle-aged Men (중년 남성의 혈중지질농도 및 지방산조성에 영향을 미치는 요인 분석)

  • 이인열
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.315-323
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to investigate the serum lipid levels and fatty acid composition in middle-aged men and the influence of cardiovscular risk factors on them. Data for dietary intake, anthropometry , blood pressure, and general environmental factors were obtained and their relationship to serum lipid levels and fatty acid composition were analyzed in 303 healthy male subjects with a mean age of 43.8$\pm$6.4 years from June 1 to 22 , 1995. The prevalence of obesity was 26.7% by BMI and 11.2% by WHR criteria . The percentage of hypertensive subjects were 13.5% and 22.4% by systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Retinol, calcium , and roboflavin intakes were lower than the RDA for Koreans. The ratio of carbohydrate intake to total calories of the subjects was 70%. Ratios of P/M and n-6/n-3 were 1.02/1.05/1.00 and 11.1/1, respectively. The percentage of subjects who had serum TG, TC, LDL-C leves beyond the normal range were 19.5% , 13.5% and 8.6% respectively. Palmitic comprised 26.4% of serum total fatty acids, linoleic acid 19.4% and oleic acid 16.4. The waist circumference and ration of carbohydrate intake were related positively to TG level. Serum cholesterol level had positive relations with waist circumference, DBP, sugar intake, and income. There were positive relationships between SFA and bone fishes and vegetable oil intakes, MUFA and DBP while a negative a negative relationship was observed between PUFA and animal fat intake. Serum n-6 fatty acid was related negatively to carbohydrate intake and hot taste preference. N-3 fatty acid was related positively to fish intake and negatively to egg intake. These results suggest that to maintain adequate serum lipid levels and fatty acid composition, sugar, animal fat, and carbohydrate intakes have to be reduced, while consumption of vegetable oil and fish must be increased. It is also essential to control abdominal fat accumulation and blood pressure.

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Ecological Studies of Maternal-Infant Nutrition and Feeding in Urban Low Income Areas (도시 저속득층 지역의 모자 영양 및 섭식에 관한 생태학적 연구 -I. 임산부의 인체 계측, 식이 섭취 및 혈청 지질/지방산 조성 -)

  • 안홍석;박윤신;박성혜
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.201-214
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    • 1996
  • This study was aimed at evaluating the lipid status of 122 pregnant women, who were attending peripheral community clinics in low-income areas and were vulnerable in terms of public health, by anthropometric measurements, estimating dietary intakes and analyzing serum lipids content and fatty acids composition. Regarding the skinfold thickness, it has increased more significantly in suprailliac than in triceps, biceps, subscapular, which means body fat has been accumulated in central parts more than in distal parts of the pregnants. It is found that intakes of energy, protein, lipid and carbohydrate are desirable while calcium, zinc and copper are low and sodium is excessive. Regarding dietary fat intake, the energy $\%$ of fat was within the same range as RDA(20%) for adults, but energy $\%$ intake from each fatty acid was usually low, especially energy % of monoun-saturated fatty acid intake was below RDA for adult women. And intake ratio of $\omega$6$\omega$3 fatty acids was desirable. Accordingly, it is thought that dietary fat intake was balanced in quality. Serum lipids concentrations were increased with the length of pregnancy and were higher as compared with non-pregnant women. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially $\omega$6 fatty acids, have gradually decreased with the length of pregnancy. Serum lipids content and fatty acids composition were not greatly influenced by dietary fat but serum free fatty acid level was negatively related to energy, carbohydrate, fatty acids and cholesterol intake. On the basis of the above results, it can be predicted that lipid metabolism for mother and fetus is changed by pregnant status and multilateral research on maternal nutrition in terms of areas and income levels will have to be made. (Korean J Community Nutrition 1(2) : 201-214, 1996)

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Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Serum Lipids and Fatty Acid Composition of Serum Phospholipids in Men

  • Joo, Oh-Eun;Sook, Kwon-Jong;Kyung, Chang-Yu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.415-424
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    • 1997
  • Serum lipid levels and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids(PL) were investigated in 24 healthy male subjects who consumed either corn oil(CO) rich In linoleic acid(LA), perilla oil(PO) rich in $\alpha$-linolenic acid($\alpha$-LNA), or canola oil acid(OA) as a major fat source fir 5 weeks. The PO and the CNO groups showed significant(P <0.05) increases in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C) levels and in ratios of HDL- C/total cholesterol(TC) compared with initial values measured at the beginning of the study. Significantly(p <0.05) increased concentrations of serum triglycerides(TG) ware observed after 5 weeks of the CO based diet compared with both its intial value and the concentration observed after 5 weeks with the PO-based diet. fatty acid composition of serum PL reflected changes in dietary fatty acid composition and metabolism. Compared with the initial levels, significandy increased contents of eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) were observed in serum PL of the PO group and significantly increased contents of $\alpha$-LNA and EPA were observed in the CNO group. Arachidonic acid(AA) content of serum PL did not change in the CO group during the study period, although, the increase in LA was significant(P <0.05). Compared with the CO-based diet, both the PO and the CNO-based diets seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis by influencing the serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition of serum PL.

