• Title, Summary, Keyword: simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE)

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Analysis of Enantiomeric Composition of Chiral Flavor Components from Dried Ginger (Zingiber afficinale Roscoe) (건생강에 함유된 키랄성 향기성분의 이성질체 조성 분석)

  • Seo, Hye-Young;No, Ki-Mi;Shim, Seong-Lye;Ryu, Keun-Young;Han, Kyu-Jae;Gyawali, Rajendra;Kim, Kyong-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.874-880
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    • 2006
  • The volatile compounds of Zingiber officinale Roscoe were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified with gas chromatigraphy/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis. Enantiomeric compositions of chiral compounds were determined by multidimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (MDGC/MS). A total of 57 compounds were indentified and quantified, including zingiberene, ${\beta}-sesquiphellandrene$, ${\beta}-bisabolene$, $(E,E)-{\alpha}-farnesene$ and ${\alpha}-curcumene$. Among them, zingiberene (38.41%) was founds as the predominantly abundant component. ${\alpha}-Pinene$ and nerolidol in dried ginger were detected by high enantiomeric purity (>96%) for (S)-form, and ${\beta}-pinene$ was detected only (R)-form. The enantiomeric composition of ${\alpha}-terpineol$ revealed 72.0% for (R)-form, and linalool and 4-terpineol showed mixtures of both enantiomers. (S)-Enantiomer was the major enantiomer of limonene having enatiomeric excess of 17.2%. Hence the enantiomeric composition of these compounds can be used as parameter for authenticty control of Zingiber officinale.

Volatile Compounds of Chonggugjang Prepared by Different Fermentation Methods and Soybean Cultivars (발효방법 및 대두품종을 달리한 청국장의 향기성분)

  • Yoo, Seon-Mi;Kim, Haeng-Ran;Kim, Jin-Sook;Chang, Chang-Moon;Choe, Jeong-Sook
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 1999
  • This study was attempted to develop technique of masking the pungent odor of chonggugjang using two-stage fermentation method with mixed pure cultures. Cooked soybeans were fermented with Lactobacilli or Aspergillus oryzae at $38^{\circ}C$ for 36 hrs, and then re-fermented with Bacillus subtilis for 12 hrs. The volatile compounds of chonggugjang were obtained with a SDE(Simultaneous steam Distillation and solvent Extraction) system and the extracts were identified by GC and GC-MS. The experimental results revealed the presence of 35 volatile compounds in control chonggugjang(only Bacillus subtilis inoculation). Among them, the major volatile compounds were 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine and 2-methyl pyrazine. Twenty-nine kinds of volatile compounds were in chonggugjang prepared by two-stage fermentation method with Lactobacilli and Bacillus subtilis(II), and major volatile compounds were identified to be 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine and 2,5-dimethyl Pyrazine. In chonggugjang(Asp. oryzae and then Bacillus subtilis inoculation(III)), the contents of hexadecanoic acid and 2-methyl pyrazine were patricularly high and the main components of chonggugjang fermented with rice straw(IV) were 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine etc. In conclusion, the flavor compounds such as 2, 5-dimethyl pyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine and 2-methyl pyrazine were increased by the inoculation of Lactobacilli or Asp. oryzae, where as unpleasant odor components-butyric acid and valeric acid were decreased. Compared with volatile compounds of chonggugjang made from different soybean cultivars, the flavor compounds (2-methyl pyrazine 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine 2,6-dimethyl pyrazine 2,3-dimethyl pyrazine 2-acetyl pyrazine 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl pyrazine) of chonggugiang prepared with Sinpaldalkong were high.

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Functional and Volatile Flavor Components in Myungtae(Alaska pollack) sikhae (마른명태 식해의 향기성분과 기능성)

