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Investigation on the Actual State of Grassland in Republic of Korea (국내 초지보유농가의 초지실태 연구)

  • Lee, Bae Hun;Kim, Ji Yung;Sung, Kyung Il;Kim, Byong Wan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to investigate 106 grassland farms in six provinces including Chungcheongbuk-do, Gangwon-do, Gyeonggi-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, Jeju-do, and Jeollanam-do to present their problems and causes by surveying the actual state of grassland farms during three years(2014~2016). The grassland survey was divided into three categories; used as the perennial grasses and annual forage crops (Complied with Grassland Act), not used as the perennial grasses and annual forage crops (Not complied with Grassland Act) and failed to meet the farmer and some items are missing or inaccurate (Insufficient contents). Among the surveyed grassland farm, 68 farms (64.2 %) were complied with Grassland Act but 30 farms (28.3 %) were not complied with Grassland Act. Especially, the 8 farms (26.7 %) not complied with Grassland Act used the grassland as other purposes such as tree growing, golf club and swine farm etc.. Therefore, strict on-site investigation by local governments is required to prevent the grassland from being used by illegal purposes. And there's a strong likelihood that 5 farms (62.5 %) avoided the survey violate the positive law. Grassland grades used by the local administrative agencies were not influenced by the factors affecting the yield (existence and non-existence of overseeding and fertilization by grassland grade, soil pH and organic matter content). This results suggest that there is a fundamental problem on the current grassland grade system based on the yield and the irregular time of investigation and lack of on-site investigation are another causes for inaccurate grassland grade. Therefore, the new method evaluating grassland grades which is not based on yield and the thorough on-site investigation by local administrative agencies are necessary when the grassland grade is evaluated.

A Study on improvement of curriculum in Nursing (간호학 교과과정 개선을 위한 조사 연구)

  • 김애실
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 1974
  • This Study involved the development of a survey form and the collection of data in an effort-to provide information which can be used in the improvement of nursing curricula. The data examined were the kinds courses currently being taught in the curricula of nursing education institutions throughout Korea, credits required for course completion, and year in-which courses are taken. For the purposes of this study, curricula were classified into college, nursing school and vocational school categories. Courses were directed into the 3 major categories of general education courses, supporting science courses and professional education course, and further subdirector as. follows: 1) General education (following the classification of Philip H. phoenix): a) Symbolics, b) Empirics, c) Aesthetics. 4) Synthetics, e) Ethics, f) Synoptic. 2) Supporting science: a) physical science, b) biological science, c) social science, d) behavioral science, e) Health science, f) Educations 3) Professional Education; a) basic courses, b) courses in each of the respective fields of nursing. Ⅰ. General Education aimed at developing the individual as a person and as a member of society is relatively strong in college curricula compared with the other two. a) Courses included in the category of symbolics included Korean language, English, German. Chines. Mathematics. Statics: Economics and Computer most college curricula included 20 credits. of courses in this sub-category, while nursing schools required 12 credits and vocational school 10 units. English ordinarily receives particularly heavy emphasis. b) Research methodology, Domestic affair and women & courtney was included under the category of empirics in the college curricula, nursing and vocational school do not offer this at all. c) Courses classified under aesthetics were physical education, drill, music, recreation and fine arts. Most college curricula had 4 credits in these areas, nursing school provided for 2 credits, and most vocational schools offered 10 units. d) Synoptic included leadership, interpersonal relationship, and communications, Most schools did not offer courses of this nature. e) The category of ethics included citizenship. 