• Title, Summary, Keyword: shear design

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Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Rice Plant (수도(水稻)의 역학적(力學的) 및 리올러지 특성(特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Huh, Yun Kun;Cha, Gyun Do
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.98-133
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    • 1987
  • The mechanical and rheological properties of agricultural materials are important for engineering design and analysis of their mechanical harvesting, handling, transporting and processing systems. Agricultural materials, which composed of structural members and fluids do not react in a purely elastic manner, and their response when subjected to stress and strain is a combination of elastic and viscous behavior so called viscoelastic behavior. Many researchers have conducted studies on the mechanical and rheological properties of the various agricultural products, but a few researcher has studied those properties of rice plant, and also those data are available only for foreign varieties of rice plant. This study are conducted to experimentally determine the mechanical and the rheological properties such as axial compressive strength, tensile strength, bending and shear strength, stress relaxation and creep behavior of rice stems, and grain detachment strength. The rheological models for the rice stem were developed from the test data. The shearing characteristics were examined at some different levels of portion, cross-sectional area, moisture content of rice stem and shearing angle. The results obtained from this study were summarized as follows 1. The mechanical properties of the stems of the J aponica types were greater than those of the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid in compression, tension, bendingand shearing. 2. The mean value of the compressive force was 80.5 N in the Japonica types and 55.5 N in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was about 70 percent to that of the Japonica types, and then the value increased progressively at the lower portion of the stems generally. 3. The average tensile force was about 226.6 N in the Japonica types and 123.6 N in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was about 55 percent to that of the Japonica types. 4. The bending moment was $0.19N{\cdot}m$ in the Japonica types and $0.13N{\cdot}m$ in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was 68 percent to that of the Japonica types and the bending strength was 7.7 MPa in the Japonica types and 6.5 MPa in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid respectively. 5. The shearing force was 141.1 N in Jinju, the Japonica type and 101.4 N in Taebaeg, the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was 72 percent to that of Jinju, and the shearing strength of Taebaeg was 63 percent to that of Jinju. 6. The shearing force and the shearing energy along the stem portion in Jinju increased progressively together at the lower portions, meanwhile in Taebaeg the shearing force showed the maximum value at the intermediate portion and the shearing energy was the greatest at the portion of 21 cm from the ground level, and also the shearing strength and the shearing energy per unit cross-sectional area of the stem were the greater values at the intermediate portion than at any other portions. 7. The shearing force and the shearing energy increased with increase of the cross-sectional area of the rice stem and with decrease of the shearing angie from $90^{\circ}$ to $50^{\circ}$. 8. The shearing forces showed the minimum values of 110 N at Jinju and of 60 N at Taebaeg, the shearing energy at the moisture content decreased about 15 percent point from initial moisture content showed value of 50 mJ in Jinju and of 30 mJ in Taebaeg, respectively. 9. The stress relaxation behavior could be described by the generalized Maxwell model and also the compression creep behavior by Burger's model, respectively in the rice stem. 10. With increase of loading rate, the stress relaxation intensity increased, meanwhile the relaxation time and residual stress decreased. 11. In the compression creep test, the logarithmic creep occured at the stress less than 2.0 MPa and the steady-state creep at the stress larger than 2.0 MPa. 12. The stress level had not a significant effect on the relaxation time, while the relaxation intensity and residual stress increased with increase of the stress level. 13. In the compression creep test of the rice stem, the instantaneous elastic modulus of Burger's model showed the range of 60 to 80 MPa and the viscosities of the free dashpot were very large numerical value which was well explained that the rice stem was viscoelastic material. 14. The tensile detachment forces were about 1.7 to 2.3 N in the Japonica types while about 1.0 to 1.3 N in Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid corresponding to 58 percent of Japonica types, and the bending detachment forces were about 0.6 to 1.1 N corresponding to 30 to 50 percent of the tensile detachment forces, and the bending detachment of the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid was 0.1 to 0.3 N which was 7 to 21 percent of Japonica types. 15. The detachment force of the lower portion was little bigger than that of the upper portion in a penicle and was not significantly affected by the harvesting period from September 28 to October 20. 16. The tensile and bending detachment forces decreased with decrease of the moisture content from 23 to 13 percent (w.b.) by the natural drying, and the decreasing rate of detachment forces along the moisture content was the greater in the bending detachment force than the tensile detachment force.

