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A Study on the Rotary Tidal Current in the East China Sea (동지나해 어장의 회전 조류에 관하여)

  • 김진건
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1986
  • Even though it is well known that the tidal current in the East China Sea rotates clockwise, few report can be found about the precise pattern of it. To furnish some information available for the stow net fishermen, the author carried out the observation over 235 semidiurnal tidal cycle to investigate the pattern of the set and the rate of tidal current in the Korean fishing section 250 and 494, by reading the current meter and by tracing the corner reflectors with radar onboard the anchored obsen'ation vessel, from May 12, 1984 through February 27, 1986. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The mean semidiurnal tidal cycle was 12 h 20 m during spring tide, and 12 h 30 m during neap tide. 2. The mean interval from the calculated time of high water until the current began to set north was 2 h 30 m and 2 h 15 m in the fishing section 250 and 494 respectively, and the mean interval from the time of low water current began to set south was about 2 h 0 m in both sections. 3. In comparison of the occupied times to vary the set from one of 8 principal bearing points to the neighboring one, the shortest was while the set varied from N to NE and S to SW in the section 250 and 494 respectively. Contrary the longest was while the set varied from SE to S and from W to NW in the section 250 and 494 respectively. 4. In comparison of the rate while the set varied from one of 8 principal bearing points to the neighboring one, the fastest was while the set varied from SE to Sand NW to N in the section 250, and E to SE and W to NW in the section 494. Contrary the slowest was while the current set to NE and S W in the section 250, and N, NE and S W in the section 494.

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A quantitative analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from the major coastal fisheries using the LCA method (전과정평가방법에 의한 주요 연안어업의 온실가스 배출량 정량적 분석)

  • KIM, Hyun-young;YANG, Yong-su;HWANG, Bo-kyu;LEE, Jihoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2017
  • The concern on the greenhouse gas emissions is increasing globally. Especially, the greenhouse gas emission from fisheries is an important issue due to Cancun Agreements Mexico in 1992 and the Kyoto protocol in 2005. Furthermore, the Korean government has a plan to reduce the GHG emissions as 5.2% compared to the BAU in fisheries until 2020. However, the investigation on the GHG emissions from Korean fisheries has not been executed much. Therefore, the quantitative analysis of GHG emissions from Korean fishery industry is needed as the first step to find a relevant way to reduce GHG emissions from fisheries. The purpose of this research is to investigate which degree of GHG emitted from the major coastal fisheries such as coastal gillnet fishery, coastal dual purpose fishery, coastal pots fishery and coastal small scale stow net fishery. Here, we calculated the GHG emission from the fisheries using the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) method. The system boundary and input parameters for each process level are defined for LCA analysis. The fuel use coefficients of the fisheries are also calculated according to the fuel type. The GHG emissions from sea activities by the fisheries will be dealt with. Furthermore, the GHG emissions for the unit weight of fishes are also calculated with consideration to the different consuming areas. The results will be helpful to understand the circumstances of GHG emissions from Korean fisheries.

Seasonal Variation in Species Composition of Estuarine Fauna Collected by a Stow Net in the Han River Estuary on the mid-western coast of Korea (한강 하구역 유영생물의 종조성과 계절 변동)

