• Title, Summary, Keyword: sulfated polysaccharide

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Antioxidant Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from Sargassum fulvellum

  • Choi, Dae-Sung;Athukorala, Yasantha;Jeon, You-Jin;Senevirathne, Mahinda;Cho, Kyun-Rha;Kim, Soo-Hyun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2007
  • Sargassum fulvellum, a marine brown alga, is a popular low priced edible plant in Korean markets. The polysaccharide fraction of the alga was separated and investigated for its radical scavenging activities and the results compared with those of commercial fucoidans (Fucus vesiculosus and Undaria pinnatifida), BHA and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. The polysaccharide fraction of S. fulvellum showed a promising DPPH radical scavenging activity than did other fucoidans. Moreover, the sample exhibited a dose-dependent activity on hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity in the V79-4 cell line. Interestingly, all the tested polysaccharide counterparts were more potent NO. scavengers than were the commercial antioxidants, BHA and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol. The sulfated polysaccharide of S. fulvellum had an approximate molecular weight of 529 kDa and mainly consisted of fucose and galactose, and minor amounts of mannose, rhamnose and xylose.

Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Polysaccharide with Antithrombin Activity against Blood Coagulation in Manda®, a Fermented Natural Food

  • Kim, Dong Chung;Okuda, Hiromichi;Hwang, Woo Ik;Jung, Jin
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.235-239
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    • 2000
  • A polysaccharide with antithrombin activity in Manda$^{(R)}& (PAM) was purified via procedures comprising three major steps, i.e. fractional precipitation with ethanol, anion exchange chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. PAM showed a symmetrical peak on size exclusion HPLC, as assessed by refractive index, and behaved as a single band on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The average molecular mass was estimated to be 222 kDa by gel filtration. PAM was found to be a sulfated heteropolysaccharide that contains sulfate group (20.5%, w/w) and uronic acid moiety (7.1 %, w/w) in addition to neutral sugar consisting of fucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose in a molar ratio of 1.00 : 0.35 : 0.28: 0.22 : 0.15. This polysaccharide appeared to inhibit blood coagulation via the intrinsic pathway in a dose-dependent pattern. The clotting of fibrinogen by thrombin was also significantly mitigated by the presence of PAM.

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Antiviral Effects of Sulfated Exopolysaccharide from the Marine Microalge Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03

  • Im, Jeong-Han;Kim, Seong-Jin;Park, Gyu-Jin;An, Se-Hun;Lee, Hyeon-Sang;Lee, Hong-Geum
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.615-620
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    • 2003
  • The sulfated exopolysaccharide p-KG03, which is produced by the marine microalga Gyrodinium impudicum strain KG03, exhibited impressive antiviral activity in vitro ($EC_{50}$ = 26.9 g/ml) against the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Depending on the p-KG03 concentration, the development of cytopathic effects in EMCV-infected HeLa cells was either inhibited completely or slowed. Moreover, p-KG03 did not show any cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells, even at concentrations up to 1,000 g/ml. The polysaccharide was purified by repeated precipitation in ethanol, followed by gel filtration. The p-KG03 polysaccharide had a molecular weight of $1.87\;{\times}\;10^6$, and was characterized as a homopolysaccharide of galactose with uronic acid (2.96%, w/w) and sulfate groups (10.32% w/w). The biological activities of p-KG03 suggest that sulfated metabolites from marine organisms are a rich source of antiviral agents. This is the first reported marine source of antiviral sulfated polysaccharides against EMCV. The p-KG03 polysaccharide may be useful for the development of marine bioactive exopolysaccharides for use in biotechnological and pharmaceutical products.