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Effects of Different Grazing Types of Hilly Pasture on Growth and Meat Quality in Organic Korean Black Goats (산지초지를 이용한 방목유형별이 유기흑염소의 발육과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • HwangBo, S.;Choi, S.H.;Kim, S.W.;Son, D.S.;Jeon, B.S.;Lee, S.H.;Jo, I.H.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.309-320
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of different types of hilly pasture grazing on growth and meat quality in organic Korean black goats, and to obtain basic data for the production of organic goats. A total of 40 goats with similar age and BW were equally allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments included grazing types of four different hilly pastures; T1: forages types, T2: organic forages types, T3: native plants types, and T4: browse types, respectively. The trial lasted for 174 days from 15th of May to 5th of November, 2007 in Livestock Genetic Resources Experiment Station, National Institute of Animal Sciences. At the end of trial, all animals were slaughtered to analyze carcass characteristics and meat quality. Average daily gain was significantly (p<0.05) higher for T1 treatments than for others. Dressing percentage was significantly (p<0.05) higher for T1 and T2 than for T3 and T4 treatments. Meat percentage of T1 treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. For meat properties, crude fat content was highest in T3 treatments. Linoleate (18:2n6) and linolenate (18:3n3) contents tended to be higher in T1 than those of other treatments, while arachidonate (20:4n6) content tended to be higher in T3 and T4 than that of other treatments. Shear force was lower (p<0.05) for T3 than other treatments. For sensory results, juiciness and tenderness tended to be greater (p<0.05) in T2 and T3, and flavour tended to be greater (p<0.05) in T3 and T4. The results indicated that grazing in hilly pastures for organic Korean black goats was somewhat less in their performances and carcass characteristics, but not behind in the meat quality and physical characteristics as compared with the conventional regimen. Therefore, it would be expected that goats grazing in hilly pastures made it possible to produce organic animal products with a high safety and also might lead to increase of breeders income and consumers satisfaction.

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Cyclic Behavior of Wall-Slab Joints with Lap Splices of Coldly Straightened Re-bars and with Mechanical Splices (굽힌 후 편 철근의 겹침 이음 및 기계적 이음을 갖는 벽-슬래브 접합부의 반복하중에 대한 거동)

  • Chun, Sung-Chul;Lee, Jin-Gon;Ha, Tae-Hun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2012
  • Steel Plate for Rebar Connection was recently developed to splice rebars in delayed slab-wall joints in high-rise building, slurry wall-slab joints, temporary openings, etc. It consists of several couplers and a thin steel plate with shear key. Cyclic loading tests on slab-wall joints were conducted to verify structural behavior of the joints having Steel Plate for Rebar Connection. For comparison, joints with Rebend Connection and without splices were also tested. The joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection showed typical flexural behavior in the sequence of tension re-bar yielding, sufficient flexural deformation, crushing of compression concrete, and compression rebar buckling. However, the joints with Rebend Connection had more bond cracks in slabs faces and spalling in side cover-concrete, even though elastic behavior of the joints was similar to that of the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. Consequently, the joints with Rebend Connection had less strengths and deformation capacities than the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. In addition, stiffness of the joints with Rebend Connection degraded more rapidly than the other joints as cyclic loads were applied. This may be caused by low elastic modulus of re-straightened rebars and restraightening of kinked bar. For two types of diameters (13mm and 16mm) and two types of grades (SD300 and SD400) of rebars, the joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection had higher strength than nominal strength calculated from actual material properties. On the contrary, strengths of the joints with Rebend Connection decreased as bar diameter increased and as grade becames higher. Therefore, Rebend Connection should be used with caution in design and construction.

