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Characteristic Analysis and Production of Short-Ripened Korean Traditional Soy Sauce Added with Rice Bran (미강 첨가량에 따른 단기숙성 간장의 제조 및 특성 분석)

  • Jeong, Su-Ji;Shin, Mee-Jin;Jeong, Seong-Yeop;Yang, Hee-Jong;Jeong, Do-Youn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.550-556
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    • 2014
  • Rice bran contains both excellent nutritional value and functional advantages. Its utilization is limited due to reducing texture and low storage. To satisfy various tastes, Bacillus spp. having high amylase and protease activities were selected. Using the strains, we made whole grain soybean Meju with a reduced manufacturing period by increasing the concentration of total nitrogen. We made soy sauces with mashing ratios of soy bean and rice bran at 10:0, 9:1, 7:3, and 5:5, and then compared their physiochemical properties. After 2 weeks of fermentation, the sugar content increased from 21~22% to 30~32%. However, pH and salinity showed no differences. At a ratio of 9:1, total nitrogen, amino nitrogen content, and total free amino acid contents were the highest at 1.62%, 652.52 mg%, and 8,804.03 mg/kg, respectively, compared to other mashing ratios of soy bean and rice bran. Especially, the contents of aspartic and glutamic acid, which increase delicate flavoring, were higher in our soy sauce compared to those of general traditional soy sauce and brewed soy sauce, which were 504.25 and 1,262.25 mg/kg, respectively. Serine and alanine, which are related to sweet taste, were present at 49.50 and 518.75 mg/kg, respectively, which were the highest among all mixing ratios, at a ratio of 9:1. Compared to general traditional soy sauce and brewed soy sauce, the contents of histamine and tyramine among biogenic amines decreased to 35.85 and 41.04 mg/kg, respectively. Finally, a soy bean and rice bran mixing ratio of 9:1 was determined to be the optimal mixing ratio in the sensory evaluation.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Morning Bread- Containing Aronia Sourdough Starter (아로니아 sourdough starter를 이용한 모닝빵의 품질특성 및 항산화 활성)

  • Sim, Sol;Park, Yeong-Ju;Lee, Jin-Ho;Jeong, So-Yeon;Lim, Ju-Jin;Yu, Ga-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Gyeom;Suh, Hee-Jae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.463-472
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of morning bread containing various amounts of aronia sourdough starter. Morning breads were prepared with different volumes (0% (AS0), 15% (AS1), 25% (AS2), and 35% (AS3)) of aronia sourdough starter based on wheat flour. In AS3 group (35% added group), the specific volume and baking loss rate were the highest but the bread height was the lowest. When the aronia sourdough starter was added up to 25%, the expansion power, specific volume, and bread height were significantly increased (P<0.05). According to the added amount of sourdough starters, the lightness and yellowness of the morning bread were decreased, however, redness was increased (P<0.05). In the rheology analysis, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were significantly decreased with increasing amounts of aronia sourdough starters (P<0.05). However, cohesiveness was the highest in the AS2 group (25% added group). In consumer preference, the highest scores were shown in AS2 group (25% added group) in color, texture, and appearance. The total polyphenol and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability were both significantly increased along with aronia sourdough content (P<0.05). In conclusion, morning bread with 25% aronia sourdough starter showed the best quality characteristics and antioxidant activities.

A Study on the Reproducibility of 3D Shape Model of Garden Cultural Heritage using Photogrammetry with SNS Photographs - Focused on Soswaewon Garden, Damyang(Scenic Site No.40) - (SNS 사진과 사진측량을 이용한 정원유산의 3차원 형상 재현 가능성 연구 - 명승 제40호 담양 소쇄원(潭陽 瀟灑園)을 대상으로 -)

