• Title, Summary, Keyword: tongue

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Wind-and Rain-induced Variations of Water Column Structures and Dispersal Pattern of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in Marian Cove, the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica during the Austral Summer 2000 (서남극 남 쉐틀랜드 군도 마리안 소만에서 바람 및 강수에 의한 여름철 수층 구조의 변화와 부유물질 분산)

  • 유규철;윤호일;오재경;강천윤;김예동;배성호
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.357-368
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    • 2003
  • Time-series CTDT (Conductivity/Temperature/Depth/Transmissivity) were obtained at one point near tidewater glacier of Marian Cove (King George Islands, Antarctica) to present water column properties and SPM (suspended particulate matter) dispersal pattern in relation with tide, current, meteorological data, and SPM concentration. Four layers were divided from the water column characteristics measured in the interval of an hour for about 2 days: 1) cold, fresh, and turbid surface mixed layer between 0-20 m in water depth, 2) warm, saline, and relatively clean Maxwell Bay inflow between 20-40 m in water depth, 3) turbid/cold tongue of subglacial discharges compared with the ambient waters between 40-70 m in water depth, and 4) cold, saline, and clean bottom water beneath 70 m in water depth. Surface plume, turbid freshwater at coastal/cliff area in late summer (early February), had the characteristic temperature and SPM concentration according to morphology, glacial condition, and composition of sediments. The restrict dispersion only over the input source of meltwater discharges was due to calm wether condition. Due to strong wind-induced surface turbulence, fresh and turbid surface plume, englacial upwelling cold water, glacier-contact meltwater, and Maxwell Bay inflow was mixing at ice-proximal zone and the consequent mixed layer deepened at the surface. Large amount of precipitation, the major controlling factor for increasing short-term glacial discharges, was accompanied by the apparent development of subglacial discharge that resulted in the rapid drop of salinity below the mid depth. Although amount of subglacial discharge and englacial upwelling may be large, however, their low SPM concentration would have small influence on bottom deposition of terrigenous sediments.

Comparison of $^{18}F$ FDG-PET and CT/MRI for the Diagnosis of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Cancer: A Level-by-Level Based Study (두경부암 환자에서 경부 림프절 전이에 대한 $^{18}F$ FDG-PET과 CT/MRI의 진단적 정확도 비교: 림프절군에 따른 연구)

  • Yang, Yoo-Jung;Kim, Jae-Seung;Kim, Sang-Yun;Lee, Ho-Gyu;Nam, Soon-Yul;Choi, Seung-Ho;Ryu, Jin-Sook;Yeo, Jeong-Seok;Moon, Dae-Hyuk
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.52-61
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important factor of the prognosis and therapeutic planning in head and neck cancer. With increasing interest of minimally invasive neck surgery, more accurate preoperative assessment of cervical lymph node becomes more essential. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of $^{18}F$ FDG-PET in the assessment of lymph node metastasis in patients with primary head and neck cancer and compared the results with those of CT/MRI. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients (M/F=27/5, $56{\pm}10yr$) with biopsy proven head and neck cancer (16 supraglottic cancer, 9 tongue cancer, 7 others) underwent FDG-PET and CT/MRI (25/7) within 1 month before neck dissection. Based on lymph node level, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET and CT/MRI for the metastasis of cervical lymph node were compared. Results: Of 153 lymph node levels dissected in 32 patients, 32 lymph node levels of 19 patients were positive for metastasis by histopatholologic examination. The overall sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 88% (28/32) and 93% (113/121), whereas those of CT/MRI were 56% (18/32) (p=0.002) and 92% (112/121), respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were different according to location of lymph node levels, and those of ipsilateral level 11 were lower than those of other levels. Conclusion: FDG-PET is more sensitive in detecting metastatic cervical lymph node in head and neck cancer than CT/MRI. FDG-PET might be useful in guiding the extent of neck dissection.

