• Title, Summary, Keyword: statistical process control

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SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOACTIVITY OF ANODICALLY OXIDIZED TITANIUM SURFACES (양극산화에 의한 티타늄 산화막의 표면 특성 및 생체 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Han;Cho, In-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2007
  • Statement of problem: Recently, anodic oxidation of cp-titanium is a popular method for treatment of titanium implant surfaces. It is a relatively easy process, and the thickness, structure, composition, and the microstructure of the oxide layer can be variably modified. Moreover the biological properties of the oxide layer can be controlled. Purpose: In this study, the roughness, microstructure, crystal structure of the variously treated groups (current, voltage, frequency, electrolyte, thermal treatment) were evaluated. And the specimens were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate the effects of the surface characteristics and the oxide layers on the bioactivity of the specimens which were directly related to bone formation and integration. Materials and methods: Surface treatments consisted of either anodization or anodization followed thermal treatment. Specimens were divided into seven groups, depending on their anodizing treatment conditions: constant current mode (350V for group 2), constant voltage mode (155V for group 3), 60 Hz pulse series (230V for group 4, 300V for group 5), and 1000 Hz pulse series (400V for group 6, 460V for group 7). Non-treated native surfaces were used as controls (group 1). In addition, for the purpose of evaluating the effects of thermal treatment, each group was heat treated by elevating the temperature by $5^{\circ}C$ per minute until $600^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour, and then bench cured. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM), porous oxide layers were observed on treated surfaces. The crystal structures and phases of titania were identified by thin-film x-ray diffractmeter (TF-XRD). Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for roughness measurement (Sa, Sq). To evaluate bioactivity of modified titanium surfaces, each group was soaked in SBF for 168 hours (1 week), and then changed surface characteristics were analyzed by SEM and TF-XRD. Results: On basis of our findings, we concluded the following results. 1. Most groups showed morphologically porous structures. Except group 2, all groups showed fine to coarse convex structures, and the groups with superior quantity of oxide products showed superior morphology. 2. As a result of combined anodization and thermal treatment, there were no effects on composition of crystalline structure. But, heat treatment influenced the quantity of formation of the oxide products (rutile / anatase). 3. Roughness decreased in the order of groups 7,5,2,3,6,4,1 and there was statistical difference between group 7 and the others (p<0.05), but group 7 did not show any bioactivity within a week. 4. In groups that implanted ions (Ca/P) on the oxide layer through current and voltage control, showed superior morphology, and oxide products, but did not express any bioactivity within a week. 5. In group 3, the oxide layer was uniformly organized with rutile, with almost no titanium peak. And there were abnormally more [101] orientations of rutile crystalline structure, and bonelike apatite formation could be seen around these crystalline structures. Conclusion: As a result of control of various factors in anodization (current, voltage, frequency, electrolytes, thermal treatment), the surface morphology, micro-porosity, the 2nd phase formation, crystalline structure, thickness of the oxide layer could be modified. And even more, the bioactivity of the specimens in vitro could be induced. Thus anodic oxidation can be considered as an excellent surface treatment method that will able to not only control the physical properties but enhance the biological characteristics of the oxide layer. Furthermore, it is recommended in near future animal research to prove these results.

Case Study on Revising Curriculum of a Industrial High School through Analysis of Manufacturing Workforce demand focused on Chungnam Province in Korea (지역 기반 산업의 인력 수요 분석을 통한 공업 계열 특성화 고등학교의 교육과정 개편 사례 연구)