2 credits are provided in college curricula, while vocational schools require 4 units. Nursing schools do not offer these courses. f) Courses included under synoptic were Korean history, cultural history, philosophy, Logics, and religion. Most college curricular 5 credits in these areas, nursing schools 4 credits. and vocational schools 2 units. g) Only physical education was given every Year in college curricula and only English was given in nursing schools and vocational schools in every of the curriculum. Most of the other courses were given during the first year of the curriculum. Ⅱ. Supporting science courses are fundamental to the practice and application of nursing theory. a) Physical science course include physics, chemistry and natural science. most colleges and nursing schools provided for 2 credits of physical science courses in their curricula, while most vocational schools did not offer t me. b) Courses included under biological science were anatomy, physiologic, biology and biochemistry. Most college curricula provided for 15 credits of biological science, nursing schools for the most part provided for 11 credits, and most vocational schools provided for 8 units. c) Courses included under social science were sociology and anthropology. Most colleges provided for 1 credit in courses of this category, which most nursing schools provided for 2 creates Most vocational school did not provide courses of this type. d) Courses included under behavioral science were general and clinical psychology, developmental psychology. mental hygiene and guidance. Most schools did not provide for these courses. e) Courses included under health science included pharmacy and pharmacology, microbiology, pathology, nutrition and dietetics, parasitology, and Chinese medicine. Most college curricula provided for 11 credits, while most nursing schools provide for 12 credits, most part provided 20 units of medical courses. f) Courses included under education included educational psychology, principles of education, philosophy of education, history of education, social education, educational evaluation, educational curricula, class management, guidance techniques and school & community. Host college softer 3 credits in courses in this category, while nursing schools provide 8 credits and vocational schools provide for 6 units, 50% of the colleges prepare these students to qualify as regular teachers of the second level, while 91% of the nursing schools and 60% of the vocational schools prepare their of the vocational schools prepare their students to qualify as school nurse. g) The majority of colleges start supporting science courses in the first year and complete them by the second year. Nursing schools and vocational schools usually complete them in the first year. Ⅲ. Professional Education courses are designed to develop professional nursing knowledge, attitudes and skills in the students. a) Basic courses include social nursing, nursing ethics, history of nursing professional control, nursing administration, social medicine, social welfare, introductory nursing, advanced nursing, medical regulations, efficient nursing, nursing english and basic nursing, College curricula devoted 13 credits to these subjects, nursing schools 14 credits, and vocational schools 26 units indicating a severe difference in the scope of education provided. b) There was noticeable tendency for the colleges to take a unified approach to the branches of nursing. 60% of the schools had courses in public health nursing, 80% in pediatric nursing, 60% in obstetric nursing, 90% in psychiatric nursing and 80% in medical-surgical nursing. The greatest number of schools provided 48 crudites in all of these fields combined. in most of the nursing schools, 52 credits were provided for courses divided according to disease. in the vocational schools, unified courses are provided in public health nursing, child nursing, maternal nursing, psychiatric nursing and adult nursing. In addition, one unit is provided for one hour a week of practice. The total number of units provided in the greatest number of vocational schools is thus Ⅲ units double the number provided in nursing schools and colleges. c) In th leges, the second year is devoted mainly to basic nursing courses, while the third and fourth years are used for advanced nursing courses. In nursing schools and vocational schools, the first year deals primarily with basic nursing and the second and third years are used to cover advanced nursing courses. The study yielded the following conclusions. 1. Instructional goals should be established for each courses in line with the idea of nursing, and curriculum improvements should be made accordingly. 2. Course that fall under the synthetics category should be strengthened and ways should be sought to develop the ability to cooperate with those who work for human welfare and health. 3. The ability to solve problems on the basis of scientific principles and knowledge and understanding of man society should be fostered through a strengthening of courses dealing with physical sciences, social sciences and behavioral sciences and redistribution of courses emphasizing biological and health sciences. 4. There should be more balanced curricula with less emphasis on courses in the major There is a need to establish courses necessary for the individual nurse by doing away with courses centered around specific diseases and combining them in unified courses. In addition it is possible to develop skill in dealing with people by using the social setting in comprehensive training. The most efficient ratio of the study experience should be studied to provide more effective, interesting education Elective course should be initiated to insure a man flexible, responsive educational program. 5. The curriculum stipulated in the education law should be examined.

