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Effects of Soy Protein on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density in Growing Male Rats (콩단백질이 성장기 수컷흰쥐에서 골함량과 골밀도에 미치는 영향)

  • 최미자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.409-413
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to determine to which differences in the source of protein (soy vs casein) and of isoflavones in soy protein are responsible for differential effects of bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Thirty 21-d-old Sprague-Dawley young rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group was find a casein-based diet, the soy concentrate group was fed soy protein with totally reduced isoflavones content (isoflavone 0.07 mg/g protein), and soy isolate group was fed with a higher isoflavone content (isoflavone 3.4 mg/g protein) than normal. The animal was scanned to determine the BMD and BMC using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, Lunar Corporation, Madison, WI). The soy concentrate group had significantly higher total body calcium/weight and total mineral content/weight than the casein group. The soy isolate group had significantly greater total bone mineral density/weight, spine bone mineral density/weight, and femoral bone mineral density (in g/$\textrm{cm}^2$ than the control and soy concentrate group. The findings of this study suggest that soy protein and isoflavones in soy protein are beneficial for bone-formation in growing male rats. Therefore exposure to these soy protein and isoflavones early in life may have long-term health benefits for bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

Effect of Soy Protein Hydrolyzate on Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Activity in the Rat (대두단백가수분해물이 흰쥐의 지질대사와 항산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Yoon-Hee;Park, Sang-Kyu;Kim, Hye-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soy protein hydrolyzate on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity in the rat. Thirty-eight male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were divided into five groups: casein, isolated soy protein (ISP), seoritae protein hydrolyzate (SH), soluble soy protein hydrolyzate (SS), and insoluble soy protein hydrolyzate (IS). The control diet (casein group) contained 20% casein protein and experimental diet contained 10% casein and 10% isolated soy-protein or soy-protein hydrolyzate. Fecal lipid content was increased and lipid apparent absorption rate was decreased significantly by the ISP group at the first week of experimental period. Blood triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI) were decreased by soy protein hydrolyzate groups than casein group. Liver total lipid, triglyceride and cholesterol were not different among groups, but showed decreasing tendencies in soyprotein hydrolyzate groups. The lipid lowering effect was prominent in the IS group among soy protein hydrolyzate groups. Total antioxidant activity showed increasing tendency in the seoritae hydrolyzate group. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activities also showed higher tendencies in the seoritae hydrolyzate group than other groups. In conclusion, insoluble soyprotein hydrolyzate was more effective in lowering body lipids and seoritae hydrolyzate had higher antioxidant capacity among soy protein hydrolyzates.

Effects of Soy Protein and Meat Protein Diets on Protein, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Metabolism in Young Korean Adults : Mid-Tern Feeding Study (콩단백질과 고기단백질 식이가 인체내 단백질과 칼슘.인.마그네슘 대사에 미치는 영향 : 중기간 급식 효과)

  • 주은정
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.516-530
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    • 1989
  • A 44-day metabolic study was conducted to compare the effects of soy protein and meat protein on N, Ca, P, and Mg metabolism in young Korean males. Meat protein diet(MPD) and soy protin diet(SPD) were provided for 3 weeks each. For MPD, meat protein Supplied 50.3% of total protein and mean daily suplies of Ca, P, and Mg were 33.28mg, 1013.01mg, 226.81mg respectively. For SPD, soy protein supplied 51.8% of total protein and mean contents of Ca, P and Mg were 737.86mg, 1261.76mg, and 451.3mg. Mean daily fecal and urinary excretions of Ca were 350.6mg and 113.3mg for MPD and 515.0mg and 118.3mg for SPD. Apparent absorption rates in MPD and SPD were 4.2mg in MPD and 700.4mg and 475.1mg SPD. Apparent absorption rates were 65.6% in MPD and 44.5% in SPD(p<0.01). For Mg, fecal and urinary excretions were 144.8mg and 81.2mg in MPD and 292.4mg and 65.5mg in SPD. Apparent absorption rates were 37.5% in MPD and 35.2% in SPD. The correlations between urinary Ca, P, and their balance were significant (p<0.001) in MPD, but not in SPD. Urinary Ca was significantly correlated with urinary N, P, Mg(p<0.001) in MPD, but not in SPD. From these results, meat protein seems to increase the excretions of major minerals compared to soy protein.