  • Yi, Sangbong;Choi, Jiyeon
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.221-238
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to revise and reorganize the direction of the department of ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$Industrial High School though analysis of manufacturing status and workforce demand in Chungnam province focused on the Geumsan Area. In the study, ${\bigcirc}{\bigcirc}$Industrial High School of the status and actual conditions were identified through interview, literature review and data analysis. Surveys of the school teachers, parents and students was conducted in order to investigate the awareness of renaming and reorganization of school departments, curriculum revision of the school. Statistical data was collected and analyzed in order to figure out manufacturing industry and its workforce demand of Chungnam Province in Korea. Findings of the study were as follows: Small and medium enterprises of manufacturing industry have been developed a lot in Geumsan Area in Chungnam province. Four major industries including (1) automobile parts, (2) electronic and information equipment, (3) Cutting edge culture, and (4) Agricultural-livestock and bio are intensively fostered as regional strategic industries in the Chungnam province. The manufacturing industry has a 33.6-percent, and then service-mining and manufacturing industry has a 80.0-percent of total number of employee in Geumsan Area. It is expected that industrial workforce demand of Geumsan Area come out of manufacturing and service-mining industrial sector. The following is recommended for the school curriculum revision: (1) focussing on mechanical control for the revision of computer applying mechanical department, (2) focussing on automation electric equipment for the revision of electric control department, (3) focussing on food process control for revising of bio-food industrial department. It's helpful to make a progress of the school that establish identification of industrial specialized high school as an institution of vocational education at the secondary level through supplying qualified workforce to Manufacturing industry in Chungnam Province.

Minor Physical Anomalies in Patients with Schizophrenia (정신분열병 환자에서 신체미세기형에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Eun-Jeong;Jeong, Seong Hoon;Maeng, So Jin;Yoon, Se Chang;Kim, Jong Hoon;Kim, Chul Eung;Shin, Youngmin;Kim, Yong Sik
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.140-151
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    • 2002
  • Object and Method:Minor physical anomalies(MPAs) are frequently seen in patients with schizophrenia. MPAs are considered to arise from the anomalous development of ectoderm-originated tissues in the developing fetus. Since the central nervous system originates from ectoderm, MPAs can be regarded as externally observable and objective indicators of the aberrant development which might have taken place in the central nervous system. To investigate whether MPAs are more frequent in schizophrenic patients, the frequencies of MPAs were compared between schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Total 245 schizophrenic patients diagnosed with DSM-IV(male : 158, female : 87), and 418 normal control subjects(male : 216, female : 202) were included in this study. The MPAs were measured using the modified Waldrop scale with fifteen items in six bodily regions; head, eye, ear, mouth, hand, and foot. Result:The total scores of Waldrop scale were $4.40{\pm}1.93$($mean{\pm}standard$ deviation) in patients and $3.43{\pm}1.68$ in controls for females, and for males, $4.58{\pm}1.75$ in patients and $4.28{\pm}1.59$ in controls. For females, the excess of MPAs in schizophrenic patients was statistically significant(t-test : p<0.001). For males, schizophrenic patients also showed more MPAs than normal controls, but this tendency did not reach statistical significance (t-test : p=0.094). When the modified Waldrop total scores excluding head circumference were compared, the total scores in schizophrenic patients were significantly higher for both male and female subjects(t-test : male p<0.001, female p=0.001). The individual anomaly items included in Waldrop scale were also investigated. The items of epicanthus, hypertelorism, malformed ears, syndactylia were significantly more frequent in schizophrenic patients. In contrast, the items of adherent ear lobes, asymmetric ears, furrowed tongue, curved fifth finger, single palmar crease and big gap between toes did not show any differences in frequency between schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Since a lot of statistical analyses showed different results between male and female subjects, it seems to be necessary to consider gender as an important controlling variable for the analysis, however only the item of head circumference showed statistically significant gender-related difference according to log-linear analysis. Conclusion:With a relatively large sample size, the frequencies of MPAs enlisted in Waldrop scale were compared between schizophrenic patients and normal controls in this study. MPAs were more frequently seen in schizophrenic patients and, especially, several specific items in the Waldrop scale showed prominent excess in schizophrenic patients. Although definite conclusions cannot be drawn due to the inherent limitation of the study using Waldrop scale, these results seem to support the possibility that aberrant neurodevelopmental process might be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in some of the patients.