  • Hwang, Sun-Do;Rhow, Jin-Goo
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.72-85
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    • 2010
  • Seasonal variation in species composition of estuarine fauna in the Han River estuary was determined using monthly samples collected near Ganghwa Island by a bag net from February to December 2009. Total number of species was 86: 54 species of fishes, 16 species of shrimps of crustacean, 12 species of other crustacean such as craps and so on, 3 species of cephalopods and 1 species of jellyfish. Of a total of 86 species, Palaeman carinicauda (32.6%), Acetes japonicus (15.9%), Palaemon gravieri (9.9%), Portunus trituberculatus (7.7%) and Acetes chinensis (6.9%) were predominated in abundance. These 5 crustacean accounted for 73% of total. Abundance, biomass and diversity of Han River estuarine fauna were high in spring and autumn, indicating typical pattern of temperate area. Out of dominant species, the brackish residence species such as Coilia nasus, Chelon haematocheilus, Mugil cephalus, Synechogobius hasta, Lophiogobius ocellicauda, Tridentiger barbatus, Palaeman carinicauda, Palaemon gravieri were collected almost year-round and predominated in abundance. Coastal migratory fauna species such as Coilia mystus, Thryssa hamiltonii, Thryssa adelae, Sardinella zunasi, Engraulis japonicus, Portunus trituberculatus, Acetes japonicus, Collichthys lucidus, Pampus argenteus were most plentiful from spring through autumn. Their adult coastal migratory entered the estuary in spring and large numbers of their juveniles were grew in summer and autumn until moving out to deeper waters for over-wintering, indicating they use estuary as nursing ground. Diadromous fish such as Anguila japonica adults were collected in autumn during their downstream migration. Brackish fauna and crustacean, especially shrimps were predominant, and few contaminant indicator species collected in the Han River estuary, indicating this area maintains the characteristics of natural estuary ecosystem.

Estimating Optimal Harvesting Production of Yellow Croaker Caught by Multiple Fisheries Using Hamiltonian Method (해밀토니안기법을 이용한 복수어업의 참조기 최적어획량 추정)

  • Nam, Jong-Oh;Sim, Seong-Hyun;Kwon, Oh-Min
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.59-74
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    • 2015
  • This study aims to estimate optimal harvesting production, fishing efforts, and stock levels of yellow croaker caught by the offshore Stow Net and the offshore Gill Net fisheries using the current value Hamiltonian method and the surplus production model. As analyzing processes, firstly, this study uses the Gavaris general linear model to estimate standardized fishing efforts of yellow croaker caught by the above multiple fisheries. Secondly, this study applies the Clarke Yoshimoto Pooley(CY&P) model among the various exponential growth models to estimate intrinsic growth rate(r), environmental carrying capacity(K), and catchability coefficient(q) of yellow croaker which inhabits in offshore area of Korea. Thirdly, the study determines optimal harvesting production, fishing efforts, and stock levels of yellow croaker using the current value Hamiltonian method which is including average landing price of yellow croaker, average unit cost of fishing efforts, and social discount rate based on standard of the Korean Development Institute. Finally, this study tries sensitivity analysis to understand changes in optimal harvesting production, fishing efforts, and stock levels of yellow croaker caused by changes in economic and biological parameters. As results drawn by the current value Hamiltonian model, the optimal harvesting production, fishing efforts, and stock levels of yellow croaker caught by the multiple fisheries were estimated as 19,173 ton, 101,644 horse power, and 146,144 ton respectively. In addition, as results of sensitivity analysis, firstly, if the social discount rate and the average landing price of yellow croaker continuously increase, the optimal harvesting production of yellow croaker increases at decreasing rate and then finally slightly decreases due to decreases in stock levels of yellow croaker. Secondly, if the average unit cost of fishing efforts continuously increases, the optimal fishing efforts of the multiple fisheries decreases, but the optimal stock level of yellow croaker increases. The optimal harvest starts climbing and then continuously decreases due to increases in the average unit cost. Thirdly, when the intrinsic growth rate of yellow croaker increases, the optimal harvest, fishing efforts, and stock level all continuously increase. In conclusion, this study suggests that the optimal harvesting production and fishing efforts were much less than actual harvesting production(35,279 ton) and estimated standardized fishing efforts(175,512 horse power) in 2013. This result implies that yellow croaker has been overfished due to excessive fishing efforts. Efficient management and conservative policy on stock of yellow croaker need to be urgently implemented.

