• Title, Summary, Keyword: super absorbent polymer

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Method for nutrient solution extraction from used diposed diapers (일회용 폐기저귀에서 양액 추출 방안)

  • Nobel, Ballhysa;Han, Se Hee
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.34-41
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    • 2020
  • Used disposable diapers have been considered for a long time as a type of waste difficult to recycle and valorize due to their composite nature including plastic, cellulose pulp, a super absorbent polymer and either urine, feces or both. Therefore, the fate of disposed diapers often is either incineration or landfill burial which both have various adverse environmental impacts. However, used disposable diapers contain nutrients: cellulose is an organic matter while urine and feces contain non negligible amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium which are primary nutrients included in most chemical fertilizers used in agriculture. In a scope of waste recycling and valorization, this study focuses on developing a method to achieve nutrient solution extraction from used disposable diapers. The experiment essentially consists in shredding the diapers and letting them macerate in solutions of sodium hydroxide with various concentrations to allow breaking down of the cellulose and super absorbent polymer and release of urine and feces before sterilizing the solutions in an autoclave to remove potential coliform bacteria. At the end of the experiment, a set of parameters is measured for the final solution to identify concentrations of nutrients as well as presence or absence of harmful substances. Results are discussed and directions for future studies are suggested, which include mechanization of the diapers shredding process or added aeration to enhance nitrification and absorption of extracted nutrients from plants.

Evaluation of Cellulose and Super-Absorbent-Polymer as an Absorbent of Tube-type Tear Test Kit (튜브형 눈물검사키트 흡수제로서 셀룰로오스와 고흡수성 폴리머의 유용성 평가)

  • Park, Jung-Eun;Song, In-Chang;Jeong, Myeong-Jin;Lee, Koon-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Vision Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.495-502
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of cellulose (CEL) filter and super-absorbent-polymer (SAP) as an absorbent of tube type tear test kits. Methods: Tube type tear test kits (kit-CEL and kit-SAP) were made by inserting cellulose filter and super absorbent polymer respectively. To evaluate the repeatability of tear test kits made, the tip of the test kits were immersed for 1 to 5 seconds into solutions of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and $2.0{\mu}{\ell}$. The experiment was repeated for 10 times, respectively. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed for the effect of the amount of solution and absorption time on absorbed distance of the tear test kits. Results: The absorbed distances of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were significantly increased with the volume of solution and absorption time, however kit-CEL showed lineality within $2{\mu}l$ and kit-SAP showed lineality within $1.5{\mu}l$ of solution. The absorption lengths of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were correlated with the volume of solution and absorption time that correlation coefficients (r) were 0.683 and 0.705 with the volume of solution and 0.665 and 0.530 with the absorption time. The power of explanation ($R^2$) of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were 0.840, 0.776 for the volume of solution and absorption time. The reliability of the kit-CEL and kit-SAP were measured as 0.998 and 0.987 respectively. Conclusion: The kit-CEL and kit-SAP showed good accuracy and high power of explanation for the volume of solution and absorption time that both kits could be evaluated as suitable tools for tear volume test, however, the kit-CEL could be more useful than kit-SAP.

Effect of Internal Curing by Super-Absorbent Polymer (SAP) on Hydration, Autogenous Shrinkage, Durability and Mechanical Characteristics of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) (고흡수성 수지(SAP)를 이용한 내부양생이 초고성능 콘크리트(UHPC)의 수화반응, 자기수축, 내구성 및 역학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Sung-Hoon;Moon, Juhyuk;Hong, Sung-Gul
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.317-328
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    • 2016
  • This research intends to understand the impact of super-absorbent polymer (SAP) as an internal curing agent in Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). Two different types of SAPs of acrylic acid (SAP_AA) and acrylic acid-co-acrylamide (SAP_AM) were examined with UHPC formulation. Isothermal calorimetry and x-ray diffraction experiments revealed the impact of polymers with the different chemical bonds on cement hydration. To test its feasibility as a shrinkage reducing admixture for UHPC, a series of experiments including flowability, compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability and autogenous shrinkage profile was performed. While both SAPs showed a reduction in autogenous shrinkage, it has been concluded that the SAP size and chemical form significantly affect the performance as an internal curing agent in UHPC by controlling cement hydration and porosity modification. Between the tested SAPs, SAP_AM which absorbs more water in UHPC than SAP_AA, shows better mechanical and durability performance.