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The Intelligent Determination Model of Audience Emotion for Implementing Personalized Exhibition (개인화 전시 서비스 구현을 위한 지능형 관객 감정 판단 모형)

  • Jung, Min-Kyu;Kim, Jae-Kyeong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.39-57
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    • 2012
  • Recently, due to the introduction of high-tech equipment in interactive exhibits, many people's attention has been concentrated on Interactive exhibits that can double the exhibition effect through the interaction with the audience. In addition, it is also possible to measure a variety of audience reaction in the interactive exhibition. Among various audience reactions, this research uses the change of the facial features that can be collected in an interactive exhibition space. This research develops an artificial neural network-based prediction model to predict the response of the audience by measuring the change of the facial features when the audience is given stimulation from the non-excited state. To present the emotion state of the audience, this research uses a Valence-Arousal model. So, this research suggests an overall framework composed of the following six steps. The first step is a step of collecting data for modeling. The data was collected from people participated in the 2012 Seoul DMC Culture Open, and the collected data was used for the experiments. The second step extracts 64 facial features from the collected data and compensates the facial feature values. The third step generates independent and dependent variables of an artificial neural network model. The fourth step extracts the independent variable that affects the dependent variable using the statistical technique. The fifth step builds an artificial neural network model and performs a learning process using train set and test set. Finally the last sixth step is to validate the prediction performance of artificial neural network model using the validation data set. The proposed model is compared with statistical predictive model to see whether it had better performance or not. As a result, although the data set in this experiment had much noise, the proposed model showed better results when the model was compared with multiple regression analysis model. If the prediction model of audience reaction was used in the real exhibition, it will be able to provide countermeasures and services appropriate to the audience's reaction viewing the exhibits. Specifically, if the arousal of audience about Exhibits is low, Action to increase arousal of the audience will be taken. For instance, we recommend the audience another preferred contents or using a light or sound to focus on these exhibits. In other words, when planning future exhibitions, planning the exhibition to satisfy various audience preferences would be possible. And it is expected to foster a personalized environment to concentrate on the exhibits. But, the proposed model in this research still shows the low prediction accuracy. The cause is in some parts as follows : First, the data covers diverse visitors of real exhibitions, so it was difficult to control the optimized experimental environment. So, the collected data has much noise, and it would results a lower accuracy. In further research, the data collection will be conducted in a more optimized experimental environment. The further research to increase the accuracy of the predictions of the model will be conducted. Second, using changes of facial expression only is thought to be not enough to extract audience emotions. If facial expression is combined with other responses, such as the sound, audience behavior, it would result a better result.

Strain Improvement and Bioprocess Optimization for Enhanced Production of Haluronic Acid(HA) in Bioreactor Cultures of Streptococcus zooepidemicus (히알루론산 생산성 향상을 위한 Streptococcus zooepidemicus 균주 개량 및 발효조 배양공정 최적화)

  • Kim, Soo Yeon;Chun, Gie-Taek
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.344-357
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    • 2020
  • Strain improvement and bioprocess development were undertaken to enhance hyaluronic acid(HA) production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus cells. Using a high-yielding mutant strain, statistical medium optimization was carried out in shake flask cultures, resulting in 52% increase in HA production (5.38 g/l) at the optimal medium composition relative to the parallel control cultures. For sufficient supply of dissolved oxygen (DO), which turned out to be crucial for enhanced production of HA, agitation system and speed were intensively investigated in 5 L bioreactor cultures. Increase in oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) through increment of agitation speed (rpm) and 35% expansion of diameter of the newly-designed impellers showed significantly positive effects on HA production. By installing an expanded Rushton-turbine impeller for efficient break-down of sparged air, and an extended marine impeller above the Rushton-turbine impeller for efficient mixing of the air-born viscous fermentation broth, maximum amount of HA (9.79 g/l) was obtained at 450 rpm, 1.8 times higher level than that of the corresponding flask culture. Subsequently, the possibility of bioprocess scale-up to a 50 L bioreactor was investigated. Despite almost identical maximum HA production (9.11 vs 9.25 g/l), the average HA volumetric productivity (rp) of the 50 L culture turned out only 74% compared to the corresponding 5 L culture during the exponential phase, possibly caused by shear damages imposed on the producing cells at the high stirring in the 50 L culture. The scale-up process could be successfully achieved if a scale-up criterion of constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is applied to the 50 L pilot-scale bioreactor system.