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Correlations between the Fatty Acid Composition of Serum Phospholipids and Blood Pressure

  • Lee, Yang-Cha-Kim;Shim, Yoo-Jin;Chung, Eun-Jung;Kim, Soo-Yeon;Yangsoo Jang;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2002
  • Studies of the relationship between the composition of serum fatty acids and blood pressure are complex and controversial. Fatty acids, important constituents of biological membranes, could potentially affect vasoreactivities including blood pressure. In this study the compositions of fatty acids in serum phospholipids were compared between three types of hypertensive subjects (men, pre-menopausal women, and post-menopausal women) and their respective nrmotensive controls. Serum lipids were extracted and phospholipids were separated by thin layer chromatography. The percentage of palmitic acid (16 : 0) in serum phospholipids was significantly higher and the percentage of stearic acid (18 : 0) was significantly lower in all three hypertensive groups, compared with their corresponding control groups. Only in the group of post-menopausal women, palmitic acid was closely associated wish increases in both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), while stearic acid was associated with decreases in both SBP and DBP. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids behaved differently from saturated fatty acids. The ratios of products / precursor fatty acids, such as $\sumLCPUFA\omega6/18 : 2\omega$6, 20 : 4$\omega$6/18 : 2$\omega$6, ∑LCPUFA$\omega$3/18 : 3$\omega$3 and 22 : 6$\omega$3/20 : 5$\omega$3, were all clearly associated with both SBP and DBP in hypertensive, post-menopausal women. Desaturation and elongation in fatty acid metabolism could affect the bioavailability of eicosanoid precursors. Changes in the constituent fatty acids of phospholipids and eicosanoid precursors may also influence fluidity, ionic transport, hormone receptors and enzyme activities in biological membranes. In conclusion, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in post-menopausal women was positively associated with the level of palmitic acid, and negatively associated with the level of stearic acid, in serum phospholipids. The relationships between serum phospholipid-$\omega$6 and $\omega$3 series fatty acids and blood pressure in women, especially in post-menopausal women, require further investigation by taking into consideration hormonal status and eicosanoid metabolism. Funker study is needed to determine the value of dietary manipulation of fatty acid constituents of serum phospholipids, relating to hypertension in women.

Ecological Studies of Maternal-Infant Nutrition and Feeding in Urban Low Income Areas -II. Anthropometric Measurements, Dietary Intakes, Breast Milk Components and Serum Lipid/Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Women- (도시 저소득층 지역의 모자 영양 및 섭식에 관한 생태학적 연구 -II. 수유부의 인체계측, 식이 섭취, 모유 성분 함량 및 혈청 지질/지방산 조성-)

  • 안홍석;박윤신;정지윤;박성혜
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.305-318
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    • 1997
  • This study was aimed at evaluating the nutritional status of Korean lactating women, who were attending peripheral community clinics in low-income areas, by anthropometric measurement, estimating dietary intakes and analyzing the contents of breast milk components, serum lipid content and fatty acid composition. Regarding anghropometric measurements, maternal circumferences decreased significantly at the trunk but not at the limbs. The skinfold thickness on all regions had the tendency to decrease during lactation. It was found that intakes of energy, protein, lipid and carbohydrates were desirable while calcium, zinc, copper and vitamin A were low and sodium was excessive. The energy $\%$of fat was 22.41$\%$of the total energy which is higher than the RDA for adults but it is proper for lactating women, but energy $\%$ from each fatty acid was usually low and an intake ratio of $\omega$6/$\omega$3 fatty acids was desirable. Accordingly, it is thought that dietary fat intake was balanced in quality. Concentrations of the nutrients in matured human milk showed the same range as that reported form different regions with the exception of calcium and magnesium which were relatively low. Serum lipid contents were decreased with the time postpartum and the average serum lipid content of lactating women were similar to the normal range of adults. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acids. especially $\omega$6 fatty acids have gradually increased with the time postpartum, but the composition were not greatly influenced by dietary intakes.

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Effects of Flaxseed Diets on Fattening Response of Hanwoo Cattle : 2. Fatty Acid Composition of Serum and Adipose Tissues

  • Kim, C.M.;Kim, J.H.;Chung, T.Y.;Park, K.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1246-1254
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    • 2004
  • Two separate trials were designed to determine effects of dietary level of whole flaxseed (WFS) on fatty acid composition of serum, and subcutaneous, perirenal, intermuscular, and intramuscular adipose tissues of Korean Hanwoo cattle. Twentyone bulls (trial 1) and 15 cows (trial 2) were assigned to diets containing 0, 10 or 15% WFS. Relative treatment effects were similar between bulls and cows. The proportion of C18:3 in serum and to a lesser extent in adipose tissues were increased by dietary inclusion of WFS, reflecting supplemented lipid composition of WFS that escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed WFS had a lower proportion of saturated fatty acids in serum and adipose tissues than animals fed diets without WFS, while the opposite trend was observed in unsaturated fatty acids with little differences between two WFS groups. WFS-fed animals had higher proportions of C18:1, 18:2, 18:3, 20:3, and 22:3 and lower proportions of C12:0, 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0 in intramuscular fat than animals fed diets without WFS. Furthermore, feeding WFS increased proportions of both $\omega$-3 and $\omega$-6 fatty acids but decreased the ratio of $\omega$-6/$\omega$-3 substantially. In conclusion, feeding WFS can be an effective method of increasing absorption of unsaturated fatty acids, and subsequent deposition in adipose tissues.

