• Title, Summary, Keyword: stiffness

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Effects of stiffness on reflection and transmission of micropolar thermoelastic waves at the interface between an elastic and micropolar generalized thermoelastic solid

  • Kumar, Rajneesh;Sharma, Nidhi;Ram, Paras
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.117-135
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    • 2009
  • The reflection and transmission of micropolar thermoelastic plane waves at the interface between an elastic solid and micropolar generalized thermoelastic solid is discussed. The interface boundary conditions obtained contain interface stiffness (normal stiffness and transverse stiffness). The expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients which are the ratios of the amplitudes of reflected and transmitted waves to the amplitude of incident waves are obtained for normal force stiffness, transverse force stiffness and welded contact. Numerical calculations have been performed for amplitude ratios of various reflected and transmitted waves. The variations of amplitude ratios with angle of incident wave have been depicted graphically. It is found that the amplitude ratios of reflected and transmitted waves are affected by the stiffness, micropolarity and thermal distribution of the media.

Effect of Refining Conditions and Grammage on the Bending Stiffness of Linerboard (고해 조건과 평량이 라이너 판지의 휨강성에 미치는 영향)

  • Won Jong Myoung
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.44-51
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    • 2004
  • The effect of refining conditions and grammage on the stiffness of linerboard was investigated. The correlations between Taber stiffness and resonance stiffness were very low due to the different measuring principle. The refining conditions did not affect sig nificantly on both Taber and resonance stiffness estimated here. This means that it is strongly recommended to find and apply the refining conditions which can reduce specific energy consumption. Taber stiffness showed very high correlation for the thickness and elastic modulus of linerboard, while the resonance stiffness showed much lower correlation. Effective thicknesses for Taber stiffness were very well fitted with measured thickness, while those for resonance stiffness depended on the grammage of linerboard.

Verification and Sensitivity Analysis on the Elastic Stiffness of the Leaf Type Holddown Spring Assembly

  • Song, Kee-Nam
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.287-297
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    • 1998
  • The elastic stiffness formula of leaf type holddown spring(HDS) assembly is verified by comparing the values of elastic stiffness with the characteristic test results of the HDS's specimens. The comparisons show that the derived elastic stiffness formula is useful in reliably estimating the elastic stiffness of leaf type HDS assembly. The elastic stiffness sensitivity of leaf type HDS assembly is analyzed using the formula and its gradient vectors obtained from the mid-point formula. As a result of sensitivity analysis, the elastic stiffness sensitivity with respect to each design variable is quantified and design variables of large sensitivity are identified. Among the design variables, leaf thickness is identified as the most sensitive design variable to the elastic stiffness of leaf type HDS assembly. In addition, the elastic stiffness sensitivity, with respect to design variable, is in power-law type correlation to the base thickness of the leaf.

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Shear stiffness of headed studs on structural behaviors of steel-concrete composite girders

  • He, Jun;Lin, Zhaofei;Liu, Yuqing;Xu, Xiaoqing;Xin, Haohui;Wang, Sihao
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.553-568
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    • 2020
  • Steel-concrete composite structures have been extensively used in building, bridges, and other civil engineering infrastructure. Shear stud connectors between steel and concrete are essential in composite members to guarantee the effectiveness of their behavior in terms of strength and deformability. This study focuses on investigating the shear stiffness of headed studs embedded in several types of concrete with wide range of compressive strength, and their effects on the elastic behavior of steel-concrete composite girders were evaluated. Firstly, totally 206 monotonic push-out tests from the literature were reviewed to investigate the shear stiffness of headed studs embedded in various types of concrete (NC, HPC, UHPC etc.). Shear stiffness of studs is defined as the secant stiffness of the load-slip curve at 0.5Vu, and a formulation for predicting defined shear stiffness in elastic state was proposed, indicating that the stud diameter and the elastic modulus of steel and concrete are the main factors. And the shear stiffness predicted by the new formula agree well with test results for studs with a diameter ranging from 10 to 30 mm in the concrete with compressive strength ranging from 22.0 to 200.0MPa. Then, the effects of shear stiffness on the elastic behaviors of composite girders with different sizes and under different loading conditions were analyzed, the equations for calculating the stress and deformation of simply supported composite girders considering the influence of connection's shear stiffness were derived under different loading conditions using classical linear partial-interaction theory. As the increasing of shear stiffness, the stress and deflection at the most unfavorable section under partial connected condition tend to be those under full connected condition, but the approaching speed decreases gradually. Finally, the connector's shear stiffness was recommended for fully connection in composite girders with different dimensions under different loading conditions. The findings from present study may provide a reference for the prediction of shear stiffness for headed studs and the elastic design of steel-concrete composite girder.

A Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of the Composite Boring Bar (복합재료 보링바의 동적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 황희윤;김진국;이대길
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.206-210
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    • 2003
  • Machining of deep holes with conventional boring bars frequently induce chatter vibration because of their low dynamic stiffness which is defined as the product of static stiffness and damping of conventional boring bar materials. In addition, the specific stiffness ($E/{\rho}g$) of boring bars is more important than the static stiffness to increase the fundamental natural frequency of boring bars in high speed machining. Therefore, boring bar materials should have high static stiffness and high damping as well as high specific stiffness. The best way to meet requirements is to employ fiber reinforced composite materials for high speed boring bars because composite materials have high static stiffness, high damping and high specific stiffness compared to conventional boring bar materials. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of carbon fiber epoxy composite boring bars were investigated. From the metal cutting test, it was found that the chatter was not initiated up to the ratio of length to diameter of 10.7 at the rotating speed of 2,500 rpm.

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ANALYSIS PROCESS APPLIED TO A HIGH STIFFNESS BODY FOR IMPROVED VEHICLE HANDLING PROPERTIES

  • Kim, K.C.;Kim, C.M.
    • International Journal of Automotive Technology
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.629-636
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    • 2007
  • This paper describes the process of analyzing vehicle stiffness in terms of frequency band in order to improve vehicle handling. Vehicle handling and ride comfort are highly related to the systems such as suspension, seat, steering, and the car body design. In existing analytical processes, the resonance frequency of a car body is designed to be greater than 25 Hz in order to increase the stiffness of the body against idle vibration. This paper introduces a method for using a band with a frequency lower than 20 Hz to analyze how stiffness affects vehicle handling. Accordingly, static stiffness analysis of a 1g cornering force was conducted to minimize the deformation of vehicle components derived from a load on parts attached to the suspension. In addition, this technology is capable of achieving better performance than older technology. Analysis of how body attachment stiffness affects the dynamic stiffness of a bushing in the attachment parts of the suspension is expected to lead to improvements with respect to vehicle handling and road noise. The process of developing a car body with a high degree of stiffness, which was accomplished in the preliminary stage of this study, confirms the possibility of improving the stability performance and of designing a lightweight prototype car. These improvements can reduce the time needed to develop better vehicles.

A Study on the Body Attachment Stiffness for the Road Noise

  • Kim Ki-Chang;Kim Chan-Mook
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1304-1312
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    • 2005
  • The ride and noise characteristics of a vehicle are significantly affected by the vibration transferred to the body through the chassis mounting points in the engine and suspension. It is known that body attachment stiffness is an important factor of idle noise and road noise for NVH performance improvement. The body attachment stiffness serves as a route design aimed at isolating the vibration generated inside the car due to the exciting force of the engine or road. The test result of the body attachment stiffness is shown in the FRF curve data; the stiffness level and sensitive frequency band are recorded by the data distribution. The stiffness data is used for analyzing the parts that fail to meet the target stiffness at a pertinent frequency band. The analysis shows that the target frequency band is between 200 and 500 Hz. As a result of the comparison in a mounted suspension, the analysis data is comparable to the test data. From these results, there is a general agreement between the predicted and measured responses. This procedure makes it possible to find the weak points before a proto car is produced, and to suggest proper design guidelines in order to improve the stiffness of the body structure.