  • Koo, Tae-Ho;Zhang, Yun-Bin;Choi, Hee-Jin;Woo, Hi-Seoh;Son, Gyu-Mok;Choi, Cheong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.535-542
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    • 2002
  • The volatile compounds of Myungtae (Alaska pollack) sikhae obtained by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction(SDE) apparatus were separated by gas chromatography(GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry(GC/MS). The totals of 155 volatile flavor components was identified in traditional Kyungsangdo Myungtae (Alaska pollack) sikhae, respectively. ${\alpha}$-Zingihirene(11.03%) (E)-di-2-propenyl disulfide(7.95%) ${\beta}$-cironellol(6.02%), methyl allyl disulfide(3.58%), cryptone(3.39%), camphene(3.23%), pentanol(3.21%), penadecanal(2.66%) and ${\beta}$-phellandrene(2.06%) were contained as the main compounds of Myungtae shikae. The fraction obtained from sikhae were tested for electron donating ability, angiotensin converting enzyme and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. There was no electron donating abilities$(SC_{50})$ of hexane and water fraction. On the other hand, the abilities of ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction showed $310.64\;{\mu}g/mL,\;1096.49\;{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities$(IC_{50})$ of ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction were 1.623 mg/mL, 1.303 mg/mL, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities$(IC_{50})$ of ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction were 3.591 mg/mL, 2.083 mg/mL, respectively.

Volatile Flavor Compounds of Korean Native Lilium (한국 자생나리의 휘발성 향기성분)

  • Choi Sung-Hee;Im Sungim;Jang Eun-Young;Kim Kiu-Weon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.548-552
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    • 2005
  • Volatile fragrance components in 5 kinds of Korean native Lilium were investigated and compared. The volatile components were extracted by SDE (simultaneous steam distillation and extraction) and identified by CC and GC-MS. As a result of the analysis of volatile aromatic ingredient of L. leichtlinii var. tigrinum Nickels., L. concolor var. parthneion Bak., L. tsingtauense Gilg., L. hansonii Leichtl., and L. amabile Palibin., using frozen materials, 60 kinds of volatile compound were identified, which were 28 aldehydes, 9 ketones, 8 alcohols, 5 esters, 5 acids, 3 furans and 2 others. The GC patterns of the aroma components of all samples resembled but the peak areas were different according to species, though all of them are Korean native Liliums.

Comparison of volatile flavor compounds of yuzu, kumquat, lemon and lime (유자, 금귤, 레몬 및 라임의 휘발성 향기성분의 비교)

  • Hong, Young Shin;Lee, Ym Shik;Kim, Kyong Su
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.394-405
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to confirm the usefulness of essential oil components in yuzu and kumquat cultivated in Korea for comparison with those in lemon and lime. The volatile flavor compounds in citrus fruits (yuzu, kumquat, lemon and lime) were extracted for 3 h with 100 mL redistilled n-pentane/diethylether (1:1, v/v) mixture, using a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction apparatus (SDE). The volatile flavor compositions of the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The aroma compounds analyzed were 104 (3,713.02 mg/kg) in yuzu, 87 (621.71 mg/kg) in kumquat 103 (3,024.69 mg/kg) in lemon and 106 (2,209.16 mg/kg) in lime. Limonene was a major volatile flavor compound in four citrus fruits. The peak area of limonene was 35.03% in yuzu, 63.82% in kumquat, 40.35% in lemon, and 25.06% in lime. In addition to limonene, the major volatile flavor compounds were ${\gamma}$-terpinene, linalool, ${\beta}$-myrcene, (E)-${\beta}$-farnesene, ${\alpha}$-pinene and ${\beta}$-pinene in yuzu, and ${\beta}$-myrcene, ${\alpha}$-pinene, (Z)-limonene oxide, (E)-limonene oxide, geranyl acetate and limonen-10-yl acetate in kumquat. Furthermore, ${\gamma}$-terpinene, ${\beta}$-pinene, ${\beta}$-myrcene, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate and (Z)-${\beta}$-bisabolene in lemon and ${\gamma}$-terpinene, ${\beta}$-pinene, (Z)-${\beta}$-bisabolene, neral, geranial and neryl acetate in lime were also detected. As a result, it was confirmed that the composition of volatile flavor compounds in four citrus fruits was different. Also, yuzu and kumquat are judged to be worthy of use alternatives for lemon and lime widely used in the fragrance industry.