An Empirical Study on Influence of Venture Preparation on Business Performance of Initial Venture Foundation: Focused on The Effect of Controlling The Period of Venture Preparation (창업준비성이 창업초기기업 경영성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 실증연구: 창업준비기간의 조절효과 중심)

  • Oh, jaiwoo;Lee, Donghyung;Kang, Jinkyu
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.67-80
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    • 2015
  • Although recent policies and regulations in Korea strongly advocate and encourage cultivation of venture foundations, studies on venture foundation and success are very limited and often primarily focus on entrepreneurship or individual quality as a venture founder in addition to such studies' validity in question. Therefore, this study primarily focuses on venture preparation process which is subject to venture founder's effort to verify the policy effectiveness in the relationship between venture preparation and business performance. Major goal of this study is to reduce social cost of venture failure by suggesting systematic policy support for venture foundations and analyzing the relationship between following variables: first, venture preparation and financial performance, second, venture preparation and non-financial performance, and third, venture preparation and business performance. 400 initial venture foundations less than 5 years are selected from KISED(Korea Institute Startup & Entrepreneurship Development) trend analysis to carry out statistical analysis using SPSS 18.0. To organize the data features, frequency analysis as well as descriptive statistics are performed to verify the hypothesis. As a result, sub-factors in measurement of venture preparation which are venture education period, venture benefit, and experience of incubating organization are selected as independent variables. Likewise, sub-factors in measurement of business performance which are financial performance and non-financial performance are used as dependent variables. To validate interactive effect, venture preparation period is selected as control variable to perform hierarchical regression analysis. The analysis result verifies that venture benefit has positive influence on financial and non-financial performance while venture education period has positive influence on non-financial influence and experience of incubating organization has negative influence on non-financial performance without influence on financial performance. In addition, interaction of venture preparation period has positive influence solely between venture benefit and non-financial performance. Through this study, appropriate supporting plans depending on the level of venture preparation can be derived to improve business performance of initial venture foundations for policy designer of venture support, and quality rather than quality improvement of venture businesses is possible through investigation of structural issues of individual venture businesses. Ultimately, this study suggests venture founders to determine whether to focus on venture preparation process or to start a venture business.

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The Exposure Status and Biomarkers of Bisphenol A in Shipyard Workers (일부 조선업 근로자들의 bisphenol A 노출실태와 생물학적 지표)

  • Kim, Cheong-Sik;Park, Jun-Ho;Cha, Bong-Suk;Park, Jong-Ku;Kim, Heon;Chang, Soung-Hoon;Koh, Sang-Baek
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : Because shipyard workers are involved with various manufacturing process, they are exposed to many kinds of hazardous materials. Welders especially, are exposed to bisphenol-A (BPA) during the welding and flame cutting of coated steel, This study was conducted to assess the exposure status of the endocrine disrupter based on the job-exposure matrix. The effects of the genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic enzyme metabolisms involved in the metabolism of BPA on the levels of urinary metabolite were investigated. Methods : The study population was recruited from a shipyard company in the f province. A total of 84 shipbuilding workers 47 and 37 in the exposed and control groups, respectively, were recruited for this study. The questionnaire variables included, age, sex, use of personal protective equipment, smoking, drinking and work duration. The urinary metabolite was collected in the afternoon and correction made for the urinary creatinine concentration. The of the CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and UGT1A6 genotypes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods with the DNA extracted from venous blood. Results : The urinary BPA level in the welders group was significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.05). The urinary BPA concentration with the wild type UGT1A6 was higher than the other UGT1A6 genotypes, but with no statistical significant. From themultiple regression analysis of the urinary BPA, the regression coefficient for job grade was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions : The grade of exposure to BPA affected the urinary BPA concentration was statistically significant. However, the genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotics enzyme metabolism were not statistically significant. Further investigation of the genetic polymorphisms with a larger sample size is needed.