  • Kim, Choong-Sik;Lee, Sang-Ha
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.94-104
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    • 2018
  • This study examined photogrammetric reconstruction techniques that can measure the original form of a cultural property utilizing photographs taken in the past. During the research process, photographs taken in the past as well as photograph on the internet of Soswaewon Garden in Damyang(scenic site 40) were collected and utilized. The landscaping structures of Maedae, Aiyangdan, Ogokmun Wall, and Yakjak and natural scenery Gwangseok, of which photographs can be taken from any 360 degree direction from a close distance or a far distance without any barriers in the way, were selected and tested for the possibility of reproducing three-dimensional shapes. The photography method of 151 landscape photographs (58.6%) from internet portal sites for the aforementioned five landscape subjects containing information on the date the photograph was taken, focal length, and exposure were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that the majority of the photographs tend to focus on important parts of each subject. In addition, we discovered that there are two or three photography methods that internet users preferred in regards to each landscape subject. For the purposes of the experiment, photographs in which a single scene consistently appears for each landscape subject and it was determined that there was a high level of preference related to the photography method were analyzed, and three-dimensional mesh shape model was produced with a photoscan program to analyze the reproducibility of three-dimensional shapes. Based on the results of the reproduction, it was relatively possible to reproduce three-dimensional shapes for artifacts such as Ogukmun wall, Maedae, and Aeyangdan, but it was impossible to reproduce three-dimensional images for natural scenery or an object that has similar texture such as Yakjak and Gwangseok. As a result of experimentation related to the reconstruction of three-dimensional shapes with the photographs taken on site using a photography method similar to that of the photographs selected as previously mentioned, there was success related to reproducing the three-dimensional shapes of Yakjak and Gwangseok, of which it was not possible to do so through the photographs that had been collected previously. In addition, through comparison of past and present images, it was possible to measure the exact sizes as well as discover any changes that have taken place. If past photographs taken by tourists or landscape architects of cultural properties can be obtained, the three-dimensional shapes from a particular period of time can be reproduced. If this technology becomes widespread, it will increase the level of accuracy and reliability in regards to measuring the past shapes of cultural landscape properties and examining any changes to the properties.

Productivity and Meat Quality of the New Crossbred Korean Native Chickens Compared with Commercial Breeds (신품종 교배조합 토종닭의 생산성과 육질 및 시판 품종과의 비교분석)

  • Kim, Hyun Cheol;Choe, Juhui;Nam, Ki Chang;Jung, Samooel;Jo, Cheorun
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.125-135
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and meat quality of three newly-developed crossbreds of Korean native chicken (2A, 2C, and 2D) as compared with commercial Korean native chicken (CKNC) and commercial broiler. Totally, 400 birds of different crossbreds were randomly allotted to eight pens, each with 50 birds. The birds were reared ad libitum and slaughtered at the age of 12 weeks. Fifty male chickens were slaughtered at the same day in the same slaughterhouse were selected for the comparison of meat quality. The crossbred 2C had greater body weight than that of CKNC (P<0.05), and had similar uniformity with lower death rate. Although shank length of 2C was the longest among the Korean native chicken breeds, the ratio of shank length to body weight was the lowest among them (P<0.05). The crossbred 2C had similar inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) content as that of CKNC in breast meat, and the highest IMP content in thigh meat (P<0.05). In a sensory analysis, the crossbred 2C generally showed, similar savory taste and texture as that of CKNC, and the overall acceptability of thigh meat was the highest in CKNC and broiler. Based on the present results, the possibility of commercialization of a newly-developed crossbred of Korean native chicken was confirmed.

Optimization of sterilization conditions for the production of retorted steamed egg using response surface methodology (반응표면분석을 이용한 레토르트 계란찜의 살균조건 최적화)

  • Cheigh, Chan-Ick;Mun, Ji-Hye;Chung, Myong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.331-338
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum sterilization conditions for the production of retorted steamed egg using response surface methodology. Sterilization processes for eighteen conditions using varying sterilization temperature ($X_1$), time ($X_2$), and method ($X_3$) as the independent variables were carried out through a $3^2{\times}2$ experimental factorial design. Quality evaluations after sterilization included measurements of $F_0$ value ($Y_1$), peak stress ($Y_2$), pH ($Y_3$), color value ($Y_{4-6}$), and organoleptic test [preference for appearance ($Y_7$), overall acceptability ($Y_8$), and preference for texture ($Y_9$) and egg taste ($Y_{10}$)]. Dependent variables ($Y_{1-10}$) of eighteen conditions were more affected by temperature and time than by the sterilization method. Eight factors were selected among the dependent variables as significant factors related to the quality of the steamed egg. Finally, by establishing an optimum range of each dependent variable and contour analysis, the optimum sterilization conditions for the production of steamed egg were determined to be $120^{\circ}C$ for 25 min using a 2-step sterilization process.