Effect of CT Contrast Media on Radiation Therapy Planning (Head & Neck Cancer and Prostate Cancer) (CT조영제가 방사선치료계획(두경부, 전립선)에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Jaeuk;Han, Manseok;Kim, Minjeong;Kang, Hyeonsoo
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2016
  • This study is to evaluate the effect of a Contrast Media (CM) on dose calculations and clinical significance in Radiation (Electromagnetic wave) Therapy (RT) plans for head & neck (H&N) and prostate cancer. Pinnacle 8.0 system was used to measure the change of Electron Density (ED) of the tissue for CM. To determine the effect of dose calculation due to CM, we did the RT planning for 30 patients. To compare the ED and dose calculations of RT plans, 3D CRT and IMRT plans were do with pinnacle and Tomotherapy planning system. Mean difference of ED between enhanced and unenhanced CT was less than 4%: H&N Target Volume (TV) 2.1%, parotid 1.9%, SMG 3.6%, tongue 0.9%, spinal cord 0.3%, esophagus 2.6%, mandible 0.1% and prostate TV 0.7%, lymph node 1.1%, bladder 1.2%, rectum 1.5%, small bowel 1.2%, colon 0.6%, penile bulb 0.8%, femoral head -0.2%. The dose difference between RT plan using CM and without CM showed an increase of dose in TV. The rate of increase was less than 2.5% (3D CRT: H&N 0.69~2.51%, prostate 0.04~1.14%, IMRT: H&N 0.58~1.31%, prostate 0.36~1.04%). RT plans using a CM has the insignificant effect on the organs and TV, so this error is allowable clinically. However, the much more accurate plan is possible as to image fusion (CM and without CM images) to ROI contour and when dose calculation, use the without CM image. Using the fusion of 'ROI import' perform calculations on without CM, it will be able to reduce the error (1~3%) caused by the CM.

Physicochemical Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Wasabi (Wasabia japonica) Leaf and Petiole Extracts (고추냉이 잎, 엽병 추출물의 이화학적 특성과 항산화 활성)

  • Sung, Eun Hee;Shin, Se Mi;Kang, Yoon-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.335-342
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated the physicochemical quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of water extracts ($20^{\circ}C$ and $95^{\circ}C$) against different parts (leaf and petiole) from Wasabia japonica (wasabi). Water extracts were divided into six types of wasabi powders: leaf hot air dried (LD), petiole hot air dried (PD), whole (leaf+petiole) hot air dried (WD), leaf steamed and hot air dried (LSD), petiole steamed and hot air dried (PSD), and whole steamed and hot air dried (WSD). Turbidity was higher in wasabi $20^{\circ}C$ water extracts than in $95^{\circ}C$ hot water extracts. Browning degree was higher in wasabi leaf extracts than in petiole extracts. The pH of hot water extraction was lower than that of room temperature extraction. Wasabi extracts did not show much difference in Hunter's color values according to extraction temperature, expected that b value of yellowness was significantly higher in leaf extracts than in petiole extracts. Carbazole pectin contents of leaf extracts were significantly higher than in petiole extracts, however water soluble pectin was higher in petiole extracts. The total polyphenol contents of LD20 and LD95 were 1,561.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g and 1,163.02 mg GAE/100 g, respectively, and total polyphenols decreased during hot water extraction. Extracts from different parts of wasabi showed a significant difference in total flavonoid contents. Total flavonoid contents of LD20, LD95, PD20, and PD95 were 554.44 mg/100 g, 396.65 mg/100 g, 55.42 mg/100 g, and 47.68 mg/100 g, respectively. In the sensory evaluation, LD95 extract showed significantly higher values than other samples in terms of color, flavor, taste, mouth feeling, and overall acceptability. In the analysis of sourness, saltiness, umami, sweetness, and bitterness taste by an electronic tongue, the sourness values of LD20 and PSD95, saltiness values of WSD20 and WSD95, and umami values of PD20 and PD95 were significantly higher than other extracts. The results of this study suggest that wasabi leaf and petiole extracts enhance qualities and antioxidant activities when used different parts together.