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Effects of Dietary Proteins and Inositol Hexaphosphate on the Preneoplastic Lesions and Antioxidant Enzymes of Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis in Rats (식이 단백질의 종류 및 Inositol Hexaphosphate가 간세포 암화과정에서 전암성 병변의 지표 및 항산화 효소계에 미치는 영향)

  • 김현덕;최혜미
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 1999
  • Six-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were fed the diets of 20% casein or soy protein. Two weeks after the feeding, hepatocellular chemical carcinogenesis was initiated by diethylnitrosamine(DEN), and promoted by the diet containing 0.01% 2-acetylamino-fluorene(AAF) and two-thirds partial hepatectomy(PH). The animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks after the DEN injection. The area of placetal glutathione S-trnasferase(GST-P) positive foci, the activities of several enzymes in cellualr antioxidant enzyme systems and glucose 6-phosphatase were determined to investigate the mechanism of the anticarcinogenic effect by the dietary proteins. In another set of experiments, the drinking water of rats fed casein was supplemented with 1.5% inositol hexaphosphate(InsP6) to elucidate whether it has the comparable anticancer action of soy protein. The area and number of GST-P positive foci in the soy protein group were significantly(p<0.05) lower than those inthe casein group. The livers of rats fed casein showed moderate fattydegeneration and larger hyperplastic nodules than those of rats fed soy protein. In another set of experiments, the area and number of GST-P positive foci in the rats fed casein supplemented with InsP6 were not significantly different from those in the rats fed casein or soy protein. The lipid peroxidation of rats fed different protein sources showed no significant difference. Glutathione S-transferase(GST) activities were increased significantly(p<0.05) by carcinogen treatment in all dietary groups. Glucose 6-phosphatase(G6Pase) activities were decreased by carcinogen treatment, and hence showed a reverse relationship(r=-0.695, p<0.01) to the GST-P positive foci. Therefore, the activities in the rats fed casein were lower than those in the rats fed soy protein. These results suggest that the soy protein seems to be more anti-carcinogenic than casein by decreasing the preneoplastic lesion and by increasing the membrane stability but inositol hexaphosphate, a component of soy protein, may not be protective against hepatocarcinogenesis.

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Effect of Dietary Protein Source and Supplemental Methionine on the Serum Cholesterol and Blood Component in Cholesterol-fed Rats (식이단백질(食餌蛋白質) 급원(給源)과 Methionine첨가(添加)가 Cholesterol투여(投與) 흰쥐의 혈청(血淸)Cholesterol 및 혈청성분(血淸成分)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Yong-Ock;Noh, Jang-Sook;Cho, Chung-Soon;Koo, I-Ran
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 1986
  • Several authors reported that vegetable proteins cause to decrease serum cholesterol and reported the effect of limiting amino acid balance in dietary protein on the blood component. This study was designed to observe growth rate and blood component in 1% cholesterol-fed male rats intake pure isolated soy proteins and methionine for 4 weeks. The diets were supplemented with either 20% casein or isolated soy protein as dietary protein sources and methionine as limiting amino acid of isolated soy protein and casein protein. The results were as follows; 1) The body weight gain was the greatest in casein groups. 2) Serum total cholesterol concentration was significantly increased by casein groups and slightly decreased by isolated soy protein groups. 3) Serum HDL-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased by isolated soy protein groups than control group. 4) Serum total lipid and triglyceride concentrations were significantly decreased by isolated soy protein groups than control group. 5) Serum glucose concentration was significantly increased by isolated soy protein plus 0.8% methionine than control group. 6) Serum total protein and albumin concentrations were significantly increased by all experimental diets groups than control group. Especially, casein groups were the most increased in all experimental diets groups.

