• Title, Summary, Keyword: strong law

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A Modern Analysis of 'Guanxi' of Foreign Investment in China

  • LEE, Seoung-Taek;PARK, Woo
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.68
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    • pp.197-218
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    • 2015
  • China is a land of guanxi, everything is connected with guanxi. China has a business culture based on guanxi connections underpinned by strong Confucian ethics. However, there are some reasons why it is difficult for western companies to run businesses in China. Firstly, foreign firms lack the understanding and experiences necessary for doing business in China. They don't know the absence of alternatives is one of reasons that guanxi is so powerful in Chinese society. Secondly, there are many misconceptions about guanxi. It is easier for many foreign scholars or businessmen to equate guanxi with corruption due to the ambiguity of guanxi. Thus, if a foreign enterprise possesses guanxi, it can be a source of competitive advantage for doing business due to lack of law systems for anti-corruption activities in China. Furthermore, it is gaining increasing importance not only in Business to Government(B2G) but also in Business to Consumers(B2C) relationships. Therefore,managers should pay great attention to the proper use of guanxi instead of being involved in corrupt behaviours because now the governments hold a strong attitude against corruption. In particular, establishment of working guanxi through red envelops(basically giving money) or illegal gifts can cause a great problem for both parties, which were naturally accepted among most government officials and businessmen until recently.

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A Social Network Analysis on the Common Initiative for the Electronic Government Law: Focusing on the Ruling Party and Seniority Effect

  • Lee, Hun-Hee;Han, Sang-Ik
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2019
  • This study aimed to investigate the political system related to the Electronic Government Law by analyzing the process of the common initiative of the law. To achieve the goal, this study applied the method of social analysis and sugessted the proper role of the assembly for realizing the electronic government and its control. The data were gathered from the bill information service of the national assembly. Netminer 4.0 was used for refining and analyzing data. The results are as follows. First, by analyzing three centrality(degree, betweenness, and eigenvector) of assembly member, the network effect of the powered party and reelected members were revealed as strong in the network. Second, through the component analysis, 5 sub-network has shown in total. The sub-networks showed two distinctive difference between two big parties. By the difference, members in two parties showed different characteristics in constituting communities and the effect of the powered party revealed as strong and clear. Based on the result, this study demonstrated the necessity of social solidarity rather than solipsism in committing common initiative. And a chronological research is need to anlayze $18^{th}$ and $19^{th}$ assembly to verify the effect of the powered party in prospect study.

PRECISE ASYMPTOTICS IN STRONG LIMIT THEOREMS FOR NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM FIELDS

  • Ryu, Dae-Hee
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.28 no.3_4
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    • pp.1025-1034
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    • 2010
  • Let {$X_n$, $n\;{\in}\;\mathbb{Z}_+^d$} be a field of identically distributed and negatively associated random variables with mean zero and set $S_n\;=\;{\sum}_{k{\leq}n}\;X_k$, $n\;{\in}\;\mathbb{Z}_+^d$, $d\;{\geq}\;2$. We investigate precise asymptotics for ${\sum}_n|n|^{r/p-2}P(|S_n|\;{\geq}\;{\epsilon}|n|^{1/p}$ and ${\sum}_n\;\frac{(\log\;|n|)^{\delta}}{|n|}P(|S_n|\;{\geq}\;{\epsilon}\;\sqrt{|n|\log|n|)}$, ($0\;{\leq}\;{\delta}\;{\leq}\;1$) as ${\epsilon}{\searrow}0$.

On the Almost Certain Rate of Convergence of Series of Independent Random Variables

  • Nam, Eun-Woo;Andrew Rosalsky
    • Journal of the Korean Statistical Society
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.91-109
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    • 1995
  • The rate of convergence to a random variable S for an almost certainly convergent series $S_n = \sum^n_{j=1} X_j$ of independent random variables is studied in this paper. More specifically, when $S_n$ converges to S almost certainly, the tail series $T_n = \sum^{\infty}_{j=n} X_j$ is a well-defined sequence of random variable with $T_n \to 0$ a.c. Various sets of conditions are provided so that for a given numerical sequence $0 < b_n = o(1)$, the tail series strong law of large numbers $b^{-1}_n T_n \to 0$ a.c. holds. Moreover, these results are specialized to the case of the weighted i.i.d. random varialbes. Finally, example are provided and an open problem is posed.