The hydrodynamic characteristics of the canvas kite - 1. The characteristics of the rectangular, trapezoid canvas kite - (캔버스 카이트의 유체역학적 특성에 관한 연구 - 1. 사각형 캔버스 카이트의 특성 -)

  • Bae, Bong-Seong;Bae, Jae-Hyun;An, Heui-Chun;Lee, Ju-Hee;Shin, Jung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.196-205
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    • 2004
  • As far as an opening device of fishing gears is concerned, applications of a kite are under development around the world. The typical examples are found in the opening device of the stow net on anchor and the buoyancy material of the trawl. While the stow net on anchor has proved its capability for the past 20 years, the trawl has not been wildly used since it has been first introduced for the commercial use only without sufficient studies and thus has revealed many drawbacks. Therefore, the fundamental hydrodynamics of the kite itself need to ne studied further. Models of plate and canvas kite were deployed in the circulating water tank for the mechanical test. For this situation lift and drag tests were performed considering a change in the shape of objects, which resulted in a different aspect ratio of rectangle and trapezoid. The results obtained from the above approaches are summarized as follows, where aspect ratio, attack angle, lift coefficient and maximum lift coefficient are denoted as A, B, $C_L$ and $C_{Lmax}$ respectively : 1. Given the rectangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.46${\sim}$1.54 with A${\leq}$1 and 40$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$42$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$22$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 10.7${\sim}$1.11. Given the rectangular canvas, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.75${\sim}$1.91 with A${\leq}$1 and 32$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$40$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 18$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$22$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.24${\sim}$1.40. Given the trapezoid kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.65${\sim}$1.89 with A${\leq}$1.5 and 34$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$44$^{\circ}$. And when A=2 and B=14${\sim}$48, $C_L$ was around 1. Given the inverted trapezoid kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.57${\sim}$1.74 with A${\leq}$1.5 and 24$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$36$^{\circ}$. And when A=2, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.21 with B=18$^{\circ}$. 2. For a model with A=1/2, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then there was a tendency of a gradual decrease in the value of $C_L$ and in particular, the rectangular kite showed a more rapid decrease. For a model with A=2/3, the tendency of $C_L$ was similar to the case of a model with A=1/2 but the tendency was a more rapid decrease than those of the previous models. For a model with A=1, and increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Soon after the tendency of $C_L$ decreased dramatically. For a model with A=1.5, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was various. For a model with A=2, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was almost the same in the rectangular and trapezoid model. There was no considerable change in the models with 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. 3. The tendency of kite model's $C_L$ in accordance with increase of B was increased rapidly than plate models until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then $C_L$ in the kite model was decreased dramatically but in the plate model was decreased gradually. The value of $C_{Lmax}$ in the kite model was higher than that of the plate model, and the kite model's attack angel at $C_{Lmax}$ was smaller than the plate model's. 4. In the relationship between aspect ratio and lift force, the attack angle which had the maximum lift coefficient was large at the small aspect ratio models, At the large aspect ratio models, the attack angle was small. 5. There was camber vertex in the position in which the fluid pressure was generated, and the rectangular & trapezoid canvas had larger value of camber vertex when the aspect ratio was high, while the inverted trapezoid canvas was versa. 6. All canvas kite had larger camber ratio when the aspect ratio was high, and the rectangular & trapezoid canvas had larger one when the attack angle was high.

The hydrodynamic characteristics of the canvas kite - 2. The characteristics of the triangular canvas kite - (캔버스 카이트의 유체역학적 특성에 관한 연구 - 2. 삼각형 캔버스 카이트의 특성 -)