Evaluation of Compost Qualities with or without Microbial Inoculation for Food Waste Composting (미생물제 첨가유무에 따른 음식물 쓰레기 퇴비 부숙도 평가)

  • Jeong, Jun-Young;Jung, Kwang-Yong;Nam, Sung-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.280-286
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    • 1999
  • This studies were conducted to evaluate efficiency of microbial inoculator for active composting of food wastes. The Microbial inoculators used in this studies were purchased from different comparise to evaluate their effectiveness for composting of food waste in Korea. The number of bacteria growing at $30^{\circ}C$ in commercial inoculator collected were below $91.0{\times}10^8\;CFU/g$ which were counted from well cured compost made by animal manure. The number of bacteria in commercial microbial inoculator, such as FL, VP, B9, CM and GE were higher than that of composted at $50^{\circ}C$ or $60^{\circ}C$ of incubation temperature. Fungi were counted in GR, VP and B9 as over $10^3CFU/g$ at $30^{\circ}C$ of incubation temperature, while fungi of all the commercial inoculator collected could not grown at $50^{\circ}C$ and $60^{\circ}C$. Actinomycetes in most of the these had higher number($10^5CFU/g$) than that of compost : however, it was not detected at $60^{\circ}C$ incubation temperature from all the samples collected. The amount of carbon dioxid production was order to VP>HU>B9>GE>CM>Control>Compost in the lab scale composting test with or without inoculation of commercial inoculators, however, but the difference in carbon dioxide production was similar among each treatments. The effect of inoculation on composting parmeter such as pH changes, temperature increasing and change of chemicals properties were a little among each treatments, with or without inoculation of commercial inoculator in active composting of food waste. Using commercial inoculator did not show any statistical difference in food waste composting process under various condition such as pH changes, temperature changes, etc.

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Psychological Characteristics of Living Liver Transplantation Donors using MMPI-2 Profiles (MMPI-2를 이용한 생체 간 공여자들의 심리적 특성에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin Hyeok;Choi, Tae Young;Yoon, Seoyoung
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a life-saving therapy for patients with terminal liver disease. Many studies have focused on recipients rather than donors. The aim of this study was to assess the emotional status and personality characteristics of LDLT donors. Methods : We evaluated 218 subjects (126 male, 92 female) who visited Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from August 2012 to July 2018. A retrospective review of their preoperative psychological evaluation was done. We investigated epidemiological data and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 questionnaire. Subanalysis was done depending on whether subjects actually underwent surgery, relationship with the recipient, and their gender. Results : Mean age of subjects was $32.19{\pm}10.91years$. 187 subjects received LDLT surgery (actual donors) while 31 subjects didn't (potential donors). Donor-recipient relationship included husband-wife, parent-children, brother-sister etc. Subjects had statistical significance on validity scale L, F, K and all clinical scales compared to the control group. Potential donors had significant difference in F(b), F(p), K, S, Pa, AGGR, PSYC, DISC and NEGE scales compared to actual donors. F, D and NEGE scales were found to be predictive for actual donation. Subanalysis on donor-recipient relationship and gender also showed significant difference in certain scales. Conclusions : Under-reporting of psychological problems should be considered when evaluating living-liver donors. Information about the donor's overall psychosocial background, mental status and donation process should also be acquired.