Manufacturing process and food safety analysis of sous-vide production for small and medium sized manufacturing companies: Focusing on the Korean HMR market (중소규모 생산업체의 수비드 제품 생산을 위한 공정 및 안전성 분석: 한국 HMR 시장 중심으로)

  • Choi, Eugene;Shin, Weon Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2020
  • The present study identified the restrictions on the use of sous-vide products in the Korean HMR market for small and medium-sized manufacturing companies. A detailed literature review revealed that the HMR market in Korea is close to saturation. Notably, the technologically advanced products produced using sous-vide seem to display significant potential to overcome market saturation. The sous-vide method differs from conventional cooking techniques and is characterized by maintenance of food texture along with flavor enhancement. However, due to the unfamiliarity of the manufacturers with this method and the unclear food safety regulations, mass food manufacturing companies do not agree on using this method; hence, sous-vide production is usually undertaken by small/medium sized companies catering primarily through online marketing portals. This study highlights the various restrictions to the implementation of sous-vide production, and discusses several practical implications of sous-vide production that would help users of this technique enter the HMR market.

Optimization of Modified Starches on Retrogradation of Korean Rice Cake(Garaeduk) (가래떡의 노화 억제에 관한 변형 전분의 최적화)

  • Park, Hyun-Jeong;Song, Jae-Chul;Shin, Wan-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.279-287
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the influences of modified starches on suppression of retrogradation in Korean rice cake for their optimization, Garaeduk. Based upon studying Avrami equation, the Avrami exponent n value of all the experiment samples was found to be 1.03 ${\sim}$ 1.37 in the influence of modified starches on retrogradation of the rice cake. This means that the retrogradation of the Korean rice cake occurred instantly after the crystallization of starch particles in the Korean rice cake formulated by modified starches. The highest Avrami exponent n value was indicated in the control sample. The rate constant k of retrogradation in the Korean rice cake formulated by modified starches showed comparatively low and appeared to be the lowest in the Korean rice cake formulated by SHPP. This tendency was shown well in the time constant(1/k) of retrogradation velocity. According to the DSC analysis, the onset temperature of gelatinization in thermal characteristics showed somewhat high in case of addition of modified starch into the Korean rice cake on storage time and the SHPP was slowly gone up. In peak temperature of gelatinization in thermal characteristics of the DSC analysis, SSOS and ASA were increased a little in comparison with the control. The control was comparatively high increase. Melting enthalphy of all samples added with modified starches (SSOS: 21.1${\rightarrow}$23.7${\rightarrow}$24.1, ASA: 21.1${\rightarrow}$24.8${\rightarrow}$25.4) appeared to be lower than that of the Korean rice cake without modified starches(21.2${\rightarrow}$26.1${\rightarrow}$27.1). The Korean rice cake added with SHPP was shown to be the lowest in the increasing rate of melting enthalpy(20.9${\rightarrow}$21.4${\rightarrow}$22.1). Heat spreadability of all the samples in Martin melting diameter was revealed to be good in order of control, ASA, SSOS, SHPP and especially the Korean rice cake added with SHPP was shown to be the best in heat spreadability. In color, sensory examination and textural characteristic of the Korean rice cake added with modified starches, the L$^*$value was not changed practically with the storage time and seemed to be stable. The a$^*$ value of the samples was followed by control(2.21${\rightarrow}$5.34: 141.6%), ASA (2.01${\rightarrow}$4.22: 110.0%), SSOS (2.78${\rightarrow}$4.87: 75.2%) and SHPP (2.12${\rightarrow}$3.40: 60.4%) in order of color change. Also the b$^*$ value of the samples was followed by control(4.32${\rightarrow}$6.35: 47.0%), ASA (4.66${\rightarrow}$5.73: 23.0%), SSOS (4.90${\rightarrow}$5.89: 20.2%) and SHPP (4.89${\rightarrow}$5.12: 4.7%) and there was the least (or no) color change with the SHPP. Textural characteristics of samples was shown to be the highest in case of modified starch addition and especially SHPP appeared to be the best in texture.