Effects of Concentrate Feeding Method and Slaughter Age on Growth Performance, Feed Intake and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (거세한우 배합사료 급여방법 및 출하월령이 발육, 사료섭취량 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Young-Moo;Chang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Kim, Tae-Il;Park, Byung-Ki;Paek, Bong-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Kwon, Eung-Gi
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2009
  • Thirty one Hanwoo steers were used in a completely randomized design experiment to see the effects of concentrate feeding method (group vs. individual feeding) and age at slaughter (26 vs. 28 months of age) on growth performance, feed intake and carcass characteristics. Steers were randomly assigned to one of four groups, G26 (group feeding slaughtered at 26 months of age), G28 (group feeding slaughtered at 28 months of age), I26 (individual feeding slaughtered at 26 months of age) or I28 (individual feeding slaughtered at 28 months of age). Amount of concentrate were restricted to 1.5% of BW for the growing period and 1.8% of BW for the early fattening period in both groups. For the late fattening period, concentrate were given ad libitum for G26 and G28, but were given up to 1.7% of BW for I26 and I28. Average daily gains were higher in individual feeding groups (I26 and I28) than those in group feeding groups (G26 and G28) for the early fattening period (p<0.05). ADGs were higher in group feeding groups than those in individual feeding groups (p<0.05). Concentrate intake in individual feeding groups tended to be higher compared to that in group feeding groups for the early fattening period, but tended to be higher in group feeding groups compared to that in individual feeding groups for the late fattening period. Feeding method or slaughter age had no significant effects on carcass characteristics, yield grade and quality grade. Shear force and tenderness of longissmus muscle were higher in groups slaughtered at 28 months of age than in groups slaughtered at 26 months of age (p<0.05). Feeding method or slaughter age had no effects on cooking loss, water holding capacity, juiciness, flavor, moisture, protein and fat of longissmus muscle.

Effects of Dietary Concentrate Levels Based on Whole-Crop Barley Silage on Growth and Meat Quality in Growing Korean Black Goats (청보리 사일리지 급여 시에 농후사료 급여수준이 육성기 흑염소의 발육과 육질에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Bo-Soon;Choi, Sun-Ho;Kim, Sang-Woo;Kim, Won-Ho;Son, Dong-Soo;Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.527-534
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    • 2008
  • Effects of dietary concentrate levels based on whole-crop barley silage (BS) on development and meat quality in growing Korean black goats were examined. A total of 36 male goats with similar age and BW were equally allocated to dietary four treatments in a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments included controls(rice straw ad libitum plus 2.0% concentrate BW-1), and BS ad libitum plus three increasing levels of concentrate BW-1(2.0, 1.5 and 1.0%, respectively), expressed as BS 2.0, BS 1.5 and BS 1.0, respectively. The trial was lasted for 5 months from 14th of May to 12th of October, 2007. At the end of trial, all animals were slaughtered to analyze carcass characteristics and meat quality. Average daily gain was significantly(p<0.05) higher for BS 1.5 and BS 2.0 treatments than for controls. Daily feed intakes for controls(689.3 g) were significantly(p<0.05) higher than those of BS 1.0(585.5 g), but they were significantly(p<0.05) lower than BS 2.0(734.3 g). Carcass and meat percentages were significantly (p<0.05) higher for BS 2.0 and BS 1.5 than for control and BS 1.0 treatments. Shear force and water-holding capacity was greater(p<0.05) for BS 2.0 and BS 1.5 than other treatments. On the basis of feeding whole-crop barley silage to Korean black goats, as dietary concentrate inclusion levels increased, sensory results showed to have a better tendency. In conclusion, it was estimated that the optimal level of dietary concentrates might be 1.5% BW-1, when diets based whole-crop barley silage were fed to growing Korean black goats for their improvements of growth and meat quality.

Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Amino Acid Contents on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Korean Native Ducks (사료의 조단백질 및 아미노산 함량이 토종오리의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Hyung Joo;Choo, Yun Kyung;Oh, Sung Taek;Kim, Hak Kyu;Kang, Chang Won;An, Byoung Ki
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2013
  • This study was undertaken to assess dietary crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) concentrations for growth performance and carcass characteristics in Korean native ducks. In a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement, 1-d-old Korean native male ducks were allotted to 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets contained 23 or 21% CP with 1.31/1.09, 1.21/1.00, 1.11/0.91 and 1.11/0.91, 1.02/0.83, 0.92/0.75 AA (Lysine/Total sulfur amino acid, Lysine/TSAA), respectively, from 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, experimental diets had 19 or 17% of diet; each contained 1.00/0.79, 0.94/0.75, 0.88/0.71 and 0.88/0.71, 0.82/0.67, 0.76/0.63 AA (Lysine/TSAA), respectively. Each dietary treatment has 6 replicates and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight (BW), feed intake and uniformity were measured at 3 wk and 8 wk and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 8 wk of age. As CP increased from 21 to 23%, the BW and BW gain significantly increased (P<0.05) during 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, BW, feed intake, BW gain, feed conversion rations (FCR) and uniformity were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. Carcass yield and relative weights of liver, spleen, right breast and leg per 100 of BW were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. The meat color, shear force value, cooking loss and pH were not affected by dietary treatments (P<0.05). Korean native ducks require relatively low levels of dietary CP and AA for late growth and carcass yield due to low daily weight gain. This suggests the possible differences in CP and AA needs between Korean native ducks and commercial breeds from foreign breeding companies, especially late growth stage.

Effect of Dietary Metabolizable Energy and Crude Protein Concentrations on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Korean Native Ducks (사료의 에너지 및 조단백질 함량이 토종오리의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hong-Rae;Kwon, Hyung-Joo;Oh, Sung-Taek;Yun, Jeong-Geun;Choi, Young-In;Choo, Yun-Kyung;Kang, Bo-Seok;Kim, Hak-Kyu;Hong, Eui-Chul;Kang, Chang-Won;An, Byoung-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2012
  • This study was undertaken to assess dietary CP and ME concentrations for optimum growth performance and carcass characteristics of Korean Native male ducks. In a $3{\times}3$ factorial arrangement, 1-d-old Korean Native male ducks were completely randomized design to experimental diets with 3,000, 2,900, and 2,800 kcal of ME/kg of diet; each contained 23, 22, and 21% CP, respectively, from 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, experimental diets had 3,100, 3,000, and 2,900 kcal of ME/kg of diet, and each contained 19, 18, and 17% CP, respectively. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight, feed intake and uniformity were measured at 3 wk and 8 wk, and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 8 wk. As CP increased from 21 to 23 %, the body weight, BW gain and feed conversion ratios (FCR) linearly improved (P<0.01) during 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, the body weight, feed intake, BW gain, FCR and uniformity were not different (P>0.05). Carcass ratios of birds fed 3,000 kcal of ME/kg diets from 3 to 8 wk of age were quadratically increased significantly (P<0.01). As ME and CP increased, respectively, relative weight of liver weight per 100 g of BW was linearly decreased (P<0.01). Relative weights of left breast, thigh and drumstick weight per 100 of BW were not different (P>0.05). Also, breast meat color, pH, cooking loss and shear force were not different (P>0.05). Thus, diets with 2,800 kcal of ME/kg and 23% CP or with 2,900 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP at 0 to 3 wk and 4 to 8 wk, respectively, were used more efficiently. However, diets with 3,000 kcal of ME/kg at 4 to 8 wk in carcass rate was quadratically increased.