Evaluation on Protrusion of the Imaginary Prostate Volume Using Three-Dimensional Volume Rendering (3차원 볼륨 렌더링을 이용한 가상 돌출형 전립선 부피 평가)

  • Seoung, Youl-Hun;Joo, Yong-Hyun;Rhim, Jae-Dong;Choe, Bo-Young
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.208-215
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    • 2009
  • This study is to compare the accuracy of evaluation regarding the volume of the prostate, which three-dimensional volume rendering was produced the shape of protrusion, by measuring two kinds of craniocaudal length from the top of the protrusion and from the exclusion of the protrusion as the starting points. For the imaginary protrusion prostate models, total of 10 models were roughly made by using devils-tongue jelly and changing each of the 10 ml of capacity from 10 ml to 100 ml. For the protrusion prostate models aimed at estimating the real volume, through 64 cannel computed tomography (CT) and 3.0 tesla magnetic resonance image (MRI) were conducted by planimetry technique from three-dimensional volume rendering. And then we performed to evaluate on significance of these volumes by wilcoxon signed rank test. Also the obtained volumes data by ellipsoid volume formula were measured the volume of protrusion prostate models two times with each method using the two kinds of craniocaudal length from top of the protrusion and from exclusion of the protrusion as the starting points. Finally, the significance of differences using wilcoxon signed rank test was evaluated between the real volume by planimetry technique and the measured volume by ellipsoid volume formula from three-dimensional volume rendering. The average of the protrusion length on the models was $0.90{\pm}0.18\;mm$ in CT and was $0.75{\pm}0.11\;mm$ in MRI. There were not statistically significant difference between MRI and CT from the volume of protrusion prostate models (p=0.414). In MRI (p=0.139) and CT (p=0.057), there were not statistically significant difference between the real volume by planimetry technique and the measured volume by ellipsoid volume from exclusion of the protrusion as the starting points. While, there were statistically significant difference between the real volume by planimetry technique and the measured volume by ellipsoid volume from top of the protrusion as the starting points in MRI (p=0.005) and CT (p=0.005). For the accurate measurement of the protrusion prostate models, the craniocaudal length of the prostate should be measured from the exclusion of the protrusion as the starting points.

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Interspecific Competition and spatial Ecology of three Species of Vipers in Korea: An Application of Ecological niche-based Models and GIS (한국산 살모사과 3종의 경쟁과 공간적 생태 - 생태적 지위를 기반으로 한 모델과 지리정보시스템 적용 -)

  • Do, Min Seock;Lee, Jin-Won;Jang, Hoan-Jin;Kim, Dae-In;Yoo, Jeong-Chil
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.173-184
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    • 2016
  • Knowledge of the relationships among interspecific competition, spatial distributions and ecological niches plays an important role in understanding biogeographical distribution patterns of species. In this study, the distributional characteristics and ecological niches of the three Viperidae species (Gloydius ussuriensis, G. brevicaudus, and G. saxatilis) in South Korea were determined based on observation data and species distribution model. The effects of interspecific competition on geographical distribution and the division of the ecological niches of the vipers were also examined based on the models of predicted species distribution. The results showed that altitude was the most important environmental variable for their distribution, and the altitudes at which these snakes were distributed correlated with the climate of that region. Although interspecific ecological niches are quite overlapped, their predicted distribution patternsvary by the Taebaek Mountains. When overlaying the distribution models, most of the overlapping habitats were forest areas, which were relatively less overlapped than were the entire research areas. Thus, a parapatric distribution pattern was expected. The abundance of species occurring sympatrically was positively correlated with each other, indicating the lack of serious interspecies competition in this region. In conclusion, although the three Viperidae species in South Korea occupy similar ecological niches, these snakes exhibit parapatric distribution patterns without direct competition. Further research on various geographic variables (e.g., altitude, microhabitat characteristics) using relatively fine grid sizes, as well as further detailed ecological and behavioral research, is needed to determine the causative factors for the parapatric distribution pattern.