Comparison of Volatile Components in Organs of Ocimum basilicum L. cultivated in Korea (국내 재배 바질의 품종간 부위별 휘발성 성분 비교)

  • Ahn, Dai-Jin;Lee, Jae-Gon;Kim, Mi-Ju;Lee, Jong-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.130-138
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to compare volatile components from the ten kinds of basils cultivated in Korea. The ten kinds of basils were separated flower, leaf, and stem part from whole plants, respectively. All sample separated were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction method(SDE) and were analyzed by gas chromatography(GC) and mass selective detector(MSD). Total 42 components were identified in essential oils including 11 alcohols, 6 carbonyls, 20 hydrocarbons and 5 esters components. The major components were linalool, methyl chavicol, eugenol, trans-methyl cinnamate, ${\beta}-cubebene$ and 1,8-cineole. The content of linalool was high significantly in the flower$(31.8{\sim}53.0%)$, the leaf and stem showed $21.8{\sim}35.8%$ and $3.5{\sim}22.4%$, respectively. Especially, the content of methyl chavicol was high relatively in the leaf$(0.4{\sim}32.9%)$, the flower and stem showed $0.2{\sim}24.1%$ and $0{\sim}2.2%)$, respectively. Articock, figz, glove, and greek basils were rich in eugenol$(18.8{\sim}48.7%)$ and poor in methyl chavicol$(0{\sim}5.4%)$ when compared with others kinds of basils. The composition of the components identified showed quite difference between kinds of basils, and the number of components identified in stem was much less than that in flower and leaf

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Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Volatile Flavor Extract from Herbal Medicinal Prescriptions Including Cnidium officinale Makino and Angelica gigas Nakai (천궁 및 당귀를 함유한 한방처방제 휘발성 향기추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Leem, Hyun-Hee;Kim, Eun-Ok;Seo, Mi-Jae;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.199-210
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to develop functional sources of herbal cosmetics for treatment of skin aging and inflammatory disorders using volatile flavor extracts of four different herbal medicinal prescriptions including Cnidium officinale Makino (COM), Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN), Mentha arvense L. (MAL), Artemisiae argyi Folium (AAF), Paeonia lactiflora Pall (PLP), Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (RRP), Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG), Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PGM), Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (GUF). The volatile flavor extracts of four different herbal medicinal prescriptions (HH-1: COM, AGN, PLP, RRP, HH-2: COM, AGN, PLP, RRP, SBG, PGM, GUF, HH-3: COM, AGN, MAL, AAF, HH-4: COM, AGN, MAL, AAF, SBG, PGM, GUF) were extracted using SDE and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were measured by using DPPH radical and SLO, respectively. As a result, HH-2 showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (68.24 %) and the strongest SLO inhibitory activity (83.96 %) at 100 ${\mu}g$/mL. Moreover, HH-2 of four different prescriptions significantly inhibited NO production on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner without considerable cell cytotoxicity at range of 2.0 ~ 50 ${\mu}g$/mL. Additionally, HH-2 also effectively suppressed the production of $PGE_2$ and IL-6, which are responsible for promoting the inflammatory process. Major volatile components of HH-2 were identified as eugenol, paeonol, butyl phthalide, ${\beta}$-eudesmol and butylidene dihydrophthalide by GC-MS analysis. Thus, these results suggest that HH-2 may be useful as a potential source of anti-inflammatory agents in herbal medicinal cosmetics.

Effects of Drying Conditions on the Profile of Volatile Terpenoid and Colour of Schizandra Fruit(Schizandra Chinensis fructus) (건조 조건이 오미자의 휘발성 terpene류 및 색도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yun-Je;Lee, Young-Guen;Choi, Young-Whan;Kim, Yong-Chul
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.1066-1071
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    • 2008
  • Schizandra fruit (Schizandra chinensis fructus) were dried by three processes, $50^{\circ}C$ (50HAD), $70^{\circ}C$ hot air (70HAD) and freeze drying process (FRD). Terpenoid were collected by SDE(Simultaneous Steam Distillation-Extraction) and followed by GC-MSD analysis. Also colour profile of each dried samples were measured by Hunter colorimeter. From fresh schizandra fruit, were detected 15 kinds of monoterpene, 28 kinds of sesquiterpene and 7 kinds of terpene alcohol. Myrcene(56.97 ${\mu}g/g$) and ${\gamma}$-terpinene(58.49 ${\mu}g/g$) were the major monoterpenes, ${\beta}$-elemene(120.16 ${\mu}g/g$), ${\alpha}$-bergamotene (103.45 ${\mu}g/g$), ${\gamma}$-selinene (75.97 ${\mu}g/g$), ${\beta}$-cubebene(66.69 ${\mu}g/g$), aristolene (51.25 ${\mu}g/g$) and ${\alpha}$-ylangene(28.06 ${\mu}g/g$) were the sesquiterpenes, and T-muurolol (96.45 ${\mu}g/g$) and terpinen-4-ol(46.02 ${\mu}g/g$) were the terpene alcohols. The dried samples lost more than half of terpenoid content of fresh schizandra fruit during early stage of drying process, and then the level of terpenoid content was not significantly changed. The content of sesquiterpenes appeared to increase until 6 day of FRD. The amount of residual terpene alcohols contained in schizandra fruit dried by FRD was more than those remained after drying by other processes, and schizandra fruit dried by 70HAD exhibited the least residual terpene alcohols. Brightness parameter $L^{\ast}$ decreased with the rise in the level of drying temperature, to which redness parameter $a^{\ast}$ and yellowness $b^{\ast}$ appeared to be similar.