Effect of Absorbent Materials and Initial Sealed Curing on Drying Shrinkage and Compressive Strength of Hwangtoh Mortar (흡수성 물질과 초기 밀봉양생이 황토 모르타르의 건조수축과 압축강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Yang-Hee;Hong, Sung-Gul
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2016
  • This study investigates the effect of the absorbent materials on the material properties(compressive strength and drying shrinkage) of natural hwangtoh mortar which is one of the traditional building material in Korea. The absorbent materials used are seaweed paste and Super-Absorbent Polymer(SAP). In addition to the absorbent materials, the initial sealed curing recommended by the standard specification of properties for Korean traditional building materials is also a main interest of this study. Based on the test results of 28 days compressive strength and converged drying shrinkage, it is confirmed that the initial sealed curing for 7 days is effective to reduce the drying shrinkage and to enhance the compressive strength. Thus, it is verified that the recommendation is reasonable and has positive effects on the properties of the mortar. Next, the test results show that the addition of absorbent materials into the mortar is also effective to the two properties depending on their absorption capacity. Thus, it is more effective to use SAP than the seaweed paste because of higher absorption capacity. However, both the initial sealed curing and keeping total water contents of the mortar are required to show this effectiveness. Lastly, the compressive strength is inversely proportional to the drying shrinkage. By using this relation, the reason of the increase of compressive strength due to the initial sealed curing or the addition of absorbent materials is quantitatively explained.

Studies on the Recovery of Useful Materials from Disposable Diaper Waste using Pilot Stock Preparation Units (파일럿 지료 조성설비를 이용한 폐 일회용 기저귀의 유용성분 회수에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Tai Ju;Nam, Yoon Seok;Park, Jeong Eun;Jo, Jun Hyung;Ryu, Jeong Yong;Lee, Ho Sun
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.66-75
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    • 2015
  • Disposable diaper waste is consisted of plastic, fiber, and SAP (Super Absorbent Polymer). They are valuable to be used as raw materials of other products including plastic blocks and pulp mold. Nevertheless, disposable diaper waste have been disposed by landfill and incineration without recycling. Due to strict environmental regulations it is necessary to develop fractionation technique to recycle the disposable diaper waste. In this study the fractionation technique using pilot-scale stock preparation units was investigated. Process for separation of plastic and fibers from disposable diaper waste was composed by the combination of pilot-scale pulper, drum screen, screen and cleaner. Recovery rate of plastics and fiber was checked according to the various operating conditions. In drum screen, recovery rate of plastic was high when the cut size of disposable diaper waste was $5cm{\times}5cm$. The highest recovery rate of fiber was achieved with 0.3 mm slot screen. It is important to control the neutral state of SAP for improvement of recovery rate of fiber since SAP can be swelled easily in water. Therefore SAP can be controlled efficiently by the addition of calcium chloride into the pulper. Consequently recovery rates of plastics and fibers were over 90 and 80% under the optimum pilot operating conditions.

Effect of Super Absorbent Polymer on Germination and Growth of Safflower and Amaranth Sprouts (고흡수성 합성고분자가 홍화 및 아마란스 새싹의 발아 및 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Seong-Nam;Lee, Ga-Oun;Lee, Seung-man;Yun, Jae Gil;Shin, Hyunsuk;Son, Ki-Ho
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2021
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the growth characteristics, phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) sprout and investigate the possibility of using super absorbent polymer (SAP) as a medium in hydroponic cultivation in a plant factory. The control was used a commercial sprout cultivation tool (19 × 14 × 9 cm, W × D × L), and a treatment (SAP) was added on the cultivation tool to compare the effect of SAP. Safflower sprouts were immersed in a distilled water at 30 ℃ for 5 hours, and then grown in a plant growth chamber. The temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25 ± 1℃ and 70 ± 4%, respectively. The light condition was maintained at 35 ± 6 μmol·m-2·s-1 (12h). Amaranth sprouts were grown in a plant growth chamber maintained with temperature of 25 ± 2℃, relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and light condition of 188 ± 10 μmol·m-2·s-1 (16h). A physical and chemical characteristic of SAP, and a germination rate, growth characteristics and secondary metabolites were analyzed in both safflower and amaranth. There was no significant effect on SAP in a germination rate, growth and secondary metabolites of safflower compared to the control, whereas amaranth grown under SAP was higher in germination rate, dry weight, phenolic concentration, and antioxidant capacity compared to the control. As a result, this study was suggested that cultivation of sprouts using SAP would be possible in a plant factory, and further studies on SAP on plant physiological response are required.