Patterns of Snake Roadkills on the Roads in the Northeast Region of South Korea (남한 동북부지역 도로에서 뱀류 로드킬의 양상)

  • Park, Daesik;Jeong, Soo-Min;Kim, Seung-Kyu;Ra, Nam-Yong;Lee, Jeong-Hyun;Kim, Ja-Kyeong;Kim, Il-Hun;Kim, Dae-In;Kim, Seok-Bum
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.42-53
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    • 2017
  • One of the negative ecological effects following road construction is roadkill; animals die on the roads after being struck by vehicles. Roadkills have been a major concern in South Korea due to the large mountain areas in the country and have been mentioned as a causal factor for the decline in wildlife. Although snake roadkills frequently occur, as with mammals, birds, and amphibians, there are not many related studies done on snake roadkills. In this study, we determined snake roadkill patterns in the northeast part of South Korea including most of the Gangwon-do areas and parts of Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheongbuk-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do by analyzing the snake roadkills found between May 2007 and Aug 2012. We identified a total of 155 roadkilled snakes from 10 different species. Red-sided water snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus), Red-tongue viper snake (Gloydius ussuriensis), Cat snake (Elaphe dione), Red-banded snake (Dinodon rufozonatus), and Viper snake (Gloydius brevicaudus) accounted for more than 90% of the total cases. It was found that more active forager snakes were killed than sit-and-wait foragers, more male snakes were killed than female snakes, and more adult snakes were killed than subadult snakes. The snake roadkill frequency was the highest in September between the altitudes of 200 and 400 m, and on roads between either a mountain and a body of water or between a mountain and a crop field. Our results are expected to enhance the understanding of snake roadkills in general and to determine the areas, specific sites and species for planning projects for snake roadkill reduction in the northeast of South Korea.

Accuracy Assessment of Tide Models in Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica, for Glaciological Studies of DDInSAR Technique (DDInSAR 기반의 빙하연구를 위한 동남극 테라노바 만의 조위모델 정밀도 평가)

  • Han, Hyangsun;Lee, Joohan;Lee, Hoonyol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.375-387
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    • 2013
  • Accuracy assessment of tide models in polar ocean has to be performed to accurately analyze tidal response of glaciers by using Double-Differential Interferometric SAR (DDInSAR) technique. In this study, we used 120 DDInSAR images generated from 16 one-day tandem COSMO-SkyMed DInSAR pairs obtained for 2 years and in situ tide height for 11 days measured by a pressure type wave recorder to assess the accuracy of tide models such as TPXO7.1, FES2004, CATS2008a and Ross_Inv in Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica. Firstly, we compared the double-differential tide height (${\Delta}\dot{T}$) for Campbell Glacier Tongue extracted from the DDInSAR images with that predicted by the tide models. Tide height (T) from in situ measurement was compared to that of the tide models. We also compared 24-hours difference of tide height ($\dot{T}$) from in situ tide height with that from the tide models. The root mean square error (RMSE) of ${\Delta}\dot{T}$, T and $\dot{T}$ decreased after the inverse barometer effect (IBE)-correction of the tide models, from which we confirmed that the IBE of tide models should be corrected requisitely. The RMSE of $\dot{T}$ and ${\Delta}\dot{T}$ were smaller than that of T. This was because $\dot{T}$ is the difference of tide height during temporal baseline of the DInSAR pairs (24 hours), in which the errors from mean sea level of the tide models and in situ tide, and the tide constituents of $S_2$, $K_2$, $K_1$ and $P_1$ used in the tide models were canceled. This confirmed that $\dot{T}$ and ${\Delta}\dot{T}$ predicted by the IBE-corrected tide models can be used in DDInSAR technique. It was difficult to select an optimum tide model for DDInSAR in Terra Nova Bay by using in situ tide height measured in a short period. However, we could confirm that Ross_Inv is the optimum tide model as it showed the smallest RMSE of 4.1 cm by accuracy assessment using the DDInSAR images.