Development of a Functional Fixator System for Bone Deformity Near Joints

  • Chun, Keyoung-Jin;Lee, Ho-Jung
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.234-241
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    • 2006
  • A functional external fixator system for bone deformity near the joints using worm gear was developed for curing the angle difference in fracture bones while the lengthening bar was developed for curing the differences in length, also in fracture bones. Both experiments and FE analysis were performed to compare the elastic stiffness in several loading modes and to improve the functional external fixator system for bone deformity near joints. The FE model using compressive and bending FE analysis was applied due to the angle differentiations. The results indicate that compressive stiffness value in the experiment was 175.43N/mm, bending stiffness value in the experiment was 259.74 N/mm, compressive stiffness value in the FEA was 188.67 N/mm, and bending stiffness value in the FEA was 285.71 N/mm. Errors between experiments and FEA were less than $10\%$ in both the 'compressive stiffness and the bending stiffness. The maximum stress (157 MPa) applied to the angle of the clamp was lower than the yield stress (176.4 MPa) of SUS316L. The degree of stiffness in both axial compression and bending of the new fixator are about 2 times greater than other products, with the exception of EBI (2003).

Immediate Effects of Stretching on Hamstring Stiffness (넙다리뒤근육에 대한 스트레칭이 근육의 뻣뻣함에 미치는 즉각적 효과)

  • Kim, Joong-Hwi;Kim, Tae-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Stretching exercises are commonly used in conjunction with sports and rehabilitation. Weassessed the immediate effects of stretching on passive stiffness of the hamstring muscles and knee range of motion (ROM) using three stretching techniques. Methods: A total of 45 participants were recruited. Isokinetic equipment was used to measure the passive stiffness of hamstring muscles and an inclinometer was used to measure active and passive ROM of the knee joint pre and post stretching. Stiffness was then calculated based on the incline of the torque-angle relationship. The test conditions for Group I were $3{\times}30$ seconds of static stretches using the hamstring muscle, Group II were $3{\times}30$ seconds of static stretches using the hamstring muscle with ankle dorsiflexion, and Group IIII had $3{\times}30$ seconds of active stretching. Results: Group II had significantly higher excursion of active ROM and Group IIIhad significantly higher excursion of passive muscle stiffness. All of the groups had significantly higher active and passive ROM and significantly lower muscle stiffness after stretching. The participants showed no change in hamstring muscle stiffness on the following day. Conclusion: Stretching has significant acute effects on ROM and muscle stiffness and canbe used in warm-up protocols for reducing muscle stiffness before a variety of exercise programs.

Distribution of strength and stiffness in asymmetric wall type system buildings considering foundation flexibility

  • Atefatdoost, Gh.R.;Shakib, H.;JavidSharifi, B.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.63 no.3
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    • pp.281-292
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    • 2017
  • Architecture constraints in buildings may typically cause irregularities in the distribution of stiffness and mass and consequently causes non-compliance of centers of mass, stiffness and strength. Such buildings are known as asymmetric buildings the distribution of strength and stiffness is one of whose main challenges. This distribution is more complicated for concrete buildings with RC shear walls in which stiffness and strength are interdependent parameters. The flexibility under the foundation is another subject that can affect this distribution due to the variation of dynamic properties of the structure and its constituting elements. In this paper, it is attempted to achieve an appropriate distribution pattern by expressing the effects of foundation flexibility on the seismic demand of concrete shear walls and also evaluate the effects of this issue on strength and stiffness distribution among lateral force resistant elements. In order to understand the importance of flexibility in strength and stiffness distribution for an asymmetric building in different conditions of under-foundation flexibility, the assigned value to each of the walls is numerically calculated and eventually a procedure for strength and stiffness distribution dependencies on flexibility is provided.