Effect of Phytate on the Digestibility and Electrophoretic Pattern of Soy Protein Isolate (분리 대두단백의 소화율과 전기영동패턴에 미치는 Phytate의 영향)

  • Yoon, Jae-Young;Cho, Hee-Kyung;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.360-365
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    • 1993
  • This study was carried out to examine the effects of phytate addition on the solubility and digestibility of the low-phytate soy protein isolate (LSPI) and high-phytate soy protein isolate (HSPI). In SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of soy protein isolate, different patterns of proteins were observed in both HSPI and LSPI at various phytate and pH levels, suggesting that phytate may bind specifically to certain protein fractions at a particular pH. For example, proteins of M.W $1.8{\sim}3.5\;kDa$ resisted phytate binding at acidic pH. LSPI was fractionated into albumin, globulin, gliadin and glutelin, and phytate was shown to bind with difficultly to all three gliadin bands. Effects of phytate on the pepsin digestibility of soy proteins were apparent, especially in the short term digestion.

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Effects of The Soy Protein Level on Plasma Glucose, Lipids, and Hormones in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

  • Choi, Mi Ja
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.883-891
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    • 1994
  • The number of diabetics in Korea is about 3 to 5 percent of the population, and the incidence is increasing yearly due to changes of life style and food intake. Diet is a key element in the management of diabetes, yet the appropriate diet for diabetes remains controversial. We have recently shown that a diet rich in protein of animal origin(casein) seems beneficial to controling plasma glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of high casein diet in experimental diabetes could also be reproduced with a vegetable source of protein(soy). The purpose of this study is to compare these results with the results of our previous study. In the present study, non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied in order to examine the effects of altering the level(20% vs 60%) of dietary soy protein on blood glucose, lipids, and hormones. Results of the present study showed that a high soy protein diet decreased triglyceride concentration in diabetic rats. However, diabetic rats fed a high soy protein diet were not hypocholesterolemic compared to rats fed a control diet. Moreover, diabetic rats fed a high soy protein diet had significantly increased plasma glucose concentration compared to rats fed a control diet. This study was not able to discern a specific effect of dietary protein level on insulin, glucagon, or insulin/glucagon ratio. Except for the hypotriglyceridemic effect, the results were not similar to the findings of our previous study which showed a beneficial effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high casein diet.

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Effects of Dietary Mixed Protein and L-Carnitine Supplementation on Lipid Metabolism in Rats fed High Fat Diet (고지방식에 혼합단백질과 L-카르니틴을 첨가했을 때 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Won Hyang Rye;Kim Min Sun;Rhie Seung Gyo
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2004
  • This study is to investigate the effect of dietary mixed protein and L-carnitine supplementation on lipid metabolism in the rats fed high fat diet. Six experimental groups were organized and each group had eight Sprague-Dawley male white rats with the initial weight of around 180g. The six experimental groups were CO(supplemented with casein), CC(supplementedwith casein and cartinine), ISO(supplemented with isolated soy protein), ISC(supplemented with isolated soy protein and cartinine), CIM(supplemented with casein and isolated soy protein), and CIC(supplemented with casein, isolated soy protein and cartinine). Each group was supplemented with the experimental diet for four weeks, and carnitine contained 3efo of the diet. The results were as follows; 1. There was no significant difference in food intake among the experimental groups. The weight increased more significantly in the group supplemented with the mixed protein than in the group supplemented with casein(p<0.05).2. There was weight reduction effect by the supplementation of carnitine(p<0.05), however no weight reduction effect by the supplementation of carnitine was observed in the group supplemented with the mixed protein and isolated soy protein. 3. Food efficiency was lower in the group supplemented with the mixed protein than in the group supplemented with casein (p<0.05), however it was similar in the group supplemented with isolated soy protein.4. Serum total lipid and se겨m total cholesterol were lower in the group supplemented with mixed protein than in the group supplemented with casein(p<0.05). 5. There was no significant difference of serum triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol among the experimental groups. 6. Liver triglyceride was the highest in the group supplemented with mixed protein (p<0.05), and there was no significant difference of liver total lipid and total cholesterol among the experimental groups. 7. In the groups supplemented with mixed protein, the level of liver TBARS showed the lowest when casein was supplemented(p<0.05), and there was no significant difference of GSH-Px activities among the experimental groups. In summary, when mixed protein was supplemented to the rats weight gain and food efficiency were similar with those in the group supplemented with isolated soy protein, however they were lower than those in the group supplemented with casein. The effect of carnitine on weight was not observed in the group supplemented with mixed protein and isolated soy protein, however it was observed in the group supplemented with casein. Serum Total lipid and total cholesterol were lower than those in the group supplemented with casein. Liver total triglyceride was high in the group supplemented with mixed protein, and the antioxidant effect was observed in the group supplemented with mixed protein.