  • Bae, Bong-Seong;Bae, Jae-Hyun;An, Heui-Chun;Lee, Ju-Hee;Shin, Jung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.206-213
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    • 2004
  • As far as an opening device of fishing gears is concerned, applications of a kite are under development around the world. The typical examples are found in the opening device of the stow net on anchor and the buoyancy material of the trawl. While the stow net on anchor has proved its capability for the past 20 years, the trawl has not been wildly used since it has been first introduced for the commercial use only without sufficient studies and thus has revealed many drawbacks. Therefore, the fundamental hydrodynamics of the kite itself need to ne studied further. Models of plate and canvas kite were deployed in the circulating water tank for the mechanical test. For this situation lift and drag tests were performed considering a change in the shape of objects, which resulted in a different aspect ratio of rectangle and trapezoid. The results obtained from the above approaches are summarized as follows, where aspect ratio, attack angle, lift coefficient and maximum lift coefficient are denoted as A, B, $C_L$ and $C_{Lmax}$ respectively : 1. Given the triangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.26${\sim}$1.32 with A${\leq}$1 and 38$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$42$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$, $C_L$ was around 0.85. Given the inverted triangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.46${\sim}$1.56 with A${\leq}$1 and 36$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$38$^{\circ}$. And When A${\geq}$1.5 and 22$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$26$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.05${\sim}$1.21. Given the triangular kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.67${\sim}$1.77 with A${\leq}$1 and 46$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$48$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$, $C_L$ was around 1.10. Given the inverted triangular kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.44${\sim}$1.68 with A${\leq}$1 and 28$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$32$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 18$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$24$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.03${\sim}$1.18. 2. For a model with A=1/2, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then there was a tendency of a very gradual decrease or no change in the value of $C_L$. For a model with A=2/3, the tendency of $C_L$ was similar to the case of a model with A=1/2. For a model with A=1, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. And the tendency of $C_L$ didn't change dramatically. For a model with A=1.5, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was changed very small as 0.75${\sim}$1.22 with 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. For a model with A=2, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was almost the same in the triangular model. There was no considerable change in the models with 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. 3. The inverted model's $C_L$ as a function of increase of B reached the maximum rapidly, then decreased gradually compared to the non-inverted models. Others were decreased dramatically. 4. The action point of dynamic pressure in accordance with the attack angle was close to the rear area of the model with small attack angle, and with large attack angle, the action point was close to the front part of the model. 5. There was camber vertex in the position in which the fluid pressure was generated, and the triangular canvas had large value of camber vertex when the aspect ratio was high, while the inverted triangular canvas was versa. 6. All canvas kite had larger camber ratio when the aspect ratio was high, and the triangular canvas had larger one when the attack angle was high, while the inverted triangluar canvas was versa.

The Relationship between Oceanographic Condition and Fishing Ground Distribution of Yellow Croaker in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea (동지나해, 황해의 참조기 어장분포와 해황과의 관계)

  • YANG Seong-Ki;CHO Kyu-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.26-34
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    • 1982
  • The East China Sea and the Yellow Sea are abundant in nutritions because of river inflows and are important as the nursery and spawning grounds of demersal and pelagic fishes. The remarkable thermal front between the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water and the Tsushima Warm Current is formed in this region, and the fluctuation of this front may affect the variation of the yellow croaker fishing ground. To investigate the mechanism of the yellow croaker fishing ground, the distribution ana seasonal change of the fishing ground are examined by using catch of stow net fishery (Fisheries Research and Development Agency, 1970-1979) and the water temperature data (Japan Hydrographic Association, 1978). The main fishing ground of yellow croaker was nine sea areas (rectangle of 30' latitude by 30' longitude) located at 40-150 nautical miles west and southwest of Jeju Island, the area of which occupies no more than $11\%$ of all fishing grounds, and it appeared that about $70\%$ of total catch of ten years was concentrated in this area. The main fishing periods were from March to May and September to October. The coefficients of variation of the catch for the main fishing ground were from 0.8 to 2.1 and the condition of all fishing grounds was generally unstable. The mean CPUE was 27kg/haul at the main fishing ground, while it was the largest on boundary area of the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water. It was found that the seasonal movement of fishing ground is related to the expansion and reduction of the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water ($10^{\circ}C$).

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On the Influence of the Oceanographic Condition in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea on the fluctuation of the Gang-dal-i fishing ground (동지나해 .황해의 해황이 강달이 어장의 변동에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seong-Gi;Jo, Gyu-Dae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 1982
  • In order to analyze the formation mechanism for the fishing ground of the Gang-dal-i, the relationship between the fish grounds of the Gang-dal-i and the oceanographic structure of the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea is investigated by using the data of the catches of stow net fishery (Fisheries Research and Development Agency, 1970-1979) and the oceanographic observation data (Japan Meteorological Agency). The main fishing grounds of the Gang-dal-i concentrated in the adjacent seas of Daeheugsan island and Sokotra Rock. In these areas, the fishing conditions are generally stable, because about 70% of the total catch of the Gang-dal-i for the ten years is occupied, CPUE also is relatively great, and the coefficients of variation of the catches are relatively small as 0.9 to 1.4. The main fishing periods are roughly from February to March and June to July, and the years of good catches are from 1974 to 1976. In general, the main fishing grounds are formed in the marginal areas of the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water. They are the frontal areas in which the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water is intermixed with the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The range of the temperature and the salinity in these regions are from 10 to 13$^{\circ}C$ and 32.5 to 34.4$\textperthousand$, respectively.