Comparison of Cognitive Loads between Koreans and Foreigners in the Reading Process

  • Im, Jung Nam;Min, Seung Nam;Cho, Sung Moon
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.293-305
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    • 2016
  • Objective: This study aims to measure cognitive load levels by analyzing the EEG of Koreans and foreigners, when they read a Korean text with care selected by level from the grammar and vocabulary aspects, and compare the cognitive load levels through quantitative values. The study results can be utilized as basic data for more scientific approach, when Korean texts or books are developed, and an evaluation method is built, when the foreigners encounter them for learning or an assignment. Background: Based on 2014, the number of the foreign students studying in Korea was 84,801, and they increase annually. Most of them are from Asian region, and they come to Korea to enter a university or a graduate school in Korea. Because those foreign students aim to learn within Universities in Korea, they receive Korean education from their preparation for study in Korea. To enter a university in Korea, they must acquire grade 4 or higher level in the Test of Proficiency in Korean (TOPIK), or they need to complete a certain educational program at each university's affiliated language institution. In such a program, the learners of the Korean language receive Korean education based on texts, except speaking domain, and the comprehension of texts can determine their academic achievements in studying after they enter their desired schools (Jeon, 2004). However, many foreigners, who finish a language course for the short-term, and need to start university study, cannot properly catch up with university classes requiring expertise with the vocabulary and grammar levels learned during the language course. Therefore, reading education, centered on a strategy to understand university textbooks regarded as top level reading texts to the foreigners, is necessary (Kim and Shin, 2015). This study carried out an experiment from a perspective that quantitative data on the readers of the main player of reading education and teaching materials need to be secured to back up the need for reading education for university study learners, and scientifically approach educational design. Namely, this study grasped the difficulty level of reading through the measurement of cognitive loads indicated in the reading activity of each text by dividing the difficulty of a teaching material (book) into eight levels, and the main player of reading into Koreans and foreigners. Method: To identify cognitive loads indicated upon reading Korean texts with care by Koreans and foreigners, this study recruited 16 participants (eight Koreans and eight foreigners). The foreigners were limited to the language course students studying the intermediate level Korean course at university-affiliated language institutions within Seoul Metropolitan Area. To identify cognitive load, as they read a text by level selected from the Korean books (difficulty: eight levels) published by King Sejong Institute (Sejonghakdang.org), the EEG sensor was attached to the frontal love (Fz) and occipital lobe (Oz). After the experiment, this study carried out a questionnaire survey to measure subjective evaluation, and identified the comprehension and difficulty on grammar and words. To find out the effects on schema that may affect text comprehension, this study controlled the Korean texts, and measured EEG and subjective satisfaction. Results: To identify brain's cognitive load, beta band was extracted. As a result, interactions (Fz: p =0.48; Oz: p =0.00) were revealed according to Koreans and foreigners, and difficulty of the text. The cognitive loads of Koreans, the readers whose mother tongue is Korean, were lower in reading Korean texts than those of the foreigners, and the foreigners' cognitive loads became higher gradually according to the difficulty of the texts. From the text four, which is intermediate level in difficulty, remarkable differences started to appear in comparison of the Koreans and foreigners in the beginner's level text. In the subjective evaluation, interactions were revealed according to the Koreans and foreigners and text difficulty (p =0.00), and satisfaction was lower, as the difficulty of the text became higher. Conclusion: When there was background knowledge in reading, namely schema was formed, the comprehension and satisfaction of the texts were higher, although higher levels of vocabulary and grammar were included in the texts than those of the readers. In the case of a text in which the difficulty of grammar was felt high in the subjective evaluation, foreigners' cognitive loads were also high, which shows the result of the loads' going up higher in proportion to the increase of difficulty. This means that the grammar factor functions as a stress factor to the foreigners' reading comprehension. Application: This study quantitatively evaluated the cognitive loads of Koreans and foreigners through EEG, based on readers and the text difficulty, when they read Korean texts. The results of this study can be used for making Korean teaching materials or Korean education content and topic selection for foreigners. If research scope is expanded to reading process using an eye-tracker, the reading education program and evaluation method for foreigners can be developed on the basis of quantitative values.