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Effect of Protein in Diet-induced Hypercholesterolemia Rats (단백질 종류와 급여수준이 흰쥐의 혈중 지질함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김명주;이미경;장주연;김대곤
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.246-253
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of protein kinds and levels on lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemia rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administrated 1% cholesterol and 0.25% sodium cholate to induce hypercholesterolemia and were fed on diet containing two levels(7, 20%) of casein and soy protein respectively. The rats were sacrified after 5 weeks of feeding periods. Total lipid content in serum was decreased in proportion to level of protein and soy protein was more effective than casein in lipid-lowering effect. Serum triglyceride content was significantly decreased in proportion to level of protein and did not show significance by protein kind. Serum phospholipid content was more significantly decreased in 20% protein groups than that of 7% protein groups. Total cholesterol content in serum was significantly decreased by protein and were decreased in proportion to level of soy protein. Free cholesterol content did not show significance by protein level. The degree of decrease predominated in soy protein groups. Serum HDL-cholesterol content and RL-cholesterol were increased in proportion to level of protein and effect of soy protein was not more significantly than that of casein. Atherogenic index was significantly decreased in proportion to level of protein and soy protein groups were more effective. Serum LDL-, VLDL-cholesterol contents were more significantly decreased in 20% protein groups than that of 7% protein groups. Serum $\beta$-lipoprotein and chylomicrone-cholesterol contents also showed significantly decrease by soy protein.

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The Activity and Characteristics of $\alpha$-Amylase Present in Soy Milk and Jeungpyun Batters (증편 제조시 콩물과 반죽 내의 $\alpha$-amylase활성 및 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Na, Han-Na;Yoon, Sun;Kim, Jung-Soo;Kim, Bo-Young
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.261-265
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    • 1998
  • The activity and characteristics of ${\alpha}$-amylase in soy milk as well as in Jeungpyun batters were determined to investigate the enzyme system related to Jeungpyun preparation. ${\alpha}$-Amylase activity was detected in soy milk as well as in Jeungpyun batters. Soy milk had ${\alpha}$-amylase activity of 0.79 units/mg protein for gelatinized starch and 0.036 units/mg protein for raw starch. ${\alpha}$-Amylase in soy milk showed maximum activities at pH 5.92∼6.87 and at 60$^{\circ}C$ for both gelatinized starch and raw starch. ${\alpha}$-Amylase activities of Jeungpyun batters containing soy milk were 25.59 units/mg protein for gelatinized starch and 1.37 units/mg protein for raw starch. Jeungpyun batters without soy milk demonstrated ${\alpha}$-amylase activities of 3.37 units/mg protein for gelatinized starch and 0.49 units/mg protein for raw starch. ${\alpha}$-Amylase of Jeungpyun batters showed an optimal activity at pH 5.25 and at 60$^{\circ}C$ for both gelatinized and raw starch. The results demonstrated that Jeungpyun batters with soy milk showed significantly higher ${\alpha}$-amylase activity than the ones without soy milk.

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