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Studies on the Fishery Biology of Pomfrets, Pampus spp. in the Korean Waters 5. Distribution and Fishing Condition (한국근해 병어류의 자원생물학적 연구 5. 분포와 어황)

  • CHO Kyu Dae;KIM Jeong Chang;CHOE Yong Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.294-305
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    • 1989
  • Basedon statistical data of pomfret (Pampus spp.) catches by the stow net during $1970\~1985$, the distribution and migration of pomfrets and fishing conditions were investigated in relation to oceanographic conditions, in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. The main fishing grounds of Pomfrets were formed around the Great Yangtze Sand Bank which locates between the Cheju Island and the mouth of the Yangtze River. Its area occupied only 11 percent of all fishing grounds, and about 70 percent of total catch was found there. The coefficient of variation(CV) in catch was below 0.01 in the whole fishing grounds and that of tile main fishing grounds (14 fishing areas) was $0.001\~0.003$. This area was indicated markedly by the inflow of Yellow Sea Warm Current from spring to autumn, and this mixing area which formed the oceanic front among the China Continental Shelf Water, the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water and the Tsushima Warm Current. The pomfrets migrates to south-north according to the expansion and contraction of the Tsushima Warm Current including the Yellow Sea Warm Current and the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water. Therefore, it migrates to north of the Yellow Sea in summer and to southern part of the East China Sea in winter. The most frequent range of the water type for high catch was $10\~12^{\circ}C$ in temperature and $32.4\~33.4\%_{circ}$ in salinity. The ranges was occupied more than 70 percent of total catch on fishing season. The frequency range of the water type was not different between the abundant fishing periods and the poor fishing periods in terms of the maximum catches.

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A study on the risk factors of the fishermen's in offshore large powered purse seine fishery using the accident compensation insurance proceeds payment data of NFFC (수협의 어선원 재해보상보험 자료를 이용한 대형선망어업 선원의 위험요인 연구)

  • CHOI, Jun-Ik;KIM, Hyung-Seok;LEE, Chun-Woo;OH, Taeg-Yun;SEO, Young-Il;LEE, Yoo-Won;RYU, Kyung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.55 no.1
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    • pp.82-93
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    • 2019
  • The International Labor Organization (ILO) selected fishing as the most dangerous group of jobs in the world, and it is well known in Korea as a 4D industry. Offshore large purse seine accounts for the largest portion of the fishing industry in the coastal region with high death rate and the accident rate. The repeated disaster rate survey by the Korea Maritime Institute (KMI) shows offshore large purse seiner is the highest at 22.3 percent and coastal gill nets and offshore stow net are following at 12.4 percent and 11.9 percent in order. Therefore, risk factors occurring in offshore large purse seiners were analyzed based on data from the National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives (NFFC) for three years from 2015 to 2017 and 4M (Man, Machine, Media, Management) 3E (Engineering, Education, Enforcement) techniques were used to provide a safe fishing environment. The number of accidents on offshore large purse seiners each year was more than 150, and the number of accidents on every fishing boats was as high as 17 percent in 2015. If the accident rate and the risk level were divided by insurance, the accident resulting from contact with machinery was the highest, and the risk of a contact with gear was low but frequently occurring. This was caused by collisions and contact with gear in situations where death and disappearance risk are not high, and accident types in situations where death and loss risk are considered to be contact with machinery, falls or other accidents. Through these analysis techniques, the frequency and risk of each type of accident on a offshore large purse seiners can be demonstrated, and it is expected to raise awareness of a safer fishing environment and contribute to the reduction of accidents.