Aroma Characteristics of Byeolmijang with Optional Ingredients (부재료 첨가에 따른 별미장의 향기특성)

  • Woo, Koan-Sik;Han, Seo-Young;Yoon, Hyang-Sik;Lee, Jun-Soo;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Kim, Haeng-Ran
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.738-746
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    • 2006
  • Aroma compounds in four different Byeolmijang made from optional ingredient addition were extracted by SDE (simultaneous steam distillation extraction) and analyzed with GC (gas chromatography) and GC/MS (mass-spectrometry). The major aroma compounds in the four different Byeolmijang during aging were 1-octene-3-ol, hexanal, benzeneacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, fufural, pyrazine, furan and phenol type compounds. Generally, benzeneacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, fufural and phenol type compounds were increased during aging. On the other hand, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal and furan were decreased during aging. Furfural, 2-furanmathanol and benzeneacetaldehyde in Sanghwangjang, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenol and 1H-indole in Mujang, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol and 2,4-decadienal in Bizijang and hexanal, tetramethylpyrazine and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol in Jigeumjang were identified as major aroma compounds, respectively. Generally, the major aroma compound in four different Byeolmijang with optional ingredient was similar with control and pyrazine, furan and phenol type compounds were decreased to addition with optional ingredient. The major aroma compound in Sanghwangjang with optional ingredient (onion) were 1-hexanol and 2,5-dimethylthiophene and the major aroma compounds were 1,2,4-trithiolane and 2-buthyl-2-octenal in Mujang with optional ingredient (Letinus edodes). Furfural, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde, 1,2,4-trithiolane and lenthionine were detected in Bizijang due to the addition of powdered Letinus edodes. Linaool and ${\beta}-lonone$ were detected in Jigeumjang due to the addition of powdered red pepper.

Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds from the Leaves of Eucommia ulmoides (두충잎의 휘발성 향기성분 분석)

  • 이미순;정미숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.359-366
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to analyze the volatile flavor compounds of Eucommia ulmoides leaves as influenced by harvesting time and drying method. Essential oils of fresh, air-dried and freeze-dried leaves of Eucommia ulmoides were extracted by SDE(simultaneous steam distillation and extraction) method using pentane and diethyl ether(1:1), and their volatile flavor compounds were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Total 51 components, including 10 hydrocarbons, 15 alcohols, 12 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 esters and 6 acids were identified in fresh Eucommia ulmoides harvested in July. In fresh samples harvested in September, 15 hydrocarbons, 10 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 4 ketones, 4 esters and 3 acids were identified. In fresh Eucommia ulmoides, aldehydes(8.25ppm) were the most abundant compounds in July samples and alcohols(18.87ppm) in September ones. Seventy one components, including 21 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 12 aldehydes, 9 ketones, 5 esters, 8 acids and 4 miscellaneous ones were identified in air-dried samples harvested in July. In air-dried samples harvested in September, 10 hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 4 esters, 4 acids and 1 miscellaneous one were identified, and the most abundant compounds in July and September samples were hydrocarbons at 5.06ppm and 15.11ppm, respectively. A total of 41 components, including 13 hydrocarbons, 9 alcohols, 5 aldehydes, 3 ketones, 6 esters and 5 acids were identified in freeze-dried samples harvested in July. Freeze-dried samples harvested in August also contained 41 components but with different types, and the ones of September 26 compounds. In freeze-dried ones, hydrocarbons were the most abundant compounds in July sample and esters in August and September samples.

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