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L-pre-separation axioms in (2, L)-topologies based on complete residuated lattice-valued logic

  • Zeyada, Fathei M.;Abd-Allahand, M. Azab;Mousa, A.K.
    • International Journal of Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.115-127
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    • 2009
  • In the present paper we introduce and study L-pre-$T_0$-, L-pre-$T_1$-, L-pre-$T_2$ (L-pre-Hausdorff)-, L-pre-$T_3$ (L-pre-regularity)-, L-pre-$T_4$ (L-pre-normality)-, L-pre-strong-$T_3$-, L-pre-strong-$T_4$-, L-pre-$R_0$-, L-pre-$R_1$-separation axioms in (2, L)-topologies where L is a complete residuated lattice.Sometimes we need more conditions on L such as the completely distributive law or that the "$\bigwedge$" is distributive over arbitrary joins or the double negation law as we illustrate through this paper. As applications of our work the corresponding results(see[1,2]) are generalized and new consequences are obtained.

A Direction for Convergence Law in the Era of Digital Convergence (디지털 융합 환경에서 방송통신 통합법 체계의 방향)

  • Lee, Sang-Woo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.35 no.3B
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    • pp.536-550
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    • 2010
  • This study analyzes the characteristics of broadcasting law and telecommunication law and suggested the key legitimate of regulation where convergence law would go for in the convergence circumstances by drawing the common and differential characteristics of two laws. Moreover, in the value of inherent pursuit of broadcasting law and telecommunication law, this paper examined whether these values continued to be reflected in the convergence law, and indicated the direction how these values should adopt in the convergence law. The result of this study shows that strong entry regulation has applied to both broadcasting and telecommunications industry. Also, both industries have been required to be universal service to realize the value. Meanwhile, the pursuit of original value of broadcasting law and telecommunication law can be summarized as secure of access and diversity, respectively. In the convergence law, it is necessary to compensate and modify the meaning of access and diversity based on traditional regulation.

Mesh Independent 3-D Modeling of Spot Welded Joints using Finite Elements with Embedded Strong Discontinuities (강한 불연속이 내장된 유한요소를 이용한 스폿 용접 접합의 망 독립적 삼차원 모델링)

  • Kim, Jongheon
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.283-288
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    • 2017
  • A spot welded joint is modeled using 3-D finite elements with embedded strong discontinuities. The spot weld is represented by a special cohesive law on the embedded discontinuity surface, instead of meshing its geometry. This strategy naturally eliminates the need of adaptive FEM meshes fitting the local geometry of the spot weld. Mesh independent solutions are guaranteed by explicitly modeling the detailed shape of the spot weld, which is in contrast with the exiting approach using point constraints for the spot weld.

A NEW KIND OF THE LAW OF THE ITERATED LOGARITHM FOR PRODUCT OF A CERTAIN PARTIAL SUMS

  • Zang, Qing-Pei
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.1041-1046
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    • 2011
  • Let {X, $X_{i};\;i{\geq}1$} be a sequence of independent and identically distributed positive random variables. Denote $S_n= \sum\array\\_{i=1}^nX_i$ and $S\array\\_n^{(k)}=S_n-X_k$ for n ${\geq}$1, $1{\leq}k{\leq}n$. Under the assumption of the finiteness of the second moments, we derive a type of the law of the iterated logarithm for $S\array\\_n^{(k)}$ and the limit point set for its certain normalization.

Manufacturing Process and Component Analysis of Seawater Salt Using Seaweeds (해조류를 이용한 해수소금 제조기법 및 성분분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Won;Kim, Hyeon-Ju;Moon, Deok-Soo;Jung, Dong-Ho;Choi, Hark-Sun
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.61-65
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    • 2007
  • In this research, we have developed a manufacturing process for seawater salt by horizontal spray drying technique using the deep ocean water and seaweed(sea tangle). Deep ocean water, strong acidic electrolyzed water and strong alkaline electrolyzed water were used as extraction solvent of seaweed. Sodium content in seaweed extract solution by strong alkaline electrolyzed water was 1.63(mg/g), which was 3.5 times lower than of seaweed extract by strong acidic electrolyzed water. Major mineral content(Na, K, Ca) in seawater salt by deep ocean water were higher than strong acidic electrolyzed water and strong alkaline electrolyzed water. On the contrary, Mg contents in seawater salt by deep ocean water were lower than strong acidic electrolyzed water and strong alkaline electrolyzed water. Based on the results of seawater salt production using seaweed, it is possible to make law-salt efficiently.