Cyclic Seismic Performance of RBS Weak-Axis Welded Moment Connections (RBS 약축 용접모멘트접합부의 내진성능 평가)

  • Lee, Cheol Ho;Jung, Jong Hyun;Kim, Sung Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2015
  • In steel moment frames constructed of H-shapes, strong-axis moment connections should be used for maximum structural efficiency if possible. And most of cyclic seismic testing, domestic and international, has been conducted for strong-axis moment connections and cyclic test data for weak-axis connections is quite limited. However, when perpendicular moment frames meet, weak-axis moment connections are also needed at the intersecting locations. Especially, both strong- and weak-axis moment connections have been frequently used in domestic practice. In this study, cyclic seismic performance of RBS (reduced beam section) weak-axis welded moment connections was experimentally investigated. Test specimens, designed according to the procedure proposed by Gilton and Uang (2002), performed well and developed an excellent plastic rotation capacity of 0.03 rad or higher, although a simplified sizing procedure for attaching the beam web to the shear plate in the form of C-shaped fillet weld was used. The test results of this study showed that the sharp corner of C-shaped fillet weld tends to be the origin of crack propagation due to stress concentration there and needs to be trimmed for the better weld shape. Different from strong-axis moment connections, due to the presence of weld access hole, a kind of CJP butt joint is formed between the beam flange and the horizontal continuity plate in weak-axis moment connections. When weld access hole is large, this butt joint can experience cyclic local buckling and subsequent low cycle fatigue fracture as observed in this testing program. Thus the size of web access hole at the butt joint should be minimized if possible. The recommended seismic detailing such as stickout, trimming, and thicker continuity plate for construction tolerance should be followed for design and fabrication of weak-axis welded moment connections.

Effects of Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Meat and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs (구리 및 아연의 수준별 급여가 비육돈의 생산성, 영양소 소화율, 육질 및 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Y.H.;Kim, H.J.;Park, J.C.;Jung, H.J.;Cho, J.H.;Chen, Y.J.;Yoo, J.S.;Kim, I.C.;Lee, S.J.;Kim, I.H.
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 72 $(Landrace{\times}Yorkshire{\times}Duroc)$ pigs (58.47 kg initial BW) were assigned to 6 treatments in a $2{\times}3$ factorial design $(Zn\;levels{\times}Cu\;levels)$. The sources of zinc and copper were Zn-methionine chelate and Cu-methionine chelate, respectively. Zinc levels used were 80 and 120 ppm and copper levels used were 10, 30 and 60 ppm. Throughout the entire experimental period, the average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were not significantly affected by Cu or Zn levels, or their relative levels. The G:F ratio was significantly affected by the relative levels of Cu and Zn (p<0.05), specifically at 30 ppm Cu and 120 ppm Zn. Dry matter digestibility was significantly affected by the levels of Cu (p<0.02), Zn (p<0.01) and the relative levels of each (p<0.04), in particular at 30 ppm Cu and 120 ppm Zn. Nitrogen digestibility was significantly affected by Zn levels (p<0.01) and the combination of 30 ppm Cu and 120 ppm Zn (p<0.03). The $L^*-value$, shear force, cooking loss and pH were not significantly affected by Cu levels, Zn levels or their combination. The $a^*- (p<0.04)\;and\;b^*- values (p<0.01)$ were significantly affected by Zn levels at 80 ppm. The Water hoding capacity was significantly affected by Cu and Zn in combination (p<0.01) at 10 ppm Cu and 120ppm Zn. The carcass weight, backfat thickness and carcass grade were not significantly affected by Cu levels, Zn levels or their relative levels. The carcass percentage was significantly affected by the combination (p<0.04) of 30ppm Cu and 120ppm Zn. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Cu and Zn at 30 and 120 ppm, respectively, is effective for feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility and carcass percentage, while at the levels of Cu at 10 ppm and Zn at 120 ppm have effects on WHC.