Analysis of the Stage and Performance Elements for Bongsudang-jinchan Banquet in Joseon Dynasty (봉수당진찬(奉壽堂進饌)의 무대와 공연 요소 분석)

  • Song, Hye-jin
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.18
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    • pp.413-444
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    • 2009
  • This paper is an analysis of stage and performance elements for the ceremonial procedures and dance featured in bongsudang-jinchan, a feast celebrating the 60th birthday of Hyegyeong-gung Hongssi (Crown Princess Hong of Hyegyeonggung), the mother of King Jeongjo, which took place in Hwaseong haegung palace in 1795. The primary sources used are data on bongsudangjinchan recorded in Wonhaeng-eulmyojeongriuigwe, Jeongjo-sillok, Hongjae-jeonseo, pictorial sources such as Folding Screens of Hwaseong-neunghaeng and Hwaseong Ilgi, which is a journal in Korean by Yi Hui-pyeong. A court ceremony to offer music, dance, flowers, and food, as well as wine and poetry which express the sentiments of chung (fidelity) and hyo (filial piety) was considered a national ceremony and has constituted a unique musical culture during the 500 years of Joseon dynasty. However, after the fall of Joseon dynasty, ceremonial music and dance, which have been organically linked within the overall symbolic system of ye (courtesy), became scattered to become independent 'pieces.' As a result, all of their philosophy, principles, and the time-space interpretation of court music and dance became greatly reduced, leaving only the artistic expression and formal structure of the music and dance to become emphasized. Since the 1990s, there has been many research and events aiming to re-create the court ceremonial tradition, resulting in the increase of the related performance activities. This is especially true with bongsudang-jinchan, which is now being performed on modern stage in various forms. However there are still many problems to be solved, such as the issue of re-creating and restoring the original, and the question of artistic value found in the traditional pieces. Until now, much focus has been paid to the outer re-construction of uiju document as recorded in Wonhaeng-eulmyo-jeongriuigwe. On the other hand, there lacked an in-depth study which analyzes the stage situation and performance elements. Therefore in this paper, after focusing on the stage structure and performance elements, it is concluded that bongsudang-jinchan, the only court feast to be held in Haeng gung, not only consists of the fundamental aspects of court performance principle as 'governing through ye and ak (music),' but also served as an important occasion to bring together the sovereign and the subject. Bongsudang-jinchan had features of both naeyeon (feast for ladies) and oeyeon (feast for gentlemen). It minimized the use of screens and allowed every guest to enjoy food, music, and dance together, but provided a separate tent for foreign guests, maintaining the ideal balance between equality and distinction among different gender and social status. A screen symbolizing the venue for the feast is placed for all of the government officials. The king then pronounces the beginning of the banquet in which the ideal of gunsin-dongyeon (king and officials dining together) is realized. This indicates that bongsudang-jinchan, compared to other court ceremonies that emphasize the principle of yeak (courtesy and music), focuses more on the spirit of harmony and rapprochement. The king played a more active role in bongsudang-jinchan than in any other royal feasts. Examples as recorded in uiju documents are; Jeongjo's conversation with his retainers after the 7th wine, king's bestowing of food and flowers to the officials, writing his own majesty's poems with regard to the festival, and asking the retainers to write replying poems. All these played an important part in making the occasion more rich, extensive, and meaningful. Moreover, as analysis of the structure of orchestral music and court dance featured in bongsudang-jinchan shows, it was like any other court banquet in that it employed minimal use of extravagance in movements and conversation. However, the colors and tonal texture used in the music and dance were more brilliant in this case. Compared to other banquets that took place before king Jeongjo, the dance style was more diverse, which included some of the latest additions. There were past performances arranged anew. Noteworthy are; the incorporation of "Seonyurak (Boat Dance)" and "Geommu (Sword Dance)," traditionally used for local officials and civilians feast, to suit the court taste; and the use of saenghwang (mouth organ), which was a rising instrument in pungnyubang (literati's private salon), for "Hakmu (Cranes Dance)." This especially indicates the nature of the 'open structure' pursued by the court banquets at the time, which strove to break away from the traditional rules and customs and accept something new.