The Effect of Dietary n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fats on changes in Glucose, Non Esterified Fatty Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in Serum of Rat Exposed to Stress. (N-3계 및 N-6계 지방산 식이가 스트레스에 노출된 흰 쥐의 혈당과 혈청 유리지방산 및 지방산 조성변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 장문정
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.375-386
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    • 1995
  • This study was designed to investigate the changes in energy substrates, glucose and non-esterified fatty acid(NEFA), and fatty acid compositions in serum, following physiolgical stress in rats fed diets containing various fatty acids. Forty two Sprague-Dawley strain male rats, weighing 108$\pm$2.1g, were fed 3 different experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets were composed of 105 fat(w/w) of either corn oil(CO;18:2 n6:57%), plant perilla oil(PO;18:3 n3:59%), or tuna fish oil(FO;20:5 n3:17%%, 22:6 n3:19%). After 4 weeks of feeding, each group wa subdiveided into (a) control, (b) 2 min swim in ice-cold water. Animals wer decapitated 20min after commencing the swim; trunk blood, brain, liver and epididymal fat pad were obtained. The levels of serum corticosterone, glucose, NEFA, triglyceride, fatty acid compositions, brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were determined. Basal levels of corticosterone na NEFA of serum were significantly lower in fish oil fed animals than those of any other oil fed animals. Compared to either perilla oil-fed or corn oil-fed rats, cold swim stress in fish oil fed rats produced significantly smaller NEFA and larger corticosterone responses. However, there was no significant difference in basal levels of serum glucose. Stress increased serum glucose levels slightly, and the amount of increment was larger in fish oil rats than those of any other oil fed rats than those of any other oil fed rats, although all the values were normal level. Dietary fats and stress did not affect serotonin metabolism. In additions, the composition of fatty acids in serum was significantly affected by the dietary compostion of fatty acids and stress. Stress induced decreases in monounsaturated fatty acid and non-polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in either perilla oil fed or fish group, but did not in corn oil fed group. Stress resulted in changes in fatty acid metabolism similar to that associated with essential fatty acid(EFA) dificiency, when feeding animals n-3 fatty acids in diet. In conclusion, feeding fish oil was more effective to decrease NEFA in serum than feeding perilla oil or corn oil and improved lipid metabolism, when the rats were maintained in normal or exposed to stressful environment. However, the fact that feeding diet containing n-3 fatty acids decreased EFA status under stress suggests that the requirement of n-6 PUFA should be increased in these groups.

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Effects of $\omega$3 and $\omega$6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diets on Fatty Acid Composition and Vitamin E Levels in Milk and Serum of the Rat ($\omega$3계 및 $\omega$6계 지방산 식이가 흰쥐의 모유와 혈청의 지방산 성분 및 비타민 E 수준에 미치는 영향)

  • 황혜진
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.141-152
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    • 1994
  • The effects of feeding diets with different fatty acids on the composition of fatty acids and vitamin E status in maternal milk & serum and pup's serum were studied. Dietary fats(10% by wt) include on oil(CO), soybean oil(SO), perilla seed oil(PO : about 60% , C18 : 3 $\omega$3) and fish oil(FO : rich in C20 : 5$\omega$3, eicosapentaenoic acid = EPA & 22 : 6$\omega$3, docosahexaenoic acid = DHA), Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250g, were fed experimental diets from pregnancy through lactation period. Maternal milk was obtained by gentle squeezing after 30 minutes of oxytocin(0.2 IU, intraperitoneal) injection. The fatty acid compositions of milk and serum were analyzed at day-2 and day-15. The concentrations of vitamin E in maternal milk and serum and pup's serum were also analyzed. The groups of CO, SO and PO which had no DHA in their diet, contained DHA in their milk, The rations of EPA+DHA/arachidonic acid(AA) were higher in PO group than those in either CO or SO group. This seemed to be due not only to more conversion from C18 : 3$\omega$3 to C20 : 5$\omega$3 and C22 : 6$\omega$3 but also to inhibition of C18 : 2$\omega$6 conversion to C20 : 4$\omega$6. More DHA was found in day-2 milk than in day-15 milk. It was also noted that milk contained more DHA was found in day-2 milk than in day-15 milk. It was also noted that milk contained more DHA than serum and this difference was larger in day-2 than in day-15 milk. Even though the concentrations of vitamin E both in maternal serum and milk were lower in PO and FO groups fed highly unsaturated fat than in CO or SO groups, pup's serum did not show a significant difference among all the experimental groups indicating that the pups man secure their essential nutrients by the biomagnification mechanism.

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