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An Empirical Study in Relationship between Franchisor's Leadership Behavior Style and Commitment by Focusing Moderating Effect of Franchisee's Self-efficacy (가맹본부의 리더십 행동유형과 가맹사업자의 관계결속에 관한 실증적 연구 - 가맹사업자의 자기효능감의 조절효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Yang, Hoe-Chang;Lee, Young-Chul
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.49-71
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    • 2010
  • Franchise businesses in South Korea have contributed to economic growth and job creation, and its growth potential remains very high. However, despite such virtues, domestic franchise businesses face many problems such as the instability of franchisor's business structure and weak financial conditions. To solve these problems, the government enacted legislation and strengthened franchise related laws. However, the strengthening of laws regulating franchisors had many side effects that interrupted the development of the franchise business. For example, legal regulations regarding franchisors have had the effect of suppressing the franchisor's leadership activities (e.g. activities such as the ability to advocate the franchisor's policies and strategies to the franchisees, in order to facilitate change and innovation). One of the main goals of the franchise business is to build cooperation between the franchisor and the franchisee for their combined success. However, franchisees can refuse to follow the franchisor's strategies because of the current state of franchise-related law and government policy. The purpose of this study to explore the effects of franchisor's leadership style on franchisee's commitment in a franchise system. We classified leadership styles according to the path-goal theory (House & Mitchell, 1974), and it was hypothesized and tested that the four leadership styles proposed by the path-goal theory (i.e. directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented leadership) have different effects on franchisee's commitment. Another purpose of this study to explore the how the level of franchisee's self-efficacy influences both the franchisor's leadership style and franchisee's commitment in a franchise system. Results of the present study are expected to provide important theoretical and practical implications as to the role of franchisor's leadership style, as restricted by government regulations and the franchisee's self-efficacy, which could be needed to improve the quality of the long-term relationship between the franchisor and franchisee. Quoted by Northouse(2007), one problem regarding the investigation of leadership is that there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it. But despite the multitude of ways in which leadership has been conceptualized, the following components can be identified as central to the phenomenon: (a) leadership is a process, (b) leadership involves influence, (c) leadership occurs in a group context, and (d) leadership involves goal attainment. Based on these components, in this study leadership is defined as a process whereby franchisor's influences a group of franchisee' to achieve a common goal. Focusing on this definition, the path-goal theory is about how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. Drawing heavily from research on what motivates employees, path-goal theory first appeared in the leadership literature in the early 1970s in the works of Evans (1970), House (1971), House and Dessler (1974), and House and Mitchell (1974). The stated goal of this leadership theory is to enhance employee performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation. In brief, path-goal theory is designed to explain how leaders can help subordinates along the path to their goals by selecting specific behaviors that are best suited to subordinates' needs and to the situation in which subordinates are working (Northouse, 2007). House & Mitchell(1974) predicted that although many different leadership behaviors could have been selected to be a part of path-goal theory, this approach has so far examined directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented leadership behaviors. And they suggested that leaders may exhibit any or all of these four styles with various subordinates and in different situations. However, due to restrictive government regulations, franchisors are not in a position to change their leadership style to suit their circumstances. In addition, quoted by Northouse(2007), ssubordinate characteristics determine how a leader's behavior is interpreted by subordinates in a given work context. Many researchers have focused on subordinates' needs for affiliation, preferences for structure, desires for control, and self-perceived level of task ability. In this study, we have focused on the self-perceived level of task ability, namely, the franchisee's self-efficacy. According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is chiefly defined as the personal attitude of one's ability to accomplish concrete tasks. Therefore, it is not an indicator of one's actual abilities, but an opinion of the extent of how one can use that ability. Thus, the judgment of maintain franchisee's commitment depends on the situation (e.g., government regulation and policy and leadership style of franchisor) and how it affects one's ability to mobilize resources to deal with the task, so even if people possess the same ability, there may be differences in self-efficacy. Figure 1 illustrates the model investigated in this study. In this model, it was hypothesized that leadership styles would affect the franchisee's commitment, and self-efficacy would moderate the relationship between leadership style and franchisee's commitment. Theoretically, quoted by Northouse(2007), the path-goal approach suggests that leaders need to choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and the work they are doing. According to House & Mitchell (1974), the theory predicts that a directive style of leadership is best in situations in which subordinates are dogmatic and authoritarian, the task demands are ambiguous, and the organizational rule and procedures are unclear. In these situations, franchisor's directive leadership complements the work by providing guidance and psychological structure for franchisees. For work that is structured, unsatisfying, or frustrating, path-goal theory suggests that leaders should use a supportive style. Franchisor's Supportive leadership offers a sense of human touch for franchisees engaged in mundane, mechanized activity. Franchisor's participative leadership is considered best when a task is ambiguous because participation gives greater clarity to how certain paths lead to certain goals; it helps subordinates learn what actions leads to what outcome. Furthermore, House & Mitchell(1974) predicts that achievement-oriented leadership is most effective in settings in which subordinates are required to perform ambiguous tasks. Marsh and O'Neill (1984) tested the idea that organizational members' anger and decline in performance is caused by deficiencies in their level of effort and found that self-efficacy promotes accomplishment, decreases stress and negative consequences like depression and emotional instability. Based on the extant empirical findings and theoretical reasoning, we posit positive and strong relationships between the franchisor's leadership styles and the franchisee's commitment. Furthermore, the level of franchisee's self-efficacy was thought to maintain their commitment. The questionnaires sent to participants consisted of the following measures; leadership style was assessed using a 20 item 7-point likert scale developed by Indvik (1985), self-efficacy was assessed using a 24 item 6-point likert scale developed by Bandura (1977), and commitment was assessed using a 6 item 5-point likert scale developed by Morgan & Hunt (1994). Questionnaires were distributed to Korean optical franchisees in Seoul. It took about 20 days to complete the data collection. A total number of 140 questionnaires were returned and complete data were available from 137 respondents. Results of multiple regression analyses testing the relationships between the each of the four styles of leadership shown by the franchisor as independent variables and franchisee's commitment as the dependent variable showed that the relationship between supportive leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.13, p<.001),and the relationship between participative leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.07, p<.001)were significant. However, when participants divided into high and low self-efficacy groups, results of multiple regression analyses showed that only the relationship between achievement-oriented leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.14, p<.001) was significant in the high self-efficacy group. In the low self-efficacy group, the relationship between supportive leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.17, p<.001),and the relationship between participative leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.10, p<.001) were significant. The study focused on the franchisee's self-efficacy in order to explore the possibility that regulation, originally intended to protect the franchisee, may not be the most effective method to maintain the relationships in a franchise business. The key results of the data analysis regarding the moderating role of self-efficacy between leadership behavior style as proposed by path-goal and commitment theory were as follows. First, this study proposed that franchisor should apply the appropriate type of leadership behavior to strengthen the franchisees commitment because the results demonstrated that supportive and participative leadership styles by the franchisors have a positive influence on the franchisee's level of commitment. Second, it is desirable for franchisor to validate the franchisee's efforts, since the franchisee's characteristics such as self-efficacy had a substantial, positive effect on the franchisee's commitment as well as being a meaningful moderator between leadership and commitment. Third, the results as a whole imply that the government should provide institutional support, namely to put the franchisor in a position to clearly identify the characteristics of their franchisees and provide reasonable means to administer the franchisees to achieve the company's goal.

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