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Evaluation of Biomolecular Interactions of Sulfated Polysaccharide Isolated from Grateloupia filicina on Blood Coagulation Factors

  • Athukorala, Yasantha;Jung, Won-Kyo;Park, Pyo-Jam;Lee, Young-Jae;Kim, Se-Kwon;Vasanthan, Thava;No, Hong-Kyoon;Jeon, You-Jin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.503-511
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    • 2008
  • An edible marine red alga, Grateloupia filicina, collected from Jeju Island of Korea was hydrolyzed by cheap food-grade carbohydrases (Viscozyme, Celuclast, AMC, Termamyl, and Ultraflo) to investigate its anticoagulant activity. Among the tested enzymatic extracts of G. filicina, a Termamyl extract showed the highest anticoagulant activity. Anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel-permeation chromatography on Sepharose-4B were used to purify the active polysaccharide from the crude polysaccharide fraction of G. filicina. The purified sulfated polysaccharide (0.42 sulfate/total sugar) showed ${\sim}1,357kDa$ molecular mass and was comprised mainly of galactose(98%) and 1-2% of glucose. The sample showed potential anticoagulant activity on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) thrombin time (TT) assays. The purified G. filicina anticoagulant (GFA) inhibited the coagulation factor X (92%), factor II (82%), and factor VII (68%) of the coagulation cascade, and the molecular interaction (protein-polysaccharide) was highly enhanced in the presence of ATIII (antithrombin III). The dissociation constant of polysaccharide towards serine proteins decreased in the order of FXa (58.9 nM) >FIIa (74.6 nM) >FVII (109.3 nM). The low/less cytotoxicity of the polysaccharide benefits its use in the pharmaceutical industry; however, further studies that would help us to elucidate the mechanism of its activity are needed.

Functional Properties of Sulfated Polysaccharides in Ascidian(Halocynthia roretzs) Tunic (우렁쉥이 껍질 중 황산화다당의 기능적 특성)

  • LEE Kang-Ho;CHOI Byeong-Dae;HONG Byeong-Il;JUNG Byung-Chun;RUCK Ji-Hee;JUNG Woo-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.447-451
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    • 1998
  • Functional properties such as anti-blood coagulation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, fat binding capacity, foaming properties, emulsifying properties and chemical components of sulfated polysaccharides isolated from ascidian tunics were investigated. The sulfated polysaccharide mainly consisted of sulfate, uronic acid, protein, and chondroitin sulfate, among which chondroitin sulfate showed higher concentration while sulfate and uronic acid did lower. Compositional menosaccharides were arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, glucuronic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetyglucosamine. Especially, galactose content was dominant among them. And emulsifiability and foaminess of the sulfated polysaccharide was higher than the control group. Anti-blood coagulation of sulfated polysaccharide showed with respect to APTT (Activated partial thromboplastin time). ACE inhibitory activity showed about $16.7\%$.

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Mechanism of Lipid Accumulation in Atherosclerosis (동맥경화증(動脈硬化症)의 지방축적(脂肪蓄積) Mechanism)

  • Kim, Young-Choong
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.157-167
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    • 1978
  • Atherosclerosis is associated with the presence of extracellular lipid droplets and large fatty deposits, both of which are to be covered at the surface mainly by zwitterionic phospholipids. The development of atherosclerosis is often associated with the accumulation of calcium. Furthermore, the presence of glycosaminoglycans directly underlying fatty deposits in human aorta has been demonstrated. Also, the possible involvement of the interaction between sulfated polysaccharide and lipoprotein in the development of atherosclerosis has been suggested in view of the presence of both low density lipoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, as well as their complexes, in atherosclerotic aortas. Therefore interactions of sulfated polysaccharides with low density lipoproteins which serve as a vehicle for cholesterol and cholesterol ester and with zwitterionic phospholipids have been studied extensively by a number of workers to provide mechanisms. In this paper, the mechanism of the interaction of sulfated polysaccharides with low density lipoproteins and the mechanism of the interaction between sulfated polysaccharides and zwitterionic phospholipids are reviewed. The possibility of the occurence of these interactions in the body are also considered.