EFFECT OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR GENE INJECTION ON THE NERVE REGENERATION IN RAT LINGUAL NERVE CRUSH-INJURY MODEL (백서 설신경 압박손상모델에서 신경성장인자 유전자 주입이 신경재생에 미치는 영향)

  • Gao, En-Feng;Chung, Hun-Jong;Ahn, Kang-Min;Kim, Soung-Min;Kim, Yun-Hee;Jahng, Jeong-Won;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.375-395
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Lingual nerve (LN) damage may be caused by either tumor resection or injury such as wisdom tooth extraction, Although autologous nerve graft is sometimes used to repair the damaged nerve, it has the disadvantage of necessity of another operation for nerve harvesting. Moreover, the results of nerve grafting is not satisfactory. The nerve growth factor (NGF) is well-known to play a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration and its local delivery to the injured nerve has been continuously tried to enhance nerve regeneration. However, its application has limitations like repeated administration due to short half life of 30 minutes and an in vivo delivery model must allow for direct and local delivery. The aim of this study was to construct a well-functioning $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus for the ultimate development of improved method to promote peripheral nerve regeneration with enhanced and extended secretion of hNGF from the injured nerve by injecting $rhNGF-{\beta}$ gene directly into crush-injured LN in rat model. Materials and Methods: $hNGF-{\beta}$ gene was prepared from fetal brain cDNA library and cloned into E1/E3 deleted adenoviral vector which contains green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene as a reporter. After large scale production and purification of $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus, transfection efficiency and its expression at various cells (primary cultured Schwann cells, HEK293 cells, Schwann cell lines, NIH3T3 and CRH cells) were evaluated by fluorescent microscopy, RT-PCR, ELISA, immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, the function of rhNGF-beta, which was secreted from various cells infected with $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus, was evaluated using neuritogenesis of PC-12 cells. For in vivo evaluation of efficacy of $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus, the LNs of 8-week old rats were exposed and crush-injured with a small hemostat for 10 seconds. After the injury, $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus($2{\mu}l,\;1.5{\times}10^{11}pfu$) or saline was administered into the crushed site in the experimental (n=24) and the control group (n=24), respectively. Sham operation of another group of rats (n=9) was performed without administration of either saline or adenovirus. The taste recovery and the change of fungiform papilla were studied at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Each of the 6 animals was tested with different solutions (0.1M NaCl, 0.1M sucrose, 0.01M QHCl, or 0.01M HCl) by two-bottle test paradigm and the number of papilla was counted using SEM picture of tongue dorsum. LN was explored at the same interval as taste study and evaluated electro-physiologically (peak voltage and nerve conduction velocity) and histomorphometrically (axon count, myelin thickness). Results: The recombinant adenovirus vector carrying $rhNGF-{\beta}$ was constructed and confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequence analysis. GFP expression was observed in 90% of $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus infected cells compared with uninfected cells. Total mRNA isolated from $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus infected cells showed strong RT-PCR band, however uninfected or LacZ recombinant adenovirus infected cells did not. NGF quantification by ELISA showed a maximal release of $18865.4{\pm}310.9pg/ml$ NGF at the 4th day and stably continued till 14 days by $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus infected Schwann cells. PC-12 cells exposed to media with $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus infected Schwann cell revealed at the same level of neurite-extension as the commercial NGF did. $rhNGF-{\beta}$ adenovirus injected experimental groups in comparison to the control group exhibited different taste preference ratio. Salty, sweet and sour taste preference ratio were significantly different after 2 weeks from the beginning of the experiment, which were similar to the sham group, but not to the control group.