Influence of Microcrack on Brazilian Tensile Strength of Jurassic Granite in Hapcheon (미세균열이 합천지역 쥬라기 화강암의 압열인장강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Deok-Won;Kim, Kyeong-Su
    • Korean Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.41-56
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    • 2021
  • The characteristics of the six rock cleavages(R1~H2) in Jurassic Hapcheon granite were analyzed using the distribution of ① microcrack lengths(N=230), ② microcrack spacings(N=150) and ③ Brazilian tensile strengths(N=30). The 18 cumulative graphs for these three factors measured in the directions parallel to the six rock cleavages were mutually contrasted. The main results of the analysis are summarized as follows. First, the frequency ratio(%) of Brazilian tensile strength values(kg/㎠) divided into nine class intervals increases in the order of 60~70(3.3) < 140~150(6.7) < 100~110·110~120(10.0) < 90~100(13.3) < 80~90(16.7) < 120~130·130~140(20.0). The distribution curve of strength according to the frequency of each class interval shows a bimodal distribution. Second, the graphs for the length, spacing and tensile strength were arranged in the order of H2 < H1 < G2 < G1 < R2 < R1. Exponent difference(λS-λL, Δλ) between the two graphs for the spacing and length increases in the order of H2(-1.59) < H1(-0.02) < G2(0.25) < G1(0.63) < R2(1.59) < R1(1.96)(2 < 1). From the related chart, the six graphs for the tensile strength move gradually to the left direction with the increase of the above exponent difference. The negative slope(a) of the graphs for the tensile strength, suggesting a degree of uniformity of the texture, increases in the order of H((H1+H2)/2, 0.116) < G((G1+G2)/2, 0.125) < R((R1+R2)/2, 0.191). Third, the order of arrangement between the two graphs for the two directions that make up each rock cleavage(R1·R2(R), G1·G2(G), H1·H2(H)) were compared. The order of arrangement of the two graphs for the length and spacing is reverse order with each other. The two graphs for the spacing and tensile strength is mutually consistent in the order of arrangement. The exponent differences(ΔλL and ΔλS) for the length and spacing increase in the order of rift(R, -0.08) < grain(G, 0.14) < hardway(H, 0.75) and hardway(H, 0.16) < grain(G, 0.23) < rift(R, 0.45), respectively. Fourth, the general chart for the six graphs showing the distribution characteristics of the microcrack lengths, microcrack spacings and Brazilian tensile strengths were made. According to the range of length, the six graphs show orders of G2 < H2 < H1 < R2 < G1 < R1(< 7 mm) and G2 < H1 < H2 < R2 < G1 < R1(≦2.38 mm). The six graphs for the spacing intersect each other by forming a bottleneck near the point corresponding to the cumulative frequency of 12 and the spacing of 0.53 mm. Fifth, the six values of each parameter representing the six rock cleavages were arranged in the order of increasing and decreasing. Among the 8 parameters related to the length, the total length(Lt) and the graph(≦2.38 mm) are mutually congruent in order of arrangement. Among the 7 parameters related to the spacing, the frequency of spacing(N), the mean spacing(Sm) and the graph (≦5 mm) are mutually consistent in order of arrangement. In terms of order of arrangement, the values of the above three parameters for the spacing are consistent with the maximum tensile strengths belonging to group E. As shown in Table 8, the order of arrangement of these parameter values is useful for prior recognition of the six rock cleavages and the three quarrying planes.