Preparation and Characterization of Bead Type Superabsorbent Resin (비드형 고흡수성 수지의 제조 및 특성연구)

  • Ahn, Kyo Duck;Yoon, Minjoong
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.760-766
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    • 2014
  • Bead type super-absorbent resins to be used for release-control were prepared by modification of the inverse suspension polymerization, and their physical properties were characterized. Acrylic acid and acrylamide were used as monomers, and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide was used as crosslinker, controlling the viscosity of monomer solution by adding hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC). SEM studies of the synthesized beads verified that the bead surfaces had many pores with their diameters of several tens nm. The bead sizes were in the range of $500{\sim}3000{\mu}m$, depending on the viscosity of the monomer solution. Both absorbent amount and absorbent rate of the beads were inversely proportional to the bead size, and the maximum water absorbent amount of 1 g beads was determined to be ca. 170~200 g for 5 hrs. The absorbent rate was also dependent on pH change of the aqueous solution, exhibiting the maximum rate in pH ranging from 5 to 11. The absorbent rate decreased as the concentration of salt (NaCl and $MgCl_2$) or ethanol and ethylene glycol increased. Release time of the water absorbed into the bead resins was 700 hrs, confirming the usefulness of the resin for the good release-control materials.

Performance Test of Low Temperature Regeneration Polymeric Desiccant Rotor (고분자 제습로터의 저온재생 성능시험)

  • Lee, Jin-Kyo;Lee, Dae-Young;Oh, Myung-Do
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.629-632
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    • 2009
  • The polymeric desiccant rotor is made from the super absorbent polymer by ion modification. The moisture sorption capacity of the super desiccant polymer(SDP) is 4 to 5 times larger than those of common desiccant meterials such as silica gel or zeolite. It is also known that SDP can be regenerated even at the relatively low temperature. To fabricate the desiccant rotor, firstly the SDP was laminated by coating the SDP on polyethylene sheet. Then corrugated and rolled up into a rotor. The diameter, the depth, the dimensions of the corrugated channel, etc. were pre-determined from numerical simulation on the heat and mass transfer in the desiccant rotor. The dehumidification performance was tested in a climate chamber. The relevant tests were carried out at the process air inlet temperature of $32^{\circ}C$, the regeneration air inlet temperature of $60^{\circ}C$ and the inlet dew-point temperature of both the process air and the regeneration air of $18.5^{\circ}C$, when the rotation period is long, the moisture sorption is not effective. In the desiccant rotor developed in this study, the optimum rotation period is found about 350s at the regeneration temperature of $60^{\circ}C$. It was found from further experiments that the optimum rotation tends to decreases as the regeneration temperature increases. Meanwhile, the outlet temperature of the process air deceases monotonically as the rotation period increases.

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Optimization of the Water Absorption by Crosslinked Agar-g-Poly(acrylic acid) (Agar 그래프트 폴리아크릴산 겔의 흡수능 최적화)

  • Wuttisela, Karntarat;Panijpan, Bhinyo;Triampo, Wannapong;Triampo, Darapond
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.537-543
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    • 2008
  • Crosslinked agar-g-poly(acrylic acid) (x-agar-g-PAA) super absorbent with a water absorbency ($Q_{H2O}$) of approximately 660 g/g was synthesized by the copolymerization of agar with an acrylic acid monomer. KPS and MBA were used as the initiator and crosslinker, respectively. Grafting was performed in air. Infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the product of copolymerization. The optimum conditions to synthesize the x-agar-g-PAA superabsorbent were 0.1 g of agar, 0.1 g of the KPS initiator, for 15 min; 50% AA monomer, 0.005 g of the MBA crosslinker, for a propagation time of 5 min; and 1 M NaOH for 15 min to allow for saponification. The reaction temperature was $80{^\circ}C$.

Synthesis and Characterizations of Polyacrylic Superabsorbent Polymer Containing Sorbitol (Sorbitol이 결합된 아크릴계 고흡수성 수지의 합성 및 특성)

  • Kim, Kong-Soo;Shin, Jae-Sup;Moon, Yong-Un;Lee, Kwang-Yong
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.136-144
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    • 1996
  • Polyacrylic super absorbent polymer(SAP) containing sorbitol was synthesized by inverse-suspension polymerization method. Sodium acrylate and acrylic acid were used as a monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate(EGDMA) and glycerol polyglycidyl ether(GPGE) were used as a crosslinking agent, potassium persulfate(PPS) was used as an initiator, and cyclohexane was used as a solvent. Content of sorbitol was from 10mol% to 50mol% according to the mol ratio of acrylic acid monomer. The size distribution of the round shaped polymeric particle was $177{\sim}707{\mu}m$. Absorption amount of the polymer containing sorbitol was 785 to 1086 times of the polymer weight in distilled water, was 50 to 83 times in 0.9 % NaCl solution. Absorption and retention amount of the polymer were decreased with increasing the amount of sorbitol, but the polymer has an endothermic property which is +5 cal/g SAP.

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