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Inhibition of Tumor Invasion and Metastasis by Calcium Spirulan(Ca-SP), a Novel Sulfated Polysaccharide Derived from a Blue-Green Alga Spirulina Platensis

  • Saiki, Ikuo;Murata, Jun;Fujii, Hideki;Kato, Toshimitsu
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.144-150
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    • 2004
  • We have investigated the effect of calcium spirulan(Ca-SP) isolated from a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, which is a sulfated polysaccharide chelating calcium and mainly composed of rhamnose and fructose, on invasion of both B16- BL6 melanoma cells, Colon 26 carcinoma and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells through reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel). Ca-SP significantly inhibited the invasion of these tumor cells through Matrigel/fibronectin-coated filters in a concentration-dependent manner. Ca-SP also inhibited the haptotactic migration of tumor cells to laminin, but it had no inhibitory effect on tumor cell migration to fibronectin-coated filters. Ca-SP prevented the adhesion of B16-BL6 cells to Matrigel- and laminin-substrates but did not affect the adhesion to fibronectin. The pretreatment of tumor cells with Ca-SP inhibited the adhesion to laminin in a concentration-dependent fashion, while the pretreatment of laminin-substrates did not. Ca-SP had no effect on the production and activation of type IV collagenase in gelatin zymography. In contraset, Ca-SP significantly inhibited degradation of heparan sulfate by purified heparanase. The experimental lung metastasis was significantly reduced by co-injection of B16-BL6 cells with Ca-SP in a dose-dependent manner. Seven intermittent ⅰ.ⅴ. injection of 100$\mu\textrm{g}$ of Ca-SP caused a marked decrease of lung tumor colonization of B16-BL6 cells in a spontaneous lung metastasis model. These results suggest that Ca-SP, a novel sulfated polysaccharide, could reduce the lung colonization of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in experimental metastasis model, by inhibiting the tumor invasion of basement membrane Matrigel, probably through the prevention of the adhesion and migration of tumor cells to laminin-substrate and of the heparanase activity.

Sulfated Polysaccharide Protects against Ionizing Radiation-induced Skin Damages (이온화 방사선으로 인한 피부 손상에 대한 Sulfated Polysaccharide의 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Areum;Cho, Jinhee;Madushani Herath, Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka;Jee, Youngheun
    • Journal of Chitin and Chitosan
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2017
  • Sulfated polysaccharide (SP), generally known as fucoidan and commonly found in the cell walls of brown algae, has been reported to present biological effects including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant activities. Exposure to ionizing gamma-ray induces cellular production of reactive oxygen species and hair follicular cells, being the most sensitive to gammaray immediately go through apoptosis and damage their rapid differentiation essential for regeneration of hair. In this study we investigated the protective potential of SP's against gamma-ray induced hair follicle cells injury. For that, 8.5Gy gamma-ray was irradiated to the whole body of C57BL/6 mouse at day 6 after depilation treated with and without SP. Treatment with SP markedly inhibited formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances(TBARS) compared to control group (without SP) after 48 h of irradiation. Increased cleaved caspase-3 and p53 expression by irradiation was decreased by treatment with SP after 8 h of irradiation. Furthermore, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated d-uridine 5' triphosphate nick end labelling (TUNEL) staining showed that the proportion of apoptotic cells in gamma-ray irradiated skins was significantly lower in mouse treated with SP than control group (without SP). Also, SP treatment increased the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells compared with those of irradiation only group. These results suggest that SP has potential as a radioprotector for hair follicular cells.

Anticoagulation Activities of Low Molecular Weight Sulfated Chitosan and Sulfated Sodium Alginate (저분자량의 황산화 키토산과 황산화 알진산 나트륨의 항응고성)

  • 김공수;이지원;조석형
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.583-588
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    • 2003
  • Sulfated chitosan and sulfated sodium alginate were synthesized by sulfating reaction of low molecular chitosan and low molecular sodium alginate with SO$_3$-pyridine complex. When the weight ratio of SO$_3$-pyridine complex to polysaccharide was 1:5, the degrees of sulfation were the highest at 2.75 and 2.53 respectively. The anticoagulation effect was the highest when the molecular weight was 8.0${\times}$10$^3$ Da, and the anticoagulation activity was the highest at 91% of that of heparin when sulfated chitosan and sulfated sodium alginate were mixed at a weight ratio of 1:1. The anticoagulation activity was highest at 84% of that of heparin in the active plastin trombo test (aPTT) when sulfated chitosan and sulfated sodium alginate were mixed at